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THE  J.  PAUL  GETTY  MUSEUM  LIBRARY 


PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION   FUND. 


Patron— THE     QUEEN. 

^arterly    Statement 

FOR   1875. 


LONDON : 

PUBLISHED  AT  THE  SOCIETY'S  OFFICE,  9,   PALL  MALL  EAST, 

AND    BY 

RICHARD  BENTLEY  &  SON,  8,  NEW  BURLINGTON  STREET. 


THE  J.  PAUL  GETTY  CENTER 
LIBRARY 


INDEX. 


Adailali,  28 

AJafi),  31 

Ader,  93 

Adullam,  145,  163 

Alexaudriini],  12 

Ami  it,  22  r 

Auuual  Meeting,  108 

Antipatris,  32 

Acjueduct,  Pilate'a,  71 

Ancient  Jewish  Graves,  177 

Arabic  and  Hebrew,  227 

Arabs,  Tlie,  in  Palestine,  19[> 

Arab,  14 

Aradus, 

Ascalon,  152 

Ashdod,  157 

Attack  on  Survey  Expedition,  195 

Aven-Hash  Slietiyeh,  182 

Azekah,  191 

Aziz,  18 

Baniah  (EW,  22 
Beit  Jibrin,  139 
Bethabara,  72 
Eethsbean,  30 
Betlisura,  67 
Bezeth,  69 
Bir  el  Scba,  23 
Blessing,  Valley  of,  70 

Camps,  144 
Caves,  143 
Chozeba,  13 

Crusading  Fortresses,  2& 
,,         Sites,  157 

David's  Outlaw  Life,  41 
David  and  Goliatli,  191 
Debir,  48 
Deir  Belah,  IG'i 
Drake,  Mr.  Tyrwhitt, 

,,  Last  Report,  27 

Engedi,  132 
El  l!amah,  16 
Elah,  Valley  of,  193 


Eplies-Damuiini,  192 
Eshcol,  6Q 
Etani,  The  Koek,  12 
Eustochiuni,  St.,  93 

Fnrbia,  157 

Gadida,  157 

Galatia,  158 

Gath,  144,  194 

Gaza,  158,  161 

Geology,  27 

Gerar,  162 

Gezer,  5,  57,  74 

Ghurra  (El),  25 

Graves,  Ancient  Jev/isli,  177 

Hacliilah,  47 
Haram  Area — 

,,       Christian  "Work  in,  6' 

,,       Greek  Inscription,  G 

,,       Mosaics,  6 

,,       Arches,  7 

,,       Glass,  7 

,,       Passages,  7 

,,       Vaults,  11 

,,       Souterrains,  97 
Hareth,  42 
Hippos,  Site  of,  214 
Hora  (El),  26 

Inscriptions,    19,    30,  34,  56,  79,  103., 
104,  159 

Jebeil,  222,  225 

Jerusalem,  6,  7,  11,  56,  77,  187 
Judah,  Hill  Countrv  of,  6Q 
,,       Plain  of,  138 

Kawkab  el  Hawa,  29 
Keilah,  149 
Kh.  Khoreisa,  19 
Kurmul,  20 

Levitical  Cities,  Limits  of,  15- 
Libnah,  150,  181 


O    Q.CJ    ri  W 


IV 


INDEX. 


Maaratli,  13 

Maon,  Kock  of,  45 

Makkedali,  165 

Masada,  133 

]\Liiid.slay,  Sir.  lieniy,  Work  in  IMount 

Zion,  8 
Masonry  and  Jlasons'  JIarks,  80 
Mejdel,  152 
Mesliasli  (El),  24 
Mediaeval  Topograpliv,  89 
Middin,  129 
Mintar  (Kh.-cl),  20 
Mogharet  Sufl-i,  17 
Muristan,  77 

Nob  and  the  Higli  Places,  37,  94,  182 
Notes,  General,  3,  GO,  106,  187 

Philistia,  180 
Pilate's  Aqueduct,  71 
Pillar  of  Salt,  94 

Rameh  (El),  16 
Retrospect  forl87{5,  188 
Richard's  Marcli,  89 
Roman  Camps,  144 
Euad,  Notes  on,  218 
Ruins,  16 


Safed,  Attack  at,  195 

Sandahannah,  141 

Saweh,  2« 

Seal,  Ancient,  10 

Semua,  20 

Shaaraim,  182, 194 

Shephelah,  138 

Shoehoh,  191 

Skulls,  Niches  for,  228 

Survey,  Progress  of,  11,  22,  03, 135, 183 

Susieh,  18 

Tartus, 

Tels,  28 

Tel  el  Milh,  25 

Tel  el  Siba,  23 

Temple  of  Herod,  97 

Tomb  of  David,  102 

Tribes,  List  of,  28 

Umm  el  Andau,  18 

Yebna,  167 

Zanoah,  15 

Zarthan,  31 

Zion,  Scarp  on,  7,  81 

Ziph,  44 

Zz,  Clitrof,  14 


L<>ndo 


Establishment  l^ondon 


Quarterly  Statement,  January,  1875.] 


THE 

PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND, 


PEEFACE. 


The  Survey  has  been  resumed,  and  is  now  in  active  progress, 
tlie  party  having  been  at  Avork  since  the  middle  of  Octolier  in  the 
hill  country  south  of  Judali.      This  little-known  region   has   j'ielded 
results  of  the  greatest  importance   to  the  cause    of   Bililical    topo- 
graph3^     Among  the  identifications  proposed  hj  Lieut.  C'onder  are 
especially  that  of  Dhoheriyeh,  with  the   Levitical   city  of  Debir,  on 
Avhicli  Lieut.  Conder  writes  with  great  force   and  clearness ;  that  of 
Bezetho  or  Beth  Zetho,  1  Maccab.  vii.  19;  Chozeba,  1  Chron.  iv.  22  ; 
Maarath,  Joshua  xv.    59 ;  Arab,  Joshua  xv.   52  ;   Zanoah,  Joshua 
XV.   56  ;   the  Bock  of  Maon,   1   Sam.   xxiii.    25 ;    and  the   Hill  of 
Hachilah,  1  Sam.  xxiii.  19.     His  reports  may  lie  also  referred  to  for 
his  valuable  information  on  the  Bock  Etam,  the  Forest  of  Hareth, 
the  wood  of  Ziph,  and  other  places. 

The  Survey  party  have  been  searching  for  boimdary  marks  round 
the  Levitical  cities  of  Juttah  and  Eshtemoa.  No  such  inscriptions 
as  those  which  rewarded  M.  Clermont-Ganneau  at  Gezer  have 
been  yet  discovered ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  boundary  stones,  which 
may  be  ancient,  are  observed  at  Eshtemoa,  and  it  is  curious  that  at 
both  places  the  cardinal  points  at  the  presumed  Levitical  distance  are 
on  hill-tojis. 


2  PREFACE. 

Lieut.  Conder's  discoveries  in  the  Passages  iiortli  of  tlie  Kiil)bet 
es  Sakhra  (pp.  7  and  11),  and  those  of  Mr.  Mandsley  on  Mount  Zion, 
promise  to  be  of  great  importance  in  the  topographical  difficulties  of 
Jerusalem. 

The  .specimen  of  the  new  map  published  this  (|Uartcr  is  of  the 
Carmel  ridge,  one  of  the  least  known  and  most  interesting  parts  of 
the  Holy  Land.  It  is  on  the  scale  of  one  incli  to  the  mile,  and  con- 
tains about^  eight  times  the  number  of  names  to  be  found  in  any 
other  map,  besides  the  sites  of  ruins,  ancient  towns,  vineyards,  &c.„ 
upon  it.  One  of  the  most  important  features  in  the  new  map — less- 
important,  perhaps,  in  this  portion  of  Palestine  than  in  those  con- 
nected with  the  Books  of  Judges  and  Samuel — is  the  course  of  the 
ravines  and  valleys.  A  great  ste})  is  taken  in  the  issue  of  this  speci- 
men portion  of  the  new  map  :  it  is  an  earnest  of  tlie  whole,  and  the 
Committee  are  certain  that  its  appearance  will  serve  as  an  assurance 
to  subscribers  that  the  work  is  being  carried  out  in  the  most  thorough 
and  complete  manner. 

The  Committee  in  July  last  asked  for  £2,500  before  the  end  of 
the  year.  Of  this  sum,  up  to  the  present  date  (Dec.  29th),  less  thaii 
£2,000  have  been  paid  in,  the  total  income  of  the  Fundfor  the  year 
being  about  £200  less  than  that  of  last  year.  Owing,  too,  to  a  great 
increase  in  prices  in  Palestine,  the  expenses  of  the  two  expeditions  have 
been  muck  higher  than  was  anticipated,  consequently  the  new  year 
begins  with  a  heavy  load  of  debt.  The  Committee  most  earnestly 
beg  their  friends  not  to  allow  this  Survey — t!ie  greatest  work  ever 
attempted  in  the  Holy  Land,  a  work  for  all  time  and  the  whole 
world. — to  languish  for  want  of  assistance. 


NOTES. 

JI.  Cleriuont-Gauncau  lanJGil  at  Marseillos  early  in' December!  'He  has 
hronght  with  hiiu  the  "  Vase  of  Bezetha,"  of  which  a  full  accoiint  was  given  in 
the  Quartcrhj  Statement  for  October  last;  a  cast  of  the  supiiosed  "Head  of 
Hadrian  ; ''  two  of  the  Gezer  letters  ;  and  a  very  large  quantity  of  inediteJ. 
inscriptions  and  sipieezes. 


In  the  autumn  it  is  hoped  to  publish  in  one  lai'ge  volunic  a  complete  account 
of  his  Archffiological  work  in  Palestine,  Avith  a  great  number  of  illustrations. 
Full  particulars  will  be  advertised.  Meantime,  a  reduction  in  the  price  will  be 
made  in  the  case  of  subscribers,  as  was  done  with  the  "  Recovery  of  Jerusalem," 
and  names  of  those  wishing  to  have  a  copy  will  be  received  at  the  office  of  the  Fiind, 


The  Report  from  the  late  Mr.  C.  F.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,  puljlished  dn  this 
niimbcr  of  the  Statement,  was  found  after  his  death  among  his  j\i]^>er3.  It  hatl 
not  received  his  corrections,  but  is  published  as  it  was  found. 

His  pamphlet  on  "Modern  Jerusalem"  has  been  now  published  by  ilr. 
Stanford,  6,  Charing  Cross.  It  contains  a  report  on  the  population,  the  industries, 
and  the  characteristics  of  the  city,  wliich  will  l)C  read  with  great  interest.  It 
was  written  for  the  Committee  of  the  Fund,  but  not  published  in  the  QuartcrJ}/ 
Statement,  as  it  appeared  not  to  fall  within  the  objects  of  the  Societj-. 


It  is  proposed  to  hold  a  meeting  in  Januarj'  in  order  to  review  and  discuss. 
some  of  the  latest  work  of  M.  Ganneau.  When  the  day  is  fixed  it  will  be 
ailvertised  in  the  Times  and  other  papers. 


LieutenantH.il.  Kitchener,  11.  E.,  the  successor  to  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  Drake.^ 
arrived  in  Palestine  in  November.  The  health  of  the  party  is  reported  to  be 
good,  with  the  exception  of  that  of  Sergeant  Black,  of  whom,  however,  the 
latest  report  sjieaks  favourably. 


There  ar(>  no  new  facts  connected  witli  the  Shapira  Collection.  An  emineuT 
Semitic  scholar,  I\I.  ISTeubauer,  has  added  his  voice  to  that  of  those  who  regard 
the  inscriptions  as  forgeries  (^c«ffe?;i?/,  Dec.  12,  1874).  So-called  "  Moabite '' 
pottery  is  now  exhibited  for  sale  at  other  places  in  Jerusalem  besides  the  estab- 
lishment of  Mr.  Shapira.  Photographs  of  some  of  these  have  been  brought  home 
by  M.  Clermont-Ganneau.  They  are  precisely  similar  to  all  the  rest,  no  variety 
of  type  being  presented  in  any  yet  sketched  or  brought  home. 

The  researches  of  Mr.  Henry  Maudsley  on  Mount  Zion  (see  Lieut.  Conder's 
Reports,  p.  7)  have  resulted  in  discoveries  of  great  interest  and  topographical 
importance.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  he  will  be  encouraged  to  carry  on  investi- 
gations which  have  been  cro\med  with  such  great  success. 


4  -    XOTES. 

The  AmdrcaiiA'riSotiacion 'have  not  yet  tiespatuhed  their  secoud  expedition. 
The  Coi-uuii;.te^-,  howevsi;,  are  carefully  considering  their  next  step.  It  has 
ah-eady  heen^  )epor-i,ed'tha+  n,  fir  larger  siim  has  been  collected  in  the  States  than 
that  with  which  our  own  Fund  was  started. 


The  amount  received  from  September  22nd  to  December  22nd,  from  all 
sonrces,  was  £1,243  15s.  5d.,  being  more  than  £300  a  month,  a  rate  which,  if 
it  could  be  maintained  through  the  whole  year,  would  place  the  Committee  fairly 
beyond  anxiety.  The  income  always  asked  for  is  £5,000.  The  balance  in  the 
banks  on  the  l:itter  date  was  £107  6s.  3d.  The  expenses  of  the  Survey  amount, 
necessarily,  and  at  the  lowest  estimate,  to  £200  a  mouth. 


A  meeting  was  held  at  Manchester  on  Thursday,  Dec.  17th,  under  the  presi- 
dency of  Mr.  Hugh  Birley,  M.P.,  Avhich  was  addressed  by  Mr.  Grove,  M.  Cler- 
mont-Gamieau,  Major  Wilson,  Eev.  W.  F.  Birch,  and  other  gentlemen.  The 
meeting  pledged  itself  to  raise  the  sum  of  £500  for  the  Fund  during  the  follow- 
ing year. 

The  Eev.  William  "Wright,  of  Damascus,  has  kiiully  consented  to  act  as 
Honorary  Secretary  for  the  Fund  in  tliat  city.  Dr.  Chaplin  lias  already  for 
some  years  acted  as  the  Honorary  Secretary  for  Jerusalem,  while  the  Consul- 
General  at  Beyrout  and  the  Consul  at  Jerusalem  are  both  members  of  the 
General  Committee. 


THE  SURVEY  OF  PALESTINE. 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  E.  COXDER'S  REPORTS. 

XXII. 

Jerusalem,  1st  October,  1874. 

I  SEND  home  a  few  notes  on  points  of  interest  which  I  have  noted  on 
coming  back  to  the  country  before  recommencing  our  active  work. 

I  landed  at  Jaffa  on  20th  September,  having  left  England  on  the 
night  of  the  10th,  and  spent  a  Sunday  morning  in  Bologna.  This  is 
about  as  rapid  a  joui-ney  as  could  possibly  be  made  under  existing 
arrangements. 

Qezer. — On  passing  from  Ramleh  I  made  a  detour  by  Abu  Shusheh  to 
visit  Tell  Jezer,  and  the  place  where  the  two  inscriptions  were  found. 
Tell  Jezer,  which  I  have  had  occasion  to  describe  previously,  is  a  pro- 
minent mound,  partly  natural,  partly  artificial,  commanding  one  of  the 
main  routes  from  the  plains  to  Jerusalem.  On  the  south  are  rough 
caves  and  tombs,  some  having  names,  as  shown  on  the  Survey.  On  the 
east,  in  the  valley,  is  a  fine  spring  'Ain  Yerdeh,  and  on  the  opposite 
slope  is  the  ruin  of  the  same  name.  It  was  on  the  top  of  this  flat  hill, 
rather  more  than  a  mile  from  Tell  Jezer,  that  the  two  stones  were 
found.  The  line  which  joins  their  positions  (about  100  yards  apart)  runs 
approximately  north-west  and  south-east.  They  seem  to  have  formed 
portions  of  the  integral  rock,  -and  were  written  on  its  flat  surface,  which 
renders  the  fact  that  one  inscription  has  to  be  reversed  to  read  the 
Greek  more  easy  to  understand.  There  are  evidences  of  considerable 
work ;  round  this  part  of  the  hill  the  rock  is  cut  in  various  places,  and 
some  shallow  troughs,  looking  like  sarcophagi  with  the  sides  knocked 
ofi",  are  visible.  Somewhat  in  the  same  line,  farther  north,  I  was  shown 
a  long,  rough  stone,  with  two  large  letters,  about  a  foot  high,  cut  at 
the  end.  It  has  fallen  on  another,  in  a  manner  which  suggests  the 
former  existence  of  some  rude  monument  or  sarcophagus.  I  was  told 
of  the  existence  of  another  stone  farther  south-east,  but  did  not  see  it. 
Of  the  two  first  found,  nothing  is  visible  beyond  the  chipped  rock  in  the 
place  where  they  were  cut  out.  The  first  is  in  the  Serai  at  Jerusalem, 
where  it  is  to  be  seen,  and  a  photograph  and  several  sketches  have  been 
taken.     The  other  is  in  the  Serai  at  Ramleh. 

Mr.  Brake's  Last  Illness. — It  is  a  melancholy  consolation  to  find  how 
kindly  Mr.  Drake  was  treated  during  his  last  painful  illness.  The  kind- 
ness of  all  the  English  residents  was  marked  and  untiring,  and  all  that 
skill  and  care  could  do  was  done.     I  fear  I  hardly  did  justice  in  my 


S  LIEUT.  CLAUDE  E.  COXDER's  REPORTS. 

memoir  to  Dr.  Thcvier,  who  had  been  so  serviceable  and  kind  in  his 
former  attack.  The  good  doctor  undertook;  at  a  moment's  notice,  a  long 
and  tedious  journey  to  Jericho.  He  lost  his  way,  and  suffered  by  the 
fall  of  his  horse.  He  reached  us  in  the  middle  of  the  night,  and  by  his 
prescriptions  afTorded  immediate  relief  to  Mr.  Drake.  He  never  left  us 
until  we  were  all  safely  established  in  Jerusalem,  when  the  immediate 
danger  was  over.  During  Mr.  Drake's  last  illness  ho  showed  the  same 
kindness  and  attention. 

The  behaviour  of  Mr.  Hornstein  was  also  worthy  of  the  highest  com- 
mendation. Nothing  could  exceed  his  care  and  thoughtfulness.  During 
the  long  and  trying  period  of  forty-two  days  hardly  any  one  in  the  hotel 
seems  to  have  been  able  to  take  any  rest,  and  Dr.  Chaplin  was  finally 
ifiuitejworn  out,  and  suffered  very  considerably  for  some  time  after. 

Christian  IVurk  in  the  Mosque. — On  the  25  th  inst.  I  visited,  in  companj' 
with  Mr.  Shick  and  Sergeant  Black,  the  Haram  enclosure,  under  a 
special  invitation  from  the  sheikh,  to  see  certain  new  discoveries.  The 
first  of  these  was  a  small  figure  in  bas-relief,  lately  uncovered  on  the 
side  of  the  little  table  which  supports  the  Shield  of  Hamzeh.  The 
whole  of  the  work  of  this  piece  apjiears  to  be  Christian,  as  are  also 
several  of  the  capitals  to  the  columns,  such  as  those  on  each  side  of  the 
Mirhab.  The  little  figure  seems  to  represent  a  saint  in  flowing  drapery, 
with  the  aureole,  and  holding  some  indistinguishable  object  in  the  raised 
light  hand. 

Greeli  Christian  Inscription. — The  second  discovery,  made  a  few  days 
ago,  whilst  renewing  the  pavement  of  the  mosque  floor,  is  of  greater  im- 
portance. One  of  the  flags  was  found  to  have  a  well-cut  and  preserved 
Crreek  inscription  on  the  under  side.  It  contains  a  date,  and  the 
srosses  show  it  to  be  of  Christian  origin. 

As  far  as  I  am  able  to  make  out  at  a  first  glance,  it  is  a  memorial 
tablet,  but  part  of  the  stone  has  been  unfortunately  lost,  and  I  was 
only  able  to  recover  this  part  of  the  inscription  by  means  of  the  cast 
made  by  the  deep  cut  letters  in  the  underlying  bed  of  mortar.  No 
doubt  this  stone  will  prove  of  great  interest  (see  p.  56). 

Mosaics. — The  wooden  frame  which  surrounds  the  sacred  rock  has 
been  taken  down,  but  nothing  of  importance  was  .visible  in  addition  to 
what  is  already  known.  The  works  are  rapidly  approaching  completion, 
and  the  appearance  of  the  interior  and  dome,  now  that  the  paint  has 
been  renewed  and  the  mosaics  washed,  is  wonderfully  beautiful.  The 
curious  question  of  the  method  in  which  these  mosaics  are  placed  in 
the  wall,  we  carefully  investigated.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  gold 
tessera  have  baen  intentionally  fixed  in  an  inclined  position,  so  that 
the  rays  directly  reflected  may  be  directed  towards  the  spectators  below, 
whereby  the  brilliancy  is  greatly  increased.  (See  "Letters  from  M. 
Clermont- Ganneau,  1874,"  p.  138.)  The  pieces  of  other  colours  have  not, 
however,  been  so  placed. 

In  parts,  where  the  mosaics  are  defective  or  dull  in  colour,  a  coat  of 
oil  paint  has  been  supplied. 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDER  S    REPORTS.  7 

Arches. — The  marble  casing,  in  black  and  wbite,  to  tbo  arches  sup- 
porting the  drum  has  never  been  removed,  and  we  are  thus  still  ignorant 
of  the  true  form  of  the  arch.  The  exterior  has  never,  however,  been 
correctly  ropreseuted.  The  keystone  of  each  arch  has  a  horizontal 
soffit,  so  that  the  arches  cannot  be  said  to  be  cither  pointed  or  round. 

Olass. — Mr.  Shick  is  of  opinion  that  the  apparent  resemblance  in  the 
glass  mosaic  of  the  windows  to  the  method  above  described  of  placing 
the  mosaics  of  the  dome,  is  only  the  result  of  accident,  or  of  clumsy 
mending  at  a  former  period. 

The  Passages  north  of  the  Kullet  es  Sakhrah. — On  the  28th  inst.  I 
visited,  in  company  with  Sergeant  Black,  some  of  the  great  cisterns  of 
the  Haram,  which  are  only  dry  just  at  the  end  of  summer.     "We  first 
descended  No.  3,  afterwards  No.  1.     These,  as  will  be  remembered,  are 
under  the  platform  to  the  north  of  the  Kubbet  es  Sakhrah,  and  the 
western  one  (No.  3)  is  inclined  in  such  a  manner  that  its  production  in 
a  line  north-east  would  intersect  that  of  No.  1,  at  about  the  line  of  the 
north  steps  of  the  platform,  so  that  a  connection  with  the  vault  running 
■east  and  west  on  that  side,  and  supposed  by  Mr.  Fergusson  to  be  part  of 
a  basilica,  may  be  conjectured.     I  had  always  suspected  that  the  north 
side  of  these  two  passages  would  be  found  to  be  modern,  but  had  feared 
that  the  plaster  would  hide  the  work.     I  was,  therefore,  greatly  pleased, 
-on  descending  No.  3,  to  find  at  the  farther  end  a  wall, ^evidently  more 
modern,  closing  the  passage,  and  built  irregularly  in  an  oblique  line 
across  it.     The  lower  part  was  cemented,  but  above  the  work  showed 
and  proves  to  be  irregular  in  size,  with  broad  mortar  joints.     The  pas- 
sage, which  is  throughout  about  thirty  feet  high,  is  roofed  with  a  semi- 
circular arch  of  fine  masonry.     The  keystone  of  the  arch  is  very  nai'row, 
and  the  voussoirs  gradually  increase  in  breadth  as  they  approach  the 
haunches.     This  character  of  work,  similar  to  that  of  the  twin  pools  of 
the  Sisters  of  Zion,  is  probably  Eoman.  The  voussoirs  are  cut  irregularly 
by  the  end  wall,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  passage  continues 
farther  north.     On  descending  No.  1  I  made  the  same  remark,  although 
the  masonry  of  the  cross  wall  was  not  so  easily  seen,  but  the  voussoirs 
of  the  roofing  arch  run  beyond  in  the  same  way.     The  passages,  though 
now  used  for  cisterns,  were  probably  cut  first  for  another  object,  and 
■communicated  with  the  exterior  (see  Note,   p.  11).       There  is  a  side 
chamber  in  No.  3,  with  a  well  mouth,  which  may  very  probably  be 
the  House  of  Baptism,  or,  more  properly,  Bath-room,  mentioned  in  the 
Talmud. 

The  Zion  Scarp. — Since  Captain  Warren  left  Jerusalem,  no  work  has 
been  undertaken  equalling  in  interest  and  importance  that  which  is 
now  being  carried  out  at  his  own  expense  by  Mr.  Henry  Maudsley, 
M.I.C.E.  This  gentleman  has  undertaken  various  improvements  in  the 
Bishops'  School  on  Zion,  and  in  prosecuting  these  with  a  purely  benevo- 
lent motive,  he  has  contrived  to  carry  his  researches  for  stones  and  for 
cisterns  in  such  directions  as  are  best  calculated  to  give  results  of 
archaiological  interest.   The  illustration  of  Josephus's  account,  furnished 


8  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

by  the  present  discoveries,  is  in  the  highest  degree  instructive,  and 
all  travellers  should  in  future  make  a  point  of  visiting  the  school  and 
its  grounds. 

Mr.  Maudsley  kindly  undertook  to  show  me  the  whole  of  his  work,. 
which  I  will  endeavour  shortly  to  describe. 

The  Bishop's  School  grounds  stand  partly  on  rock,  partly  on  made 
earth,  brought  down  from  above,  forming  a  garden  terrace  which  extends- 
to  the  English  cemetery,  a  length  of  about  four  hundred  feet  in  all.  Mr. 
Maudsley's  excavations  are  exactly  those  which  I  recommended  should 
be  made  in  this  part  in  one  of  my  early  reports  to  the  society,  and  the- 
results  are  those  which  I  hoped  to  obtain.  The  dining-room  of  the 
school-house  proves  to  be  founded  on  a  rock,  buttress,  or  tower,"  some-  ■ 
twenty-five  feet  square,  and  reached  by  a  flight  of  rock-cut  steps  on  one- 
side.  The  tower,  whose  scarp  has  an  average  height  of  about  twenty 
feet,  stands  on  a  second  rock  platform  of  about  twenty  feet  width,  beyond 
which  line  Mr.  Maudsley  finds  a  drop  of  more  than  twenty-five  feet. 
On  the  north-west  side  the  scarp  is  now  traced  back,  and  a  line  discovered 
running  due  north,  with  a  similar  scarp  directed  on  the  present  south- 
west corner  of  the  city  wall  (a  discovery  of  the  utmost  value,  showing 
the  line  of  the  old  west  wall  of  the  city,  and  proving  the  tower  in  ques- 
tion to  be  the  ancient  south-west  angle  of  the  first  wall). 

It  was  found  in  building  the  school  that  this  scarped  block  had  formed 
the  base  of  a  pair  of  cisterns,  with  walls  some  six  to  eight  feet  thick, 
also  rock-cut.  Behind  the  tower,  Mr.  Maudsley  has  just  lit  upon  a 
very  large  cistern,  cut  in  the  rock,  and  with  a  mouth  about  the  level  of 
the  top  of  the  rock  platform.  There  is  a  communication  between  this 
large  cistern  and  the  base  of  the  tower.  No  one  reading  this  description 
can  fail  to  see  how  exactly  it  carries  out  the  description  by  Josephus  of 
the  smaller  towers  upon  the  first  wall.  They  were  twenty  cubits  (or 
about  twenty-six  feet)  square,  with  steps  leading  up.  They  had  a  solid 
base  twenty  cubits  high,  not,  as  has  been  previoirsly  supposed,  built  so 
with  large  stones,  but  hewn,  as  we  now  see,  in  the  solid  rock.  Finally,. 
above  this  base  were  cisterns  and  rooms.  The  work,  as  now  exposed  in 
parts,  is  magnificent.  The  labour  of  hewing  these  great  scarps,  appar- 
ently with  an  instrument  not  more  powerful  than  the  modern  picks  used 
by  the  natives,  must  have  been  immense. 

On  the  western  side  were  found  numerous  fallen  stones,  many  of  which 
seem  to  me  to  be  Roman  work,  with  a  draft  of  three  inches  broad.  There 
are  also  voussoirs  of  arches  evidently  of  considerable  span,  fragments  of 
column  shafts,  some  three  feet  in  diameter,  and  the  jamb  and  lintel 
stones  of  a  great  doorway.  The  stones  were  found  principally  face  down- 
wards, as  though  fallen  from  the  tower  above,  or  pushed  over  from 
within. 

I  have  already  described,  in  a  former  report,  the  system  of  cisterns 
which  runs  along  the  top  of  the  scarp  east  of  this  first  tower.  Mr. 
Maudsley  has  now  succeeded  in  clearing  this  great  scarp,  Avhich  faces 
south,   and  has  reached  the  bottom  of  it.     The  total  height  is  about 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS.  9 

thirty  feet,  and  it  stands  on  a  rock  platform  of  unknown  width.  There 
would,  no  doubt,  be  another  fall  beyond  this,  but  I  doubt  the 
existence  of  a  regular  second  scarp  below,  for  which  there  would  be  no 
real  use.     The  rock  is  probably  rough,  and  left  in  its  natural  state. 

A  curious  buttress  sticks  out  of  this  scarp,  and  forms  a  division 
between  two  large  cisterns,  which  seem  to  have  been  of  masonry  on  the 
other  sides.  An  inspection  of  the  cement  used  in  these,  leads  me  to  con- 
clude that  the  cisterns  are  Saracenic  work  applied  to  the  ancient  scarp 
of  which  they  form  no  part. 

We  now  arrived  at  a  sort  of  tunnel  driven  by  the  workmen  against  the 
face  of  the  scarp,  and  on  the  platform  as  a  base.  Following  this  we 
came  to  the  foot  of  the  set  of  rock-cut  steps  explored  by  Captain  "Warren, 
and  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Survey.  It  proves  to  be,  as  Captain 
Warren  supposes,  the  base  of  the  scarp,  and  the  total  height  presented 
to  the  enemy  at  this  point  is  some  thirty  feet.  At  the  top  of  the  steps 
are  two  cisterns  or  baths,  with  rock-cut  sides  and  a  masonry  arch.  These 
were  the  earliest  discoveries  of  Mr.  Maudsley,  and  I  noticed  them  in  a 
report  which  was  mislaid  in  England.  Above  and  behind  these  are  a 
brick-kiln,  a  cistern,  and  a  wall,  apparently  more  modern,  but  of  good 
masonry. 

In  the  portion  of  the  scarp  nearest  the  tower  already  described,  is  a 
rock  chamber,  containing  a  large  water-trough,  cut  like  a  sarcophagus 
out  of  the  rock,  and  beside  it  are  two  mangers  also  rock-cut.  These 
were  found  during  a  visit  by  Mr.  Drake,  and  are  mentioned  by  him  ira 
his  last  report,  which  I  have  just  sent  home. 

The  explorations  are  rendered  complete  by  the  discovery  of  a  second 
tower.  It  forms  the  corner  of  the  cemetery,  and  its  scarp  juts  out  at 
right  angles  to  the  line  already  described,  and  has  a  height  of  upwards  of 
thirty  feet.  In  the  corner  thus  formed,  Mr.  Maudsley  has  made  a 
cistern  so  as  to  leave  the  discovery  open  and  visible.  This  second  tower 
has  also  a  largo  cistern  within,  and  the  steps  lead  directly  to  it.  The 
work  of  the  scarp  is  magnificent,  and  the  appearance  it  must  have  pre- 
sented when  standing  with  its  towers  above,  is  well  worthy  the  eulogy 
of  Josephus. 

Further  exploration  has  shown  a  counter-scarp,  or  opposite  scarped 
side,  giving  a  ditch  some  twenty  feet  wide,  with  a  rough  rock  slope 
beyond.  It  is  not  certain  whether  this  ditch  is  continuous,  and  there 
is  certainly  none  at  the  western  tower.  The  line  of  the  counter-scai-p, 
where  laid  bare,  is  not  strictly  parallel  to  that  of  the  scarp.  It  is  possible 
it  may  in  places  be  intended  to  form  an  extra  protection  where  the  rock 
without  the  fortress  stands  higher.  This  ditch  reminds  one  of  the 
ditch  or  gutter  which  Joab  crossed  in  David's  siege  of  Jerusalem,  but 
the  side  on  which  that  attack  was  made  is  uncertain. 

Two  other  interesting  details  may  be  mentioned.  The  method  of 
moving  the  large  stones  has  been  always  a  matter  of  doubt.  Mr. 
Maudsley  showed  me  a  voussoir,  with  a  hollow  cut  in  the  top,  similar  to 
the  square  sunk  holes  in  some  of  the  temple  stones.     There  was  a  strong 


10  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

bar  of  some  comi^ound  metal  resembling  lead,  but  harder,  securely 
cemented  across  this,  to  -which  a  hook  or  cord  might  be  attached.  In 
making  his  excavations,  Mr.  Maudsley  also  lit  upon  a  curious  stone 
die,  with  ^numbers  not  in  regular  succession.  It  seems  to  me  to  be 
cogged,  by  being  of  irregular  shape,  for  on  throwing  it  a  great  number 
of  times,  the  majority  read  12,  the  highest  number. 

With  the  boundary  wall  of  the  cemetery  we  reach  the  confines  of  Mr. 
Maudsley's  field  of  operations.  A  huge  mound  of  rubbish  covers  the 
opposite  side  of  the  tower.  It  would  be  in  the  highest  degree  interesting 
to  pursue  the  work  on  this  side  according  to  the  proposal  I  made  in  an 
early  report,  and  the  confirmation  of  my  expectations  on  the  west  leads 
me  to  feel  sanguine  of  results  on  this  side  also.  There  seems  little 
doubt  that  a  gate  existed  here.  A  double  scarp  is  visible,  and  cisterns 
on  the  other  side,  with  an  artificial  line  terminating  a  rocky  buttress, 
makes  it  almost  certain  that  we  should  here  uncover  a  third  tower, 
flanking  the  gate  on  the  east  side  as  the  second  described  does  on  the 
west. 

From  the  junction  of  this  tower  we  should  be  able,  perhaps  without 
mining,  but  at  all  events  at  a  depth  of  less  than  thiiiy  feet,  to  follow 
this  rock  scarp  along  from  tower  to  tower  over  the  south-eastern  slope 
of  Zion,  and  to  determine  the  most  interesting  question  on  this  side, 
namely,  the  manner  in  which  the  south  wall  was  carried  across  the 
Tyropceon  valley  to  that  other  fortification  found  by  Captain  "Warren  on 
Ophel. 

But  though  this  investigation  has  yet  to  be  made,  a  great  step  has 
now  been  secured  in  the  thorough  investigation  of  the  scarp,  proving 
beyond  doubt  that  we  hero  see  the  south-west  corner  of  the  ancient 
Jerusalem.  A  very  useful  indication  is  also  afforded  in  seeking  for  the 
position  of  the  royal  towers,  for  the  solid  bases  mentioned  by  Jesephus 
must,  in  this  case,  also  be  suj^poscd  to  consist  of  hewn  rock  ;  and  the 
different  heights  of  the  bases,  thirty,  fortj',  and  twenty  cubits,  would 
indicate  their  relative  positions  with  regard  to  the  level  of  the  ground, 
without  the  tops  of  the  scarps  being  naturally  considered  as  upon  the 
same  level. 

Seal. — A  curious'  seal,  lately  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Gaza,  is  in  pos- 
session of  Dr.  De  Hass,  the  American  Consul,  and  he  has  kindly  given 
me  an  impression.  It  represents  a  human  figure  with  four  wings,  seem- 
ingly like  those  of  a  fly  or  bee,  and  with  a  large  misshapen  human  head. 
In  each  hand  the  figure  holds  an  animal  resembling  an  ape,  head  down- 
wards, being  held  by  the  hind  leg.  Dr.  De  Hass  supposes  this  to  be  an 
efllgy  of  Baalzebub,  god  of  Eki'on,  to  whom  apes  were  sometimes  ofi'ercd. 
The  seal  is  square,  about  one  inch  wide,  and  the  figure  in  low  relief, 
roughly  cut.  A  similar  seal  was  found  some  years  ago,  and  is  now  in 
England.  It  represents  a  fly  or  mosquito,  with  an  inscription,  the 
equivalent  of  the  Arabic  "Allah,"  perhaps  the  symbolical  effigy  of 
the  deity  of  Ekron. 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   E.    CONDER's    HEPORTS.  11 

Note  (Dec.  2ud,  1874). — The  Vaults  ]\^os.  1  and  ^  JIa ram  Enclosure. 
Captain  Warren's  remark  sent  tome  is  as  follows: — "  Is  the  masonry 
at  tlie  end  of  the  cistern  above  or  below  tlie  line  of  the  rock?"  He 
points  out  that  if  it  only  forms  the  iilliug  in  of  tho  arch,  it  is  no  proof 
that  the  cistern  extends  any  farther.  This  sound  criticism  shows  the 
necessity  of  accurate  writing.  The  difficulty  of  seeing  is  so  great  with- 
out magnesium  wire  that  I  cannot  speak  with  absolute  certainty  as 
regards  No.  1 ,  but  as  regards  No.  3  there  is  no  doubt.  The  rock  walls 
are  not  vortical  throughout,  but  curve  over  at  the  top,  so  that  the 
masonry  forms  only  the  crown  of  the  arch.  The  masonry  in  the  cross 
wall  at  the  northern  end  of  the  cistern  is  visible  below  the  line  of  the 
rock,  and  the  cement  rendering  is  not  so  high  as  at  the  sides  in  parts. 
In  addition  to  this,  the  wall  is  not  built  at  right  angles  to  the  line 
of  the  cistern,  in  itself  almost  a  sufficient  proof,  as  it  has  no  connection 
with  the  masonry  of  the  voussoirs,  which  could  not,  if  the  cistern  here 
was  bounded  by  the  rock,  be  continued,  as  they  are  irrespective  of  the 
cross  wall.  The  southern  end  of  each  passage  is  covered  with  cement 
to  the  mouth  of  the  entrance  shaft,  but  there  can  bo  little  doubt  that 
they  do  not  extend  farther  in  this  direction.  It  is,  however,  quite 
possible  that  the  drain  from  the  Sakhrah,  being  of  a  cross  section, 
3ft.  X  2ft.,  may  lead  into  No.  1,  and  have  been  stopped  and  cemented 
over  so  as  to  leave  no  trace.  I  may  remark  that  the  masonry  of  the 
vaulted  roof,  which  is  very  fine,  is  exactly  similar  to  that  of  the  double 
passage,  the  Twin  Pools,  and  other  passages  near  or  in  the  Haram,  but 
differs  from  that  of  the  piers  of  Solomon's  stables.  C.  E.  C. 


XXIII. 

TuTTA  Camp,  Novemler  Bth,  1874. 

The  Survey  has  now  been  in  progress  for  a  month  on  its  sixth  cam- 
paign, during  which  time  we  have  completed  230  square  miles  and 
collected  460  names.  The  number  collected  from  Halhid,  258,  was 
beyond  any  total  yet  obtained  except  at  Bethlehem,  where  in  about  the 
same  area  287  were  noted,  but  in  this  case  the  main  part  were  ruined 
sites,  whereas  at  Bethlehem  many  were  modern  bnildings.  The 
country  is  indeed  in  this  part  more  interesting  than  in  any  former 
campaign,  from  the  number  of  sites  and  from  the  great  completeness 
of  the  Biblical  lists  in  the  tribe  of  Judah,  which  as  yet  have  hardly 
been  touched  by  the  Survey.  Besides  the  four  important  identifica- 
tions connected  with  the  life  of  David  which  I  have  given  in  a  separate 
paper.  I  propose  here  to  give  suggestions  upon  seven  sites  of  moi'e  or 
less  interest. 

The  j)rogress  of  the  work  has  not  been  so  rapid  as  in  the  Jordan 
valley,  but  as  I  find  myself  unable  to  stand  the  fatigue  of  detail  sketch- 
ing, Avith  all  other  duties  in  addition,  the  field  sketchcvs  are  reduced  to 


12  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

three.  Thus,  whereas  the  monthly  rate  was  seventy  square  miles  per 
man  it  is  now  increased  to  seventy-six,  partly  because  of  continued 
fine  weather  and  partly  from  greater  practice,  but  perhaps  principally 
because  the  country  is  easier  riding  and  the  distances  traversed  there- 
fore greater.  With  the  assistance  of  Lieutenant  Kitchener,  whom  we 
are  anxiously  expecting,  we  may  ho-pe  to  reach,  or  perhaps  even  to 
exceed,  the  former  rate  of  progress. 

The  health  of  the  party  has  been  fairly  good,  notwithstanding  the 
very  sickly  season  and  the  trying  alternations  of  cold  west  breezes  and 
hot  east  winds.  The  Jebel  Khalil,  where  our  work  lies,  is  almost  the 
only  healthy  part  of  the  country  just  now  ;  we  shall  remain  in  it  long 
enough  to  allow  of  the  first  rains  thoi-oughly  purifying  the  lower  lands, 
and  then  if  all  goes  well  descend  to  the  lower  deserts  of  Masada  and 
Engedi,  returning  to  Jerusalem  before  the  heavy  rains  begin. 

With  this  brief  summary  of  progress  I  may  proceed,  first,  to  the  new 
identifications  as  the  subject  of  most  interest. 

1.  Alexai/druim. — The  site  of  this  important  fortress,  which  was, 
Josephus  tells  us,  near  Coreas,  has  been  variously  located.  It  has- 
been  already  placed  at  Kefr  Istuna,  near  to  the  village  of  Keriut, 
which  lies  north  of  it,  and  which  has  been  identified  with  Corese.  In 
June  last  Corporal  Armstrong  visited  the  site  and  discovered  the  foun- 
dations of  an  importa-nt  building  called  El  Habs.  Two  courses  of  its 
walls  remain  perched  on  a  rocky  scarp.  The  stones  are  all  of  a  very 
great  size,  one  being  eighteen  feet  in  length  by  three  feet  eight  inches 
high — equal  to  the  average  of  the  Temple  ashlar. 

2.  The  BocJc  Etam. — In  a  former  report  from  the  camp  there  placed, 
I  put  forward  the  identification  of  Beit  'Atab  with  the  rock  Etam,  a 
most  j)robable  site,  considering  that  the  village  lies  in  the  limits  of  that 
small  section  of  Palestine  to  which  Samson's  exploits  seems  to  have 
been  confined.  Zorah  and  Eshtaol,  his  native  country,  lie  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  great  valley  which  here  forms  the  boundary  of  the 
tribe  of  Judah  to  the  north.  The  existence  of  a  remarkable  rocky  knoll 
on  which  the  modern  village  stands  is  also  in  favour  of  the  site,  as  is  its 
peculiar  position,  Avliich,  whilst  really  low  compared  to  the  main  ridge 
at  the  watershed,  is  yet  from  its  form  and  the  surrounding  lower  hills 
a  very  conspicuous  point :  thus  whilst  on  one  hand  it  forms  a  strong 
defensive  position,  on  the  other  it  is  perfectly  in  accord  with  the 
peculiar  expression  of  the  Book  of  Judges,  that  the  men  of  Judah 
"carae  doivn  to  the  Eock  Etam." 

In  studying  the  subject  further  I  find,  however,  another  confirmation 
of  the  theoi-y  which  has  induced  me  to  dwell  upon  it  a  second  time. 
The  word,  which  in  the  English  version  appears  as  top — "  the  top  of  the 
rock  Etam,"  Judges  xv.  11 — has  in  reality  in  the  Hebrew  the  significa- 
tion of"  a  cleft"  [iiCQ  Bihle Dktionary,  "Etam").  At  Beit  'Atabwefound 
an  unique  style  of  rock  excavation  unlike  anything  we  have  met  else- 
Avhere ;  it  was  a  rock  tunnel  running  from  the  middle  of  the  village 
eastwards  for  a  considerable  distance  towards  the  principal  spring.     I 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  13 

gave  at  tlie  time  some  account  of  it,  and  full  notes  and  measurements 
are  now  stored  up  in  England.  I  cannot,  therefore,  liere  give  details, 
as  I  depend  only  on  memory,  but  I  would  suggest  that  this  excavation 
■which,  from  the  lamp  niches  at  its  entrance  and  other  indications,  we 
judged  to  be  very  ancient,  is  the  cleft  or  cave  in  which  Samson  took 
refuge,  and  which  would  so  effectually  have  concealed  him  from  all  who 
were  unacquainted  with  the  i^lace  that  he  might  have  been  sought  on 
the  very  spot  for  a  long  time  without  any  one  lighting,  except  by 
accident,  on  the  entrance  of  the  tunnel.  The  identification  will,  I  hope, 
lead  subsequently  to  that  of  the  famous  sj^ring  of  En  Hakkore,  the  site 
of  the  slaughter  of  Philistines  with  the  jaw-bone.  It  must,  from  the 
narrative,  have  lain  in  the  lower  and  more  open  ground,  where  the 
Philistines  could  "  spread  themselves."  It  is,  therefore,  as  yet,  beyond 
the  limits  of  the  Survey. 

3.  Chozcha. — This  town  is  only  once  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  in  the 
curious  list  of  1  Chron.  iv.  22.  It  here  occurs  between  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Mareshah  (now  Marash,  on  the  borders  of  the  Philistine 
plain)  and  the  possessions  of  "Saraph,  who  had  the  dominion  in 
Moab."  From  this  indication  we  should  be  inclined  naturally  to  place 
Chozeba  in  the  hill  country  of  Judah.  It  has,  however,  in  default  of 
information,  been  supx50sed  identical  with  Chezib,  and  this  again  to  be 
a  form  of  the  word  Achzib,  a  city  occurring  in  the  list  of  the  towns  of 
Judah  situate  in  the  plains  near  Mareshah. 

Whatever  may  be  said  as  to  the  identity  of  Chezib  and  Achzib,  for 
which  I  have  a  new  site  to  propose,  I  would  suggest  for  Chozeba  a  ruin 
of  importance  which  we  have  lately  found  north  of  Halhiiil,  bearing  the 
name  of  Kliirhet  Kueizihah,  which  almost  exactly  reproduces  the  Hebrew 
name.  It  is  a  ruin  of  some  interest  standing  on  a  hill  side  with  the 
usual  indications  of  great  antiquity.  It  is,  however,  better  preserved 
than  most,  and  the  walls  of  many  of  the  houses  are  standing  in  parts 
to  the  height  of  eight  or  ten  feet.  The  masonry  is  a  fine  ashlar  of  very 
square  pi-oportions,  the  stones  being  over  three  feet  in  height  and 
three  to  four  feet  long.  Each  house  seems  to  have  formed  a  small 
fortress  in  itself,  so  strongly  are  the  foundations  built,  and  a  fort  or 
citadel  dominates  the  town.  The  buildings  are  probably  of  Roman 
date,  but  the  name  no  doubt  preserves  that  of  the  city  inhabited  by 
"  the  men  of  Chozeba."  This  identification  is  of  interest,  as  showing 
an  extremely  archaic  name  preserved  almost  unchanged.  The  passage 
in  Chronicles  says  expressly,  "  and  these  are  ancient  things  "  (ver.  22) ; 
it  also  shows  that  even  the  obscurest  passages  of  Scripture  are  capable 
of  illvistration  by  the  Survey,  owing  to  the  wonderfully  pei'fect  condition 
in  which  the  manuscripts  of  the  Old  Testament  seem  to  have  come 
down  to  us. 

4.  McCarutli. — This  town,  the  name  of  which  is  almost  identical  with 
the  Arabic  Mogharah  {a  cave),  belonged  to  the  list  of  places  lying 
between  Bethlehem  and  Hebron  (Josh.  xv.  58).     It   forms  one  of  a 


14  LIEUT.    CLAUBE    K.    CONDER  S    REPORTS. 

gronp  of  six,   of  wliicli  four   are   known   occurring   in   fhc   folbwing 

order : — 

Halliul now  Hallnil. 

Betlizur „     Beit  Siir. 

Gedor ,,     JejiUir. 

IMaaratli         .         .         .         .         .  ,,        

BetliAnoth ,,    Beit 'Aintiu. 

El  Tekon ,,  

The  list  seems  to  give  the  three  western  towns  going  from  south  to 
north  and  then  to  return  to  the  eastern  towns.  "\Ve  should  look, 
therefore,  for  Ma'arath  near  to  Beit  'Ainun,  and  here  we  find  that  an 
ancient  site  occurs  south  of  the  last-named  village.  The  valley  above 
which  it  stands  has  the  name  of  "Wady  el  Moghair  at  this  sj)ecial  point, 
though  no  caves  were  remarked,  the  name  generally  applied  to  the  rest 
of  its  course  being  "Wady  Nusara.  The  site  itself  is  scarce  distinguish- 
able except  by  a  fine  clump  of  olives,  which  often  form  a  sure  indication 
of  former  buildings,  as  notably  at  Ai.  The  site  has  no  known  name  at 
the  present  day,  but  the  local  appellation  of  the  wady  very  probably 
retains  the  old  name  of  Ma'arath.  This  leaves  only  one  of  the  six 
cities  to  be  settled,  but  we  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  anything  that 
answers  to  the  requisites  of  this  site.  From  position  one  would,  how- 
ever, be  inclined  to  identify  it  with  Teku'a,  lying  in  the  same  district 
and  not  mentioned  in  any  of  the  lists  except  in  the  interpolated  passage 
in  the  Septuagint  mentioned  in  my  last  report.  The  Hebrew  Ain  is, 
however,  a  stubborn  letter  and  not  accustomed  to  be  lost  in  any 
change  of  name.  The  matter  seems  to  me,  therefore,  to  remain 
doubtful. 

5.  Arah. — Among  the  cities  of  the  groiip  surrounding  Hebron  occurs 
one  of  the  name  of  Arab.  Unfortunately,  out  of  the  list  of  nine  only 
four  are  identified,  and  one  of  these  is  very  doubtful ;  the  district  seems 
to  lie  principally  west  of  the  capital,  and  many  of  the  towns  lie  pro- 
bably still  outside  the  work  as  yet  completed.  East  of  Hebron  a  very 
ancient  site  was  found  by  Corporal  Armstrong,  known  as  Khurbet  el 
'Arabiyeh  (the  Arab  ruin).  It  is  marked  by  the  existence  of  many 
wells  and  cisterns,  and  lies  near  one  of  the  main  roads.  It  may  be 
objected  to  this  identification  that  the  Hebrew  AJeph  is  here  repre- 
sented by  the  stronger  form  of  Ain,  but  we  have  a  notable  instance  of 
a  precisely  similar  change  in  the  name  of  Ascalon,  now  'Askelan,  and 
the  change  is  here  all  the  more  natural  as  it  gives  a  meaning  to  the 
word  in  the  modern  Arabic  language. 

6.  The  Cliff  of  Zi';;.— This  place  is  only  oace  mentioned,  2  Chron. 
XX.  16,  a  passage  which  I  illustrated  in  my  last  report.  The  Bedouin 
horde  from  east  of  Jordan  advanced  towards  Jehosaphat  from  their 
camp  near  to  Engedi :  "Behold,  they  come  up  by  the  cliff  of  Ziz ;  and  ye 
shall  find  them  at  the  end  of  the  brook,  before  the  wilderness  of 
Jeruel,"  which  may  be  properly  paraphrased  thus  :  "  Behold,  they  come 
up  by  the  going  up  of  Ha  Ziz,  and  ye  shall  find  them  at  the  head^of 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS,  15 

tlie  wady."  The  word  used  is  Ma'aleli,  whicli  in  tlie  case  of  Ma'aleli 
Akrabbim  and  Ma'aleli  Ila  Dummim,  lias  been  given  correctly  by  the 
English  translators  as  "  the  going  np."  I  have  thought  it  worthy  of 
notice  that  just  south  of  our  Yutta  camp  is  a  very  large  and  important 
ruin  known  as  Khirhet  'Aziz.  It  is  a  recognised  law  of  change  that 
the  Ain  and  tbe  He  are  interchangeable.  "We  find  in  this,  therefore, 
the  name  of  Ziz  preserved.  The  site  is,  it  may  be  said,  a  long  way 
from  Engedi,  and,  indeed,  the  valleys  lying  directly  east  do  not  run 
down  to  the  Dead  Sea  but  to  the  Mediterranean.  It  is,  however,  to  be 
noticed  that  Wady  Khubara,  the  main  valley  just  south  of  Engedi, 
runs  westward  directly  towards  this  ruin,  to  which  the  ascent  from  the 
Dead  Sea  shore  would  be  by  the  course  of  this  large  watercourse. 
Although  I  do  not  overlook  the  difSculties  of  position,  the  similarity  of 
name  is  sufficiently  striking  to  make  this  worthy  of  notice.  Were 
Ehirbet  Aziz  an  important  town  in  the  later  Jewish  times  it  is  possible 
that  the  main  valley  leading  up  to  it  may  have  been  called  with  pro- 
priety "the  going  up  to  Haziz"  through  its  entire  length  of  some  twenty 
miles. 

7.  Zanoah. — There  were  two  towns  of  this  name :  the  one  among  the 
fourteen  cities  of  the  Shephalah,  and  identified  by  Eobinson  with  the 
present  Zanu'a ;  the  other  is  also  in  the  lot  of  Judah,  and  is  men- 
tioned among  the  ten  cities  south  of  Hebron.  It  occurs  in  the  list 
between  Juttah  (Yutta)  and  Cain  (Yekin),  which  it  immediately  pre- 
cedes. Dr.  Eobinson  has,  however,  placed  it  at  Zanuta,  to  which 
identification  there  is  an  important  objection,  namely,  that  Zanuta  is 
in  quite  a  different  group  of  towns  immediately  in  the  vicinity  of 
places  belonging  to  the  royal  city  of  Debir  (now  identified  with 
El  Dhoheriyeh). 

We  have,  however,  just  found  an  ancient  site  which  bears  the  name 
of  Khirhet  Sa'niU,  the  letter  "a"  in  this  case  being  an  Aleph.  Its 
position  agrees  well  with  that  required  for  Zanoah,  being  situate 
immediately  west  of  Khirbet  Yekin,  which  is  probably  the  ancient 
Cain . 

The  Limits  of  the  Levitical  Cities. — To  this  important  subject  we 
have  paid  considerable  attention  since  the  discovery  of  the  stone  at 
Tell  Gezer.  The  towns  of  Yutta  and  Semu'a  have  been  identified  by 
Eobinson  with  Juttah  and  Eshtemo'a,  towns  set  spart  for  the  Levites. 
We  endeavoured,  therefore,  to  discover  traces  of  the  boundaries  of 
these  towns  as  laid  down  in  Numbers  xxsv.  -A  and  5.  The  explanation 
generally  given  of  the  passage  is,  I  believe,  that  it  refers  to  a  double 
enclosure,  the  inner  of  which  had  a  breadth  or  radius  of  1,000  cubits, 
beyond  which  was  an  outer  boundary  measuring  2,000  cubits  from  the 
former  on  every  side.  This  gives  a  square,  the  side  or  diagonal  of 
which,  as  the  case  may  be,  would  measure  6,000  cubits,  the  city  being 
in  the  centre.  The  theory  proposed  by  M.  Ganneau  and  by  the 
Americans  I  understand  to  be  that  it  was  the  diagonal  which  was  thus 
given,  and  that  the  four  angles  of  the  square  pointed  to  the  cardinal 


16  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    E.    COXDER  S    REPORTS. 

points.  We,  tlierefore,  scored  tliese  points  on  the  traces  and  found, 
curiously  enough,  that  in  the  case  of  both  towns  all  the  points  were  on 
hill  tops.  Our  investigations,  however,  though  conducted  in  the  after- 
noon, when  the  slanting  light  is  most  favourable  for  seeing  incised 
inscriptions,  did  not  lead  to  the  discovery  of  any  single  mark  of 
important  or  distinct  character  at  these  points,  and  I  feel  convinced 
that  no  inscriptions  ever  existed  there. 

So  far  our  efforts  were  without  result,  but  I  may  mention  an  indica- 
tion at  the  more  southern  town,  Semu'a,  which  is  not  without  interest. 
On  the  road  to  Semu'a  a  stone  was  pointed  out  to  Corporal  Brophy, 
called  Hajr  d  Bahhuhi,  forming  the  boundary  between  the  lands   of 
Senii'a  and  the  lands  of  Yutta.     It  is  a  little  more  than  3,000  cubits  of 
sixteen  inches  north  of  the  centre  of  the  village,  but  we  are  not  certain 
that  the  measurement  of  the  suburbs  may  not  have  been  taken  from 
the  outside  of  the  town,  which  would  bring  the  distance  more  nearly 
correct.     It  is,  however,   a  quarter  of  a  mile  east  of  the  theoretical 
point.     On  visiting  the  spot  I  found  two  rude  marks  lately  cut  in  the 
stone,  which  is  a  soft  rock,  standing  upright,  and  about  three  feet  high. 
I  found  three  similar  stones  roughly  in  line  west  of  the  one  in  question, 
evidently  making  the  boundary.     If  this  modern  boundary   is    con- 
sidered to  coincide  with  the  Levitical,  it  follows  that  the  corners  of  the 
square  are  not  at  the  cardinal  points,  but  that  the  four   sides  of  the 
square  face  in  these  directions,  an  arrangement  which  would  seem  the 
more  natural,   especially  as  we   have  no   recorded  instance   of    the 
measurement  of  a  diagonal  in  Jewish  architectural  descriptions. 

To  the  list  of  these  Biblical  identifications  we  may  add  those  of 
Hareth,  New  Zijjh,  the  EocJc  of  Maon,  and  the  Hill  of  Ilachilah,  Dehir, 
the  royal  city  of  the  Canaanites,  and  the  upper  and  lower  springs,  giving 
the  respectable  number  of  twelve  new  identifications  of  interest,  and 
more  or  less  certain  made  since  we  left  Jerusalem.  The  fulness  of  the 
lists  leads  me  to  hope  that  we  may  add  to  this  number  a  great  many 
more  before  we  leave  the  territory  of  the  tribe  of  Judah. 

In  no  part  of  the  country  yet  visited  have  we  seen  so  many  large  and 
important  ruins.     The  state  of  preservation  in  which  they  are  found  is 
superior  to  that  in  other  districts,  which  is  due  to  a  very  simple  cause. 
South  of  Hebron  there  are  only  four  inhabited  villages,  viz.,  Yutta 
(our  present  camp),  Semu'a  (Eshtemoa),  Dura  (Adoraim),  and  the  more 
modern  large  village  of  El  Dhoheriyeh.     The  consequence  is  that  fewer 
stones  are    required  for  building   purposes,  and  the  ruined  sites  are 
left  undisturbed.     We  had,  however,  the  other  day  a  specimen  of  the 
manner  in  which  these  ruins  are  gradually  disappearing,  for   no  less 
than  four   camels   were  being  loaded   with    si.ones  from  the  fine  ruin 
of  Aziz,  intended  for  the  construction  of  a  new  house  in  Yutta. 
The  following  ruins  are  those  most  worthy  of  notice  : — 
1.  El  Bameh,    situate    north   of   Hebron,    the    traditional    site    of 
Abraham's  oak  at  Mamre  in  the  fourth  century.    The  tradition  has  now 
been  shifted  to  the  Balliitet  el  Sibta,  nearer  to  the  city.     A  very  fine 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEll's    REPORTS.  17 

building  exists  here  east  of  tlie  Hebron  road,  called  Beit  el  Khalil,  or 
Abraham's  bouse.  It  is  an  enclosure  21-i  feet  long  from  east  to  west, 
and  162  broad  from  north  to  south.  The  walls  are  of  splendid  masonry, 
stones  averaging  three  and  a  half  feet  iu  height,  and  some  of  them 
eighteen  feet  in  length,  whilst  others  are  only  fifteen  inches  in  length. 
In  the  south-west  corner  is  a  well  seventeen  feet  diameter,  havinsr  a 
spring  of  water  in  it.  The  masonry  is  very  good,  the  stones  being 
curved  to  the  form  of  the  circle.  Beside  it  are  the  remains  of  a  trough, 
lined  with  excellent  red  cement,  harder  than  stone.  This  large  ruin 
has  by  some  been  supposed  the  remains  of  the  Basilica  here  built  by 
Constantine,  but  is  rather  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  market-place  which 
existed  near  to  the  Basilica,  and  where  slaves  were  sold.  The  ruin  of 
the  Basilica  seems  to  have  escaped  notice  ;  it  exists  about  fifty  yards 
farther  east,  but  is  hardly  traceable.  Its  masonry  is  inferior  to  that  of 
the  large  enclosure,  but  resembles  other  specimens  of  Christian  early 
work  in  the  country.  Its  breadth  was  thirty-three  feet,  and  the  length 
of  the  atrium  thirty-eight  feet.  The  apse,  however,  is  quite  indistin- 
guishable, so  that  the  total  length  cannot  be  ascertained.  The  corner- 
stones are  rudely  drafted  and  resemble  in  character  those  of  the  great 
convent  which  we  discovered  last  year  at  Deir  Kala'ah. 

2.  MogMret  Suffa. — From  Halhiil  I  visited  a  very  remarkable  cavern, 
similar  to  that  at  Umm  el  Tuweinun.  It  lies  near  the  ruin  of  Suffa  on 
the  side  of  a  great  valley  leading  to  the  Mediterranean.  We  had  to 
cross  a  very  difiicult  valley  to  reach  it,  and  the  native  scribe,  Na'aman, 
had  a  narrow  escape  of  his  life.  Riding  over  the  slippery  ledges  of 
slanting  rock  is  always  delicate  work  ;  at  one  point  I  planted  my  horse's 
foot  in  a  bush  and  passed  the  slide  safely.  The  native,  however,  was 
less  careful,  his  horse  slipped  and  reared,  turning  round  in  the  air.  He 
had  just  time  to  jump  off  when  the  beast  fell  and  rolled  over  twice  down 
the  hill  side.  Though  bruised  he  behaved  very  well  and  recovered  his 
horse  before  it  had  time  to  escape.  I  have  noticed  since  that  he 
dismounts  and  leads  his  beast  over  similar  places. 

The  cave  proved  to  be  in  the  face  of  a  precipice  and  not  attainable  by 
horses ;  leaving  them  I  had  therefore  to  scramble  down  some  hundred 
feet  and  advance  cautiously  along  a  narrow  ledge  of  rock  to  its  mouth. 
The  interior  was  full  of  flies,  and  the  tunnel  turned  at  right  angles  to 
the  entrance  and  descended  at  a  steep  slope  of  about  a  quarter  or  one- 
fifth.  My  single  candle  scarce  gave  any  light,  the  heat  was  oj^pressive, 
and  I  was  in  constant  expectation  of  finding  a  pit-fall  or  a  pool  of  water. 
After  about  forty  paces  (100  feet)  the  cave,  which,  was  only  some  seven 
to  ten  paces  wide,  turned  again  to  the  right.  At  this  angle  I  left  a 
light  and  proceeded  cautiously,  but  now  the  rushing  sound  as  of  a 
great  wind,  and  the  squeaking  of  innumerable  bats,  was  heard.  They 
flew  about  my  head  and  nearly  extinguished  the  light.  After  sixty 
paces  the  cave  became  broader,  and  I  found  the  pit  I  had  been  expect- 
ing from  experience  in  other  caves.  It  was,  however,  not  more  than 
twelve  to  fifteen  feet  deep,  and  some  twenty  paces  across.    I  cautiously 

C 


18  LIEUT.   CLAUDE  R.   CONDER  S  REPORTS. 

descended  part  of  the  way  and  ascertained  that  the  cave  here  ended.  I 
was,  however,  told  by  the  Sheikh  of  Halhul  that  another  passage,  now 
choked,  led  from  the  pit,  and  that  an  iron  ring  hangs  above  it  in  the 
roof  of  the  cave.  The  exploration  and  return  to  the  horses  occupied  a 
fall  hour  and  proved  very  fatiguing  from  the  heat  and  the  sudden  . 
return  to  the  hot  sun  and  glare  from  a  region  of  total  darkness  and  bad 
air.  Creeping  along  these  tunnels  one  imagines  oneself  to  have  gone 
double  or  three  times  the  distance,  and  thus  the  exaggerated  accounts 
of  the  natives  are  easily  understood. 

3.   Umm  el  'Amddn. — West  of  Yutta,  marked  on  Vandevelde,  but 
apparently  never  before  visited.     This  is  the  ruin  of  an  early  Christian 
Byzantine  convent,  standing  in  a  very  large  ruin.     The  chapel  is  more 
perfect  than  usual.   It  had  a  nave  separated  from  the  side  aisles  by  two 
rows  of  four  columns.     Tliree  are  standing  on  the  south  side,  with  an 
entablature  of  unmoulded  blocks  eight  feet  long  in  place  above.     The 
capitals  and  other  details  are  very  archaic   and  rudely  finished,  but 
evidently  belong  to  an  early  Byzantine  period.     The  convent  occupied 
an  area  of  about  100  feet  square,  and  contained  three  good  cisterns  and 
some   excavated  cells  in   the  rock  beneath.      Only  the  foundations 
remain.    This  site,  in  common  with  the  three  next  described,  has  one 
peculiarity.     In  the  middle  of  the  ruin  in  every  direction  large  caves 
are  to  be  found,  the  entrance  doors  carefully  cut,  five  feet  broad  and 
eight  or  nine  feet  high,  with  a  long  passage  or  shaft,  with  steps  leading 
down.     A  semicircular  arch  occurs  at  the  door  in  some  instances,  but 
the  cave  within  is  rough.     In  one  of  the  largest  I  found  a  rock-cut 
feeding-trough,  and  am  led  to  suppose  that  some  are  stables  for  cattle, 
which  would  have  been  remarkably  plentiful  in  the  district  at  the  time 
when  these  flourishing  towns  existed,  as  indeed  they  yet  are,  and  were 
in  David's  time,   the  Negeb,  which   extends   north   about  as  far  as 
Tutta,  being  a  pu.rely  pastoral  district.     Others  of  these  caves  are 
tombs  and  cells. 

4.  'A7Az. — About  half  a  mile  south  of  Yutta  is  an  even  larger  ruin, 
which  contains  the  relics  of  a  church  below  the  town  on  the  east,  to  which 
a  main  street  leads.  It  is  marked  on  no  map,  and  is  hidden  from  view 
of  the  main  road  south,  from  which  most  of  the  sites  in  the  district 
seem  to  have  been  fi:xed,  with  more  or  less  hesitation  on  the  part  of 
former  travellers.  A  colonnade  leads  at  an  angle  in  the  direction  of 
the  church,  and  a  large  building  with  pillars  is  to  be  found  on  the  top 
of  the  hill ;  a  smaller  chapel  is  also  traceable  south-west  of  the  church. 
There  is  little  doubt  that  the  ruins  belong  to  the  same  period  as  those 
of  Umm  ei  'Amdan,  but  the  date  of  that  period  has  yet  to  be  fixed. 

5.  Susieh,  marked  on  Mvirray's  new  map,  seems  nevertheless  not  to 
have  been  visited.  It  is  the  largest  ruin  in  the  country,  and  seems  to 
have  been  divided  into  two  quarters,  each  containing  a  principal 
building.  Though  seemingly  Christian,  it  is  probably  earlier  than  the 
former.  Its  linteljstones  have  more  correctly  classic  mouldings,  its 
capitals  are  more  graceful  in  outline,  and,  curiously  enough,  nothing 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDER'S   REPORTS,  19 

of  a  cliurcli  is  discernible.  The  gi-eat  western  building  seems  to  have 
been  a  hall  or  palace  of  some  kind,  fallen  pillars,  lintel  stones,  and 
capitals  remaining.  It  measures  in  breadth  from  north  to  south  fifty- 
one  feet,  and  its  total  length  is  a  hundred  and  sixty  feet.  We  made,  of 
course,  detailed  plans  and  sketches.  South  of  this  building  is  a  wall  of 
stones,  much  larger  than  most  of  the  masonry,  measuring  nine  and  a 
half  feet  long  by  two  and  a  half  high,  but  not  drafted.  The  building 
in  the  eastern  quarter  is  the  church,  if  any  existed,  but  is  too  much 
destroyed  to  be  traceable.  It  seems  to  have  had  a  cradle  vaulted  roof, 
and  the  doors  were  surmounted  by  flat  lintels  having  various  orna- 
ments upon  them.  On  one  is  a  Greek  inscription,  but  so  battered  by 
age  and  weather  that  scarce  a  letter  is  distinctly  traceable.  'Aziz  must 
have  been  a  very  important  place  in  early  Christian  times,  but,  like 
most  places  in  the  district,  the  water  supply  is  derived  merely  from 
rain. 

6.  Kh.  Khorcisa. — This  ruin,  which  we  have  so  curiously  identified  with 
<he  Wood  of  Zipli,  was  before  entii-ely  unknown,  and  we  had  some  little 
difficulty  in  getting  its  name  in  a  satisfactory  manner.  I  may  remark, 
however,  as  adding  to  the  value  of  the  identification,  that  it  did  not 
occur  to  me  until  after  the  name  had  been  settled.  Although  evidently 
an  ancient  site,  with  bell-mouthed  cisterns,  which  generally  date  long 
before  Christian  times,  Kh.  Khoreisa  seems  to  have  been  an  important 
town  in  the  Christian  period.  The  ruins  of  a  church  are  traceable,  a 
basilica,  eighty-four  feet  long,  including  an  atrium  of  fifteen  feet  six 
inches,  the  breadth  being  thirty-nine  feet  six  inches,  and  the  width  of 
the  nave  sixteen  feet,  with  two  rows  of  three  pillars.  Only  the  founda- 
tions and  fallen  shafts  remain,  but  there  is  a  lintel  eight  feet  nine  inches 
in  length,  once  over  the  west  door,  having  an  almost  illegible  Greek 
inscription  on  it.  Our  paper  being  very  bad,  we  did  not  succeed  in 
taking  a  proper  squeeze.  Corporal  Armstrong,  however,  copied  the 
letters  on  the  day  he  discovered  it,  and  I  again  made  an  independent 
copy,  after  carefully  cleaning  the  stone.    The  result  was  as  below. 

ATTHIITI 

HTOYKT 
lOTAIKAI 
lEIC     AEYc 
TENAT  IH 

The  most  valuable  part  of  the  inscription,  which  seems  to  have  been 
only  a  text  or  religious  sentence,  are  the  two  letters  IH,  which  occur  in 
a  corner,  not  on  the  tablet  bearing  the  rest,  but  to  the  right,  parallel 
with  the  last  line.  These  ai*e  no  doubt  the  date,  and,  when  the  era  from 
which  they  are  to  be  counted  is  determined,  they  will  serve  to  fix,  not 
only  the  date  of  this  particular  building,  but  also  the  century  to  which  a 
large  number  of  very  similar  ruins  in  Palestine  is  to  be  attributed — a 
period  which  I  find,  on  visiting  England,  is  still  in  dispute  between 
eminent  architects. 


20  LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    COXDERS    REPORTS. 

7.  Khirlet  el  Mintar. — In  addition  to  the  ruins  tlius  enumerated,  a 
small  basilica  exists  at  this  ruin,  north-west  of  'Aziz.  The  pillars  are 
still  standing,  and  the  details  of  the  lintels  show  the  work  to  be  of  the 
same  period. 

Thus,  within  an  area  of  some  fifty  square  miles  we  find  (including 
Kiirmul)  the  ruins  of  no  less  than  eight  basilicas,  all  of  which  were 
previously  ainknown  or  unexamined.  Northwards  there  are  several 
more,  and  farther  south  there  are  others.  We  find  evidence  of  an 
extensive  Christian  settlement  at  an  early  period,  probably  the  fifth 
and  sixth  centuries,  and  of  towns  of  considerable  magnitude.  Indeed, 
this  district,  which  has  hitherto  been  almost  unknown,  must  then  have 
supported  a  large  population.  Nothing  is  more  striking  than  the  large 
number  of  Christian  ruins  in  Palestine ;  four-fifths  of  the  total  number 
of  ruined  sites  in  the  country  are  probably  to  be  attributed  to  Byzantine 
or  Crusading  periods.  The  general  impression  of  great  antiquity  in  the 
ruins  of  Palestine  is  certainly  a  false  one,  however  ancient  the  localities 
may  be.  M.  Ganneau's  excavation  at  El  Medyeh  is  only  another 
instance  of  the  probably  late  period  to  which  remains  supposed  to  be 
Jewish  are  to  be  attributed,  and  confirms,  as  do  many  other  facts  which 
I  hope  some  day  to  bring  forward,  the  theory  as  to  the  special  form  of 
tomb  at  El  Medyeh  which  I  advanced  in  an  early  report.  In  every 
case  where  indications  of  any  sort  are  available  these  tombs  have  proved 
to  be  Christian. 

8.  Kurmul. — This  interesting  site,  which  has  been  hardly  visited  of 
late  years,  shows  the  ruins  of  a  very  important  site  of  Christian  times. 
There  are  no  less  than  three  buildings  which  might  be  churches.  The 
first,  to  the  north,  is  unmistakable.  Its  apses  are  clearly  visible,  and 
it  measures  seventy- seven  by  forty-five  feet.  Over  the  door  was  a 
curious  lintel,  with  geometrical  ornamentation  more  florid  than  iisual. 
The  second  building  is  immediately  east  of  the  famous  Crusading 
tower,  the  two  are  contained  within  the  same  enceinte,  and  are  sur- 
rounded with  a  sloping  revetment.  This  great  building  is  within  3^  of 
the  true  east  and  west  line,  and  had  two  rows  of  columns  one  foot  ten 
inches  diameter.  If  a  church,  it  was  a  very  large  one,  compared 
with  the  others,  being  ninety- nine  feet  in  total  length.  The  Crusading- 
tower  requires  no  notice  ;  it  is  of  the  ordinary  character,  and  we  care- 
fully measured  and  planned  it.  Sixty-three  by  forty-eight  feet  exterior 
measurement,  and  twenty-four  feet  from  the  top  to  the  Chemin  des  rondes. 
Its  walls  ai-e  seven  feet  thick.  A  round  birket  of  masoni-y,  twenty- 
eight  feet  eight  inches  diameter,  exists  on  the  north  side.  Farther 
south  than  the  tower  is  a  third  colonnade  building,  measuring  seventy 
by  forty  feet,  apparently  also  a  basilica  with  an  atrium. 

9.  Semu'a. — This  is  the  most  interesting  of  all  the  group  here  men- 
tioned, and  gives  evidences  of  great  antiquity.  We  had  some  little 
difficulty  with  the  pious  population,  who  took  umbrage  at  Corporal 
Brophy's  proceedings  in  booking  the  names  of  all  objects  in  their 
vicinity.     Seven  strapping  fellows  suggested  to  him  that  he  was  a  dog, 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    COXDEH's    REPORTS.  21 

a  pig,  an  iufidel,  and  other  objectionable  similes,  and  made  attempts  to 
drag  the  guide  from  his  mule.  They  seem  even  to  have  had  some 
thoughts  of  stoning  the  corporal,  as  their  numbers  were  superior,  but 
he  prudently  produced  a  revolver,  which  had  some  effect,  and  retreated 
to  camp  to  report  the  amenities  which  he  had  experienced.  As  good 
luck  would  have  it,  the  sheikh  of  the  village  just  then  rode  into  Yutta, 
and  I  sent  the  native  soldiers  to  capture  him,  and  explained  that  he 
would  have  to  proceed  under  escort  to  Hebron  as  surety  for  the  appear- 
ance of  the  four  chief  offenders,  whose  names  we  got  from  the  guide. 
The  consternation  produced  throughout  our  village  by  this  arrest  was 
considerable,  and  the  whole  family  of  sheikhs  came  |to  beg  off  their 
fellow  in  misfortune  ;  but  it  seems  to  me  a  rule,  for  the  safety  of  the 
Survey  party,  to  show  not  the  least  mercy  in  similar  cases.  The  old 
gentleman,  who  was  quite  unconscious  of  the  affair,  did,  however, 
succeed  in  making  his  escape  from  the  soldier  who  kept  him,  and  from 
whose  wages  I  deducted  the  amount  which  I  thought  [it  likely  the 
sheikh  could  afford  as  a  bribe  for  his  liberty;  for  the  soldier  did  not 
respond  to  my  proposal  that  he  should  confess  the  exact  amount. 

A  letter  to  the  Kaimakam  of  Hebron  resulted  in  the  immediate 
imprisonment  of  the  four  offenders,  and  I  took  the  corporal  to  Hebron 
in  case  he  was  required  as  a  witness.  We  found  the  Kaimakam  a  very 
civil  little  Beyroutine,  and  he  showed  us  a  French  and  English  New 
Testament  which  he  could  read,  and  expressed  a  wish  for  an  Arabic 
version.  The  only  legal  ,'proceeding  was  his  asking  me  how  long  I 
wished  the  culprits  kept  in  j)rison,  which  I  left  to  him  to  decide, 
knowing  it  to  be  only  a  question  of  their  J  pecuniary  condition  at  the 
time. 

The  next  day  we  went  down  to  Semu'a,  and  made  some  show  of 
measui-ing  up  the  ruins  and  writing  notes  in  the  centre  of  the  village, 
keeping  up  an  interesting  conversation,  and  ignoring  altogether  the 
assembled  villagers,  who  looked  at  us  with  mingled  fear  and  sulkiness. 
On  the  next  day  but  one  we  again  visited  the  village,  and  did  more 
measuring,  the  people  looking  on  from  the  house-tops. 

By  these  means  I  hope  to  have  induced  these  good  Moslems  to  believe 
that,  whether  pigs  or  dogs,  we  are  strong  enough  to  carry  matters  our 
own  way,  and  to  put  a  stop  to  any  remarks  or  signs  of  hostility. 

The  site  thus  held  precious  in  the  eyes  of  its  inhabitants  impresses 
one  as  the  most  ancient  and  important  we  have  yet  seen;  but  there  arc 
tAvo  periods  to  its  buildings,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  say  decidedly  to  which 
some  of  the  buildings  belong.  The  whole  site  stands  on  the  summit  of 
a  hill,  and  spreads  principally  east  and  west.  In  the  centre  are  the 
remains  of  a  castle  almost  perfect,  and  used  as  a  sheikh's  house  at  the 
present  day.  The  ashlar  of  its  walls  is  fine,  though  small.  It  has  an 
archway  which  is  most  properly  described  as  elliptical.  The  general 
appearance  is  that  of  a  Crusading  or  mediaeval  fortress  of  some  des- 
cription. 

The  main  ruins  lie  west  of  the  inhabited  part  of  the  village,  but 


23  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDER's   REPORTS. 

througliout  its  extent  the  houses  stand  amongst  foundations  of  noble 
masonry.  The  stones  are  of  those  peculiarly  long  and  narrow  dimen- 
sions which  Ave  are  accustomed  to  consider  as  a  mai'k  of  Jewish  work ; 
many  of  them  are  eight  to  twelve  feet  in  length,  but  under  three  feet 
in  height.  Some  are  smooth  dressed,  others  have  large  riistic  bosses. 
One  of  the  largest  areas  has  on  the  east  a  doorway  with  a  great  lintel 
above,  and  a  relieving  arch  of  small  masonry  above  it.  This  disposition 
seems  a  mark  of  early  Byzantine  work,  but  does  not  prove  the  large 
masonry  to  belong  to  that  period.  Two  lintels  we  remarked,  the  first 
having  the  vine  pattern,  the  second  a  very  archaic  form  of  two  half 
circles,  with  pilasters  of  equally  ancient  design.  These  details  resemble 
closely  the  ornamentation  of  the  tombs  near  that  of  Joshua  at  Tibneh, 
and  for  this  reason  I  was  inclined  to  look  on  them  as  Jewish.  It  must 
not,  however,  be  forgotten  that  the  vine  pattern  is  found  in  the  Hauran 
and  eastern  ruins  of  a  considerably  later  date.  There  are  many  rough 
cave  tombs  on  all  sides  of  the  village,  and  one  is  peculiar,  having  a 
pointed  masonry  arch  over  its  door.  Several  other  tombs  seem  to  have 
had  buildings  above  them.  The  number  of  wells,  or  rather  cisterns, 
for  the  only  supply  is  rain  water,  is  very  great — there  must  be  forty  or 
fifty  in  all. 

Soiith -west  of  the  village,  at  some  little  distance,  is  an  interesting 
little  monument  called  El  Baniah,  a  word  which  I  am  informed  means 
a  tomb  in  this  southern  dialect.  It  is  a  square  building  twenty  feet 
side,  standing  on  four  steps,  two  feet  tread  and  one  foot  six  inches  rise. 
Four  attached  pilasters  are  visible  on  each  wall,  with  capitals  which  are 
not  easily  described,  but  which  are  probably  early  Byzantine.  The 
total  height  is  about  eighteen  feet,  the  roof  either  a  dome,  or  more 
probably  a  cradle  vault.  From  comparison  with  other  ruins,  I  came  to 
the  conclusion  that  this  building  is  a  tomb  resembling  others  in  the 
north  of  Palestine.  This  is  strengthened  by  the  discovery  of  the 
foundations  of  a  second  similar  building  farther  west,  having  its  door 
on  the  north,  and  a  rock-cut  entrance  to  a  vault  beneath  each  of  the 
other  three  walls.  The  disposition  is  therefore  not  unlike  those  of  the 
tomb  at  El  Medyeh. 


XXIV. 

El  DnoHEftitEH,  lotJi  November,  1874. 

^HE  Ordnance  Sui-Vey  has  at  length  touched  its  southern  boundary, 
and  will,  I  hope,  soon  be  extended  all  along  it.  An  area  of  about  300 
square  miles  lies  beyond  the  southern  limits  of  the  Hebron  and  Gaza 
sheets  to  the  line  of  the  great  boundary  valleys,  Wady  el  Seb'a  and 
Wady  Seyal.  From  our  present  camp  we  organised  a  small  expedi- 
tion to  fill  in  the  country  between  Tell  el  Milh  (ihe  ancient  Moladah)  and 
Bir  el  Seb'a  (Beersheba).    This  area,  including  the  two  plains,  Sahel  el 


LIEUT,    CLAUDE   R.    CONDER's   REPORTS.  23 

Butin  and  Sahel  el  Fer'ah,  has  never  been  thorouglily  explored.  _  It  is 
about  120  square  miles  iu  extent,  and  [Murray's  new  map  contains  six 
names  within  its  limits. 

The  number  which  we  succeeded  in  collecting  reaches  a  total  of  fifty- 
Jive,  so  that  it  will  be  seen  there  was  plenty  of  scope  for  the  Survey, 
without  mentioning  the  great  inaccuracy  of  the  maps,  places  being  fixed 
many  miles  from  their  actual  position.  The  work  was  attached  to  the 
rest  of  the  Survey  by  means  of  two  fine  triangles,  which  fix  the  positions 
of  Tell  el  Seb'a  and  Tell  S'aweh. 

In  addition  to  this  we  took  observations  for  latitude  and  time,  both  at 
Khirbet  Bir  el  Seb'a,  within  fifty  yards  of  the  great  well,  and  on  the 
nest  day  at  our  camp  close  to  Tell  el  Milh.  The  principal  sites  of 
interest  are  seven  in  number,  viz.,  Tel  el  Seb'a,  Bir  el  Seb'a,  El  Meshash, 
Tell  el  Milh,  El  Ghurra,  Sa'weh,  and  Hora.  I  propose  to  give  an  abstract 
of  our  notes  on  each. 

Tell  el  Seb'a.— This  large  double  tell,  standing  at  the  junction  of  Wady 
Khalil  and  Wady  el  Seb'a,  is  a  point  conspicuous  on  all  sides,  yet  seems 
to  have  escaped  notice.  It  has  a  well  within  one-fourth  of  a  mile  west 
of  it,  separate  entirely  from  the  wells  of  Beersheba,  and  situate  on  the 
south  bank  of  the  valley. 

On  the  top  of  the  tell  are  a  collection  of  Arab  graves,  but  lower 
down  towards  the  east  are  traces  of  a  considerable  ruin.  I  would 
suggest  that  in  this  we  have  the  solution  of  the  difficulty  found  in  the 
list  of  the  towns  of  Simeon,  where  Sheba  (Shb'a)  occui-s  immediately 
after  Beersheba,  and  between  it  and  Moladah.  The  site  of  Tell  el  Seb'a 
is  within  two  miles  of  Beersheba  on  the  direct  line  to  Moladah  (Josh. 
xix.  2).  There  is  a  considerable  dam,  now  ruined,  across  Wady  Khalil 
below  the  tell,  and  traces  of  reservoirs  to  contain  the  water  so  collected. 

Kh.  Bir  el  Seh'a.—The  site  of  these  famous  wells  has  never  before  been 
fixed  with  any  amount  of  accuracy.  The  positions  on  various  maps  are 
as  follows : — 

Robinson    .     .  Lat.  31°.  14'  Long.  340.56' 

Vandevelde ,     .  „     31  .16          „      34  .54 .30" 

Palmer   ...  „     31  .13          „      34  .48 

0.  S.       ...  „     31  .14          „      34  .47 

Mr.  Palmer's  position  is  the  most  nearly  correct,  being  only  about 
half  a  mile  wrong  in  longitude.  In  latitude  he  is  one  mile  and  three 
quarters  too  far  south.  From  this  it  is  evident  that,  whereas  the  com- 
pass angles  of  his  route  sketch  come  very  nearly  correct,  the  great 
distance  of  the  starting-point  has  made  the  method  of  calculating 
distance  by  time  give  an  appreciable  error.  The  work,  however,  cannot 
fail  to  be  considered  very  good  of  its  kind,  and  contrasts  favourably 
with  Vandevelde,  who  is  six  and  three  quarter  miles  too  far  east  in  his 
longitude,  and  one  and  a  half  miles  too  far  north  in  latitude. 

The  ruins  at  Beersheba  are  extensive.  They  seem  to  belong  to  early 
Christian  times,  and  a  church  stood  close  to  the  dry  eastern  well,  a 


24  LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDEK's    KEPORTS. 

tesselated  pavement  being  remarkably  close  to  the  bank  of  the  valley. 
There  are  remains  of  hard  burnt  bricks — very  thin  and  of  red  hard 
cement — in  what  appears  to  be  a  large  cistern  ;  but  every  ruin  has  been 
razed  to  its  very  foundations,  and  little  of  the  town  is  to  be  seen  beyond 
the  heaps  of  rolled  pebbles  and  flint,  which  are  strewn  on  every  side, 
with  a  few  cut  stones  of  the  hill  limestone. 

The  houses  must  have  been  made  of  these  flints  built  up  with  some 
sort  of  mortar  or  mud,  and  were  no  doubt  perishable  structures.  The 
place  must,  however,  at  one  time  have  been  of  considerable  importance. 

The  wells  are  three  in  number,  two  containing  water.  There  are 
also  some  ruined  cisterns  for  rain  water,  now  filled  up,  but  the  Arabs 
did  not  know  of  more  wells  than  those  we  saw,  and  the  fourth  near  Tell 
el  Seb'a. 

The  central  well  was  the  one  at  which  we  camped.  The  distance  to 
the  water  we  found  to  be  thirty-seven  feet,  and  the  diameter  of  the 
well  twelve  feet  three  inches.  It  is  well  built,  of  regular  courses,  with 
stones  from  eight  inches  to  eighteen  inches  in  length,  which  have  their 
faces  cut  to  the  curve  of  the  circle.  There  are  numerous  channels  worn 
in  the  lip  of  the  -well  by  the  constant  friction  of  the  ropes  drawing 
buckets  for  the  watering  of  flocks,  herds,  and  camels.  It  is  curious  that 
no  former  traveller  appears  to  have  noticed  an  inscription,  built  in 
evidently  its  proper  place,  in  the  fourteenth  course  of  the  masonry  on 
the  south  side.  The  form  of  the  letters  approaches  more  closely  to 
modern  Arabic  than  to  Cufic.  The  word  AUak  is  distinct,  and  seems 
followed  by  Moliammed — a  sentence  probably  containing  the  expression 
"  Apostle  of  God  Mohammed." 

An  Arabic  5  and  a  cypher,  and  probably  another  <5  (though  imperfect) 
occur  above,  giving  oOo  AH.  This  would  place  the  date  of  the  present 
masonry  in  the  twelfth  century,  thus  sadly  contradicting  the  romantic 
fancy  that  the  great  furrows  may  have  been  first  traced  by  the  ropes  of 
the  followers  of  the  first  Patriarch,  who  dug  the  well. 

The  other  well,  on  the  west,  is  much  smaller  (five  feet  in  diameter). 
The  dry  eastern  well  we  found  to  be  nine  feet  two  inches  in  diameter, 
and  twenty-three  feet  deep,  the  bottom  being  filled  with  large  stones. 

Beersheba  was  a  considerable  place  in  the  time  of  Jerome,  and  later 
on  an  episcopal  city  under  Jerusalem.  The  tuins  are  probably  attri- 
butable to  this  period. 

El  Mesliaah. — The  course  ofWady  el  Seb'a  seems  never  to  have  been 
followed,  for  on  no  other  supposition  can  I  account  for  the  loss  of  such 
an  important  site. 

El  Meshash  is  about  three  miles  west  of  Tell  el  Milh,  and  lies  at  the 
foot  of  the  white  chalk  peaks  of  El  Ghur.  It  is  hidden  in  the  valley 
and  by  the  rolling  ground,  and  thus  not  visible  even  a  few  hundred 
yards  away.  We  came  upon  it  suddenly,  and  found  besides  the  ruin, 
which  is  considerable,  but  resembles  the  others  ,in  this  part  of  the 
country,  two  wells,  each  full  of  water,  and  surrounded  by  great  crowds 
of  thirsty  animals. 


MKUT.     CLAUDK    K.    CO^iDKRS    KEPORTS.  2o 

El  Meshash  has  a  meaning  in  Arabic  of  "the  finger  joint."  Dr. 
Kobinson,  who  however  never  heard  of  this  site,  gives  another  meaning 
of  the  word,  a  "  water  pit "  or  small  pool.  The  word  is  not  uncommonly 
used  among  the  Arabs  with  [this  signification,  and  applied  to  several 
other  localities,  as  Wady  Meshash,  'Ain  Meshash,  &c.,  Sec,  whence  one 
is  led  to  suspect  that  the  name  is  the  corruption  of  some  ancient  title,  as 
the  site  is  evidently  old  and  important.  The  list  of  Simeon  in  this  part 
of  the  country  contains  the  following  names  : — 

Moladah.  Hazar  Shual. 

Hazar  Gadduh.  Sheba. 

Heshmon.  Beersheba. 
Beth  Palet. 

For  all  of  these,  except  Beth  Palet,  which  is  doubtful,  we  may,  it  will 
be  seen,  now  propose  identifications ;  some  new,  some  confirmations  of 
those  already  proposed. 

It  will  be  seen  that  only  one  site,  and  that  probably  on  the  hills  at  El 
Ghurra,  intervenes  between  Heshmon  and  Moladah.  Moladah  being 
undoubtedlj^  Khirbet  el  Milh,  the  site  of  Heshmon  would  be  very  well 
placed  at  El  Meshash,  and  the  .'similarity  of  the  names  seems  to  me 
sufficiently  near  when  the  fact  of  the  Arabic  being  twisted  into  a  word 
of  ordinary  signification  is  borne  in  mind. 

Tell  el  Milh. — 'This  is  a  large  and  important  site,  a  tell  conspicuous  in 
the  middle  of  the  Sahel  Eer'ah,  having  Arab  graves  on  the  summit, 
whilst  an  extensive  ruin  stretches  on  the  south,  consisting  of  mounds, 
some  with  hewn  stones,  some  strewn  with  flint  blocks,  others  merely  of 
earth.  There  are  two  wells,  one  dry  the  other  containing  water  at  a 
depth  of  more  than  forty  feet.  The  Arabs  here,  almost  naked  and 
without  any  head-dress,  drawing  water  furiously  in  time  to  a  rude  chaut, 
were  some  of  the  wildest  fellows  we  have  yet  seen ;  but,  although  at  first 
they  demanded  backsheesh,  they  soon  got  tired  of  being  completely 
ignored,  and  went  back  to  their  work  of  water  drawing,  or  driving  off 
the  immense  flocks  which  seem  to  thrive  on  nothing  in  these  broad 
plains,  destitute  in  the  autumn,  when  we  visited  them,  of  even  a  single 
green  leaf. 

The  water  proved  to  be  slightly  brackish,  perhaps  from  layers  of  salt 
in  the  strata,  or  perhaps  from  the  filthy  condition  of  the  mud  round  the 
wells,  through  which  the  spilt  water  filters  back  into  the  porous  rock, 
and  so  again  into  the  well . 

JJl  Uhurra. — This  appears  to  be  El  Jurra  on  Vandevelde's  map,  but 
is  not  shown  by  Professor  Palmer,  who  places  S'aweh  nearly  on  its  site- 
El  Ghurra  is  visible  from  Tell  el  Milh,  but  S'aweh,  which  is  three  miles 
noi-th  on  another  range,  is  not  visible  from  any  point  in  Professor 
Palmer's  second  route.  Erom  its  position  close  to  Tell  el  Milh,  we  should 
be  inclined  to  place  at  this  important  .site  the  town  of  Hazar  Gaddah. 
This  identification  was  first  proposed  by  Mr.  Grove  for  the  Jurrah  of 
Vandevelde,  and  he  remarks  that  the  change  of  D  into  E  is  not  uncom- 


26  LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R,  CONDEr's  REPORTS. 

mon  in  Semitic  words,  in.  addition  to  wliicli  we  have  the  extreme 
similarity  of  the  two  letters  in  square  Hebrew,  and  a  certain  amount  of 
likeness  in  Aramaic,  either  of  which  would  account  for  an  error  of 
transcription. 

The  point  which  is  most  strongly  in  favour  of  the  identification  is  the 
character  of  the  site.  Hazar  means  an  "  enclosure,"  and  may  therefore 
be  supposed  to  refer  to  a  walled  town.  El  Ghurra  stands  on  a  higb, 
almost  isolated  marl  peak,  with  precipitous  sides. 

The  ruins  include  three  reservoirs,  two  caves,  and  buildings  of  large 
blocks  of  flint,  and  the  whole  site  is  sui-rounded  by  a  wall  built  also  of 
blocks  of  flint,  thus  fully  meriting  the  prefix  Hazar. 

S'aioch. — This  also  is  a  similar  site  on  a  high  bluff,  with  an  isolated 
tell  north-east  of  the  ruin.  It  has  been  identified  with  Hazar  Shu'al, 
and  a  confirmation  of  the  identification  here  also  exists  in  a  city  wall 
surrounding  the  site,  as  at  Ghurra,  and  built  also  of  large  flint  blocks. 
The  list  of  identifications  stands,  therefore,  thus  : — 
Moladah Tell  el  Milh. 


Hazar  Gaddah 
Heshmon 
Hazar  Shual 
Sheba  .     .     . 
Beersheba 


.     El  Ghurra. 

.     El  Meshash. 

.     S'aweh. 

.     Tell  el  Seb-a. 

.     Khirbet  Bir  el  Seb'a. 

El  Hora. — This  important  site  corresponds  in  name  to  none  of  the 
towns  in  the  list  of  Simeon,  or  of  the  southern  cities  of  Judah.  From 
position  it  might  very  well  be  Beth  Palet,  "  or  house  of  flight,"  a  name 
appropriate  either  from  its  being  beyond  the  plains,  or,  as  will  be  seen, 
from  its  strongly  fortified  character,  but  if  so  the  name  seems  lost. 
The  signification  in  Arabic  of  its  present  title  is  connected  with  the 
drawing  of  water,  for  the  place  is  remarkable  for  the  number  of  its 
cisterns  and  reservoirs.  The  buildings  are  of  flint  throughout,  the 
pieces  being  rudely  squared.  They  average  three  or  four  feet  in  length, 
and  are  no  doubt  of  the  natural  thickness  of  the  flint  layer  which  here 
lies  at  the  top  of  the  white  marl. 

How  they  were  cut  there  is  nothing  to  show,  but  they  may  possibly 
date  from  very  early  times,  being  almost  imperishable.  There  is  nothing 
distinctive  about  the  character  of  the  buildings,  but  one  peculiarity  in 
the  site  not  noticed  by  former  travellers  I  have  never  remarked  in  any 
other  ruin  in  Palestine.  It  consists  in  five  small  outlying  forts  which 
surround  the  town.  Hora  stands  on  a  low,  white  marl  hill,  and  the 
outer  forts,  at  a  distance  of  less  than  a  mile,  are  placed  also  on  low 
eminences. 

They  are  called  by  the  natives  Kasur  el  Mehafseh. 

Adadah. — I  may  add  to  this  report  a  valuable  identification  as  giving 
an  indication  of  the  district  where  a  large  number  of  unknown  sites  are 
to  be  found.  In  the  south  of  Judah  ten  cities  are  mentioned  (as  correctly 
counted)  between  Kabseel,  the  first  on  the  whole  list,  and  Kerioth  (pro- 
bably the  present  Kuretein).   Adadah  stands  sixth,  or  about  the  middle 


MR. 


TYRWHITT   drake's    REPORTS.  27 


of  the  group.  According  to  Smith's  dictionary  it  has  never  been  traced. 
Murray's  new  map  gives  the  ruin  of  'Ad'adah,  exactly  corresponding 
with  the  Hebrew  word,  as  near  Tuweirah  el  Foka.  I  find  from  the  Arabs 
that  this  town  does  really  exist,  though  marked  on  the  map  as  doubtful. 
It  is,  no  doubt,  the  ancient  Adadah,  and  this  leads  us  to  look  for  the 
group  in  their  proper  place,  the  district  west  of  the  southern  part  of  the 
Dead  Sea. 

Some  of  them  may  probably  come  within  our  limits  in  the  district 
round  Tell  Arad.  This  identification  makes  the  fifth  either  newly  dis- 
covered or  confirmed  by  the  Survey  out  of  the  list  of  towns  in  the  lot  of 
Simeon,  without  counting  the  probability  of  identity  between  Beth  Palet 
and  Hora. 

Geology.— Th.Q  Beersheba  plains  consist  of  a  rich  marly  soil,  which, 
with  irrigation,  would  become  extremely  fruitful.  The  climate  seems 
healthy,  and  a  great  field  for  civilisation  might  be  found  in  the  colonisa- 
tion of  this  remote  district,  in  preference  to  the  stony  hills  of  Judcoa, 
which' generally  attract  more  attention.  The  strata  here  all  belong  to 
the  white  marl,  and  the  hills  are  capped  by  dark  flint  bands.  On  the 
southern  slopes  of  the  spur,  which  terminates  in  Tell  el  Ghur,  we  found 
the  same  brown  limestone  which  throughout  the  Jordan  valley  caps  the 
marl.  The  high  hills  of  the  Debir  district,  the  Negeb,  or  dry  land  of 
Ziph,  Maon,  and  Eshtemoa,  consist  of  the  soft,  white,  porous  limestone, 
with  flint  nodules,  so  often  before  noted. 

The  unconformity  with  the  chalk  is  well  marked  in  a  north  and  south 
section  from  Hebron  to  Moladah,  confirming  what  I  have  formerly 
written  on  the  subject. 

The  dry  character  of  this  district  is  entirely  explained  by  the  thick- 
ness of  the  porous  strata  which  forbids  the  existence  of  springs. 

The  value  of  the  Survey  work  in  these  districts,  now  including  the 
recovery  of  some  twenty  biblical  sites,  as  yet  unknown  or  very  doubt- 
fully identified,  cannot  fail  to  be  generally  appreciated. 

Claude  E.  Condek,  Lieut.  E.E. 


Mr.  tykwhitt  deake's  eeport. 

XIX. 

Camp,  Jerusalem,  May,  1874. 

[The  fdllowing  was  found  among  Mr.  Drake's  papers  after  his 
death]  : — 

The  Ghor  or  Jordan  vaUey  is  now  happily  finished.  It  was  one  of  the 
districts  where  we  might  have  experienced  considerable  difficulties,  both 
On  account  of  the  climate,  the  unsettled  population,  and  the  difficulty 
of  procuring  supplies.  The  exceptionally  cool  season  wfts  much  in  oui' 
favour,  though  the  frequent  rains  somewhat  delayed  us.  The  abundant 
herbage  served  as  fodder  for  our  horses  and  mules — no  elight  item,  when 


2S  JIR.    TYRWHITT   DKAKe's    REPORtS. 

I  say  that  barley  was  40  to  43  piasters  the  midd  at  Nablus,  the  usual 
price  being  7  to  9 ;  while,  two  years  ago,  I  bought  it  in  the  Haurau 
for  3|. 

From  all  the  Arabs  and  Fellahin  in  the  Ghor  we  experienced  nothing 
but  civility.  As  little  seems  to  be  known  of  these  tribes,  I  here  give 
a  list  of  them,  beginning  at  the  extreme  south  of  Palestine,  and  going 
up  to  the  Sea  of  Tiberias  along  the  western  side  of  the  Jordan.  The 
number  of  tents  and  men  is  averaged  from  the  numbers  given  me  by 
different  Bedawin.  I  do  not  here  give  the  many  clans  (Arabic— 
Tairai/f,  hamyh,  or  (ishiret)  into  which  they  are  subdivided,  as  I  hope  at  a 
future  period  to  publish  a  list  of  all  the  tribes  in  Palestine,  with  their 
Wasum,  or  tribe  marks. 

TENTS,  MEX.  TltlUi;. 

—  -  El  Tyyahah  |  -^^  ^^^^  p^^^,^,^  ^j-  ^]^^  -^,^i^_ 

—  —  El  Terabin    S 
— •                   —  El  'Azazimeli. 

—  —  ElDliullam. 
I''l  .Telialiii,  south  of  Hebron. 
El  Ka'abineli,   in  Masferali,  south  of  Hasasa,  and 

north-east  of  Hebron. 
El  Kashaideli,  near  'Ain  Jidi. 

El  Ta'amirali,  .south  of  Bayt  Lahni,  and  iMar  Saba. 
J<:i  Abbaydiych,  serfs  of  the  monastery  of  Mar  Saba. 
El  Hetaymat. 
YA  Sawaharet  el  AVad. 
El  Abn  Nnsayr. 
El  'Abi'd,   serfs  of  the  last,  who  live  near  Ain  d 

8nltan. 
El  Ka'abineli,  nortli  of  Wady  el  'Awjeh. 
El  Mesa'ayd  (under  an  Emir),  in  Wady  el  Ear'ah, 

and  east  of  Nabhis. 
El  Belawni     i  from    east   of  Jordan,   but    usually 
El  Faliaylat    [      have  a  few  tents  in  the  Ghor  near 
El  Sardiyeh    )      Wady  el  Maleh. 
El  >Sakr,  near  Baysan,  and  in  Wady  Jalud. 
El  Ghazawiyeli  (under  an  Emir),  east  of  Baysan. 
El  Beshatwi,  near  Jisr  el  Muj^mi'a. 
S'khur  el  Glior,  soutli  of  tlie  Sea  of  Tiberias. 

The  pasturage  of  Wady  Fusail  belongs  to  the  Fellahin  of  Me j del, 
Beni  Fadhil.  The  three  clans  of  the  village  Tubas  are  the  Deraghmeh, 
the  Sawaftah,  and  the  Fok-hah.  Of  these,  the  two  first  leave  their 
houses  in  early  spring,  and  live  in  tents  like  the  Bedawin,  pasturing 
their  herds  in  Wady  el  Maleh  and  Wady  Ivhashneh  respectively. 

A  very  large  number  of  tells  are  found  in  the  Jordan  valley,  on  the 
great  plain  of  Esdraelon,  and  a  few  on  the  Maritime  Plain.  I  am  in- 
clined to  look  upon  them  as  of  very  early  date,  and  consider  them  as 
marking  the  site  of  ancient  towns,  or  at  least  of  their  Acropolis,  but 


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60(?) 

MR,    TVRWIUTT    DHAKk's    HEPORThl.  29 

cannot  tit  all  countenance  the  theory  that  they  are  formed  by  the  debris 
of  bricks  laid  out  to  dry  in  the  sun.  Consisting  as  they  do  of  from 
1,000  to  10,000  tons  of  earth,  this  idea  seems  to  me  untenable.  Again, 
their  steep  ylopes  show  that  they  were  heaped  up  with  an  eye  to  utilis- 
ing them  as  strongholds.  The  sun-dried  bricks  found  in  them  at  'Ain 
el  Sultan  by  Captain  Warren,  and  at  Tell  el  Salahiyeh,  near  Damascus, 
are  not  broken  up,  but  regularly  packed,  and  laid  with  mud  instead  of 
mortar,  which  tends  to  prove  that  sun-dried  bricks  were  used  in  their 
construction  to  give  them  solidity.  If  they  were  composed  only  of 
debris  and  faulty  bricks,  where  are  the  ruins  of  the  good  bricks  used  in 
construction,  which  must  have  exceeded  the  others  in  bulk,  but  of  which 
no  trace  other  than  the  tells  is  to  be  seen  ? 

The  fact  that  they  are  almost  invariably  found  near  a  good  supply  of 
water,  and  always  in  open  plains,  or  at  the  mouths  of  passes  where 
there  is  no  natural  elevation  suitable  for  fortresses,  is  to  me  conclu- 
sive proof  that  they  were  thrown  up  for  the  purposes  of  defence.  A 
considerable  part  of  the  surface  is  doubtless  due  to  the  decay  of  the 
buildings  which  stood  upon  them,  but  the  basis  must  have  been  pre- 
pared. 

Many  of  the  tells  which  are  identified  with  ancient  sites,  such  as 
Tell  Kaymun,  Tell  'Arad,  Tell  el  Kadhi,  Tell  Dothdn,  Tell  Jezer,  Tell 
el  Milh,  and  Tell  el  Husn  at  Baysan,  Tell  Thora,  Tell  Lejjun,  and  Tell 
el  Semak,  are  natural  mounds  or  extremities  of  spurs  running  down 
from  the  hills,  which  have  been  cut  and  trimmed  into  the  desired  shapes. 
This  may  perhaps  tend  to  show  that  the  isolated  tumuli  of  the  plains 
belong  to  a  period  anterior  to  the  Jewish  invasion.  They  differ  much 
in  shape  from  the  gradually  accumulated  heaps  on  which  the  villages 
in  Egypt  are  built,  being  more  regular  and  very  much  steeper.  If 
this  be  considered  in  conjunction  with  the  fact  that  in  Egypt  rain  is 
very  rare,  while  in  Palestine  it  is  heavy,  it  will,  I  think,  sufficiently 
prove  that  they  are  artificial  constructions  for  a  definite  purpose.  In 
the  hill  country  such  fortifications  would  be  impossible  and  unnecessarj', 
but  the  villages  and  ruins  are  very  frequently — especially  in  the  district 
south  of  Jerusalem — built  on  isolated  knolls,  entirely  occupying  the 
summits  of  them. 

A  line  of  crusading  fortresses  seems  to  have  run  along  each  side  of  f"'saiiing 
western  Palestine.  Between  Jerusalem  and  Jericho  is  the  castle  of  Tel'at 
el  Damm.  On  the  summit  of  Jebel  Kuruntil  is  another;  the  ruins  at 
Kurn  Sartabeh  lie  in  such  confusion  that  it  is  impossible  to  assign  any 
date  to  them.  The  large  bossed  stones,  however,  may  possibly  have  been 
crusading  work.  The  next  point  northwards  is  Burj  el  Maleh,  from  which 
both  Kawkab  el  Hawa,  north  of  Baysan,  and  Zal'at  el  Eabad,  east  of 
the  Jordan,  are  visible. 

Kawkab  el  Hawa  seems  to  have  been  a  crusading  castle  captured  by 
Saladin,  in  a.d.  1188,  and  built  by  King  Fulke,  about  a.d.  1140  (cf. 
Eobinson,  "  Bib.  His."  iii.  227).  The  masonry  of  the  outer  walls  is 
very  fine,  and  cut  out  of  compact  basalt.     It  is  superior  to  the  work  at 


30 


MR.    TYRWHITT   DRAKES    REPORTS. 


Baysan : 
Bethsheaii, 
or'^f^ytho- 
poli8. 


Athlit,  wliicli  is,  however,  only  limestone.  The  position  is  a  very  fine 
one,  commanding  as  it  does  the  whole  of  Wady  Jalud,  from  Zera'in 
eastwards,  and  the  Jordan  valley  from  the  Lake  of  Tiberias  to  some  dis- 
tance south  of  Baysan.  Two  springs  run  under  the  cliffs  to  the  south, 
about  500  yards  from  the  fort.  The  most  northern  has  a  temperature  of 
71  degrees,  and  is  slightly  brackish  ;  it  is  preferred  to  the  other,  which 
is  cool  and  sweet,  but  which  has  the  reputation  of  producing  fever. 
Over  this  second  spring  is  a  rude  Arabic  inscription  on  a  basaltic 
boulder.  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  decipher  it,  but  it  seems  merely  to 
relate  the  finding  or  digging  of  the  spring  by  a  certain  Emir. 

The  ruins  of  Baysan  have  been  so  frequently  described  that  I  shall 
only  mention  one  or  two  points  which  may  be  new.  Near  Tell  el  Husn, 
the  mound  of  the  fortress,  I  discovered  a  fine  H  shaped  vault  of  Eomau 
masonry,  and  the  fa9ade  of  a  temple  built  of  great  blocks  of  nummulitic 
limestone,  which  must  have  been  brought  from  a  great  distance,  con- 
taining one  large  central  niche,  and  a  smaller  one  on  each  side,  as  though 
for  statues.  This  portion  of  the  ruins  is  almost  concealed  by  rubbish, 
and  would  in  all  probability  repay  excavation.  On  the  north  side  of 
the  river  Corporal  Armstrong  discovered  two  subterranean  tombs  of 
masonry,  with  domed  roofs,  now,  however,  fallen  in.  They  are  inte- 
resting, and  similar  to  that  tomb  (El  Kasr)  near  Tiyasir  described  by 
Lieutenant  Conder,  though  much  coarser  and  ruder  in  execution  and 

finish. 

Jami'a  el  Arb'ain  is  a  ruined  mosque  with  a  broken  tower  near  the 
modern  village.  Over  the  mihrab  is  a  large  block  of  stone,  with  a  very 
rudely-cut  inscription,  which  I  thus  translate,  two  or  three  words 
being  quite  unintelligible,  "  In  the  name  of  God  ....  through 
God,  when  the  end  of  the  building  was  accomplished  by  the  ransom  (P) 
of  'Akka :  the  blessing  of  God  be  perfected,  and  prayers  in  it  upon 
.  Mohammed :  and  the  completion  was  in  the  year  .  .  . 
and  ninety  and  a  hundred."  (a.d.  806). 

The  following  inscription  I  copied  in  July,  1872,  and  mentioned  it  in 
a  report  of  that  date.  As  it  was  not  then  printed,  and  the  stone  has 
since  been  done  away  with,  I  send  another  copy  of  it : 

*IAinnOC  OMEFAA 
THN  KPH  lAAEnOIHC 
EPrON  TOTEMBOA 
ETAE  A  NE. 
I  have  made  several  sections  of  the  mouldings  to  the  bases  of  the  prin- 
cipal columns  near  the  theatre,  where  most  of  the  finest  buildings  seem 
to  have  stood,  and  these  will  probably  be  sufficient  to  determine  their 

date. 

The  position  of  Baysan  is  very  fine.  Situated  on  the  edge  of  the 
clifi's  which  descend  from  "Wady  Jalud  to  the  Ghor,  it  catches  the  sea 
breeze,  and  even  in  the  middle  of  summer  is  cooler  than  many  other 
places  that  are  situated  at  a  greater  elevation.  Water  is  everywhere 
abundant,  and  with  such  a  climate,  indigo,  cotton,  sugar,  cereals,  and 


MR.    TYRWHITT   DRAKE's    REPORTS.  31 

all  kinds  of  vegetables,  miglit  be  easily  grown.  Under  a  fostering 
government,  tbis  miserable  village  of  squalid  balf-bred  Egyptians  would 
soon  become  a  thriving  city.  It  lies,  too,  on  one  of  the  main  routes  to 
the  extreme  east,  and  should  a  railroad  ever  be  made  to  Persia,  the 
line  from  Akka  or  Haifa  through  Baysan  will  commend  itself,  perhaps, 
even  before  that  from  Tyre  through  the  Buka'a,  and  certainly  to  unpre- 
judiced persons  before  that  of  Alexandretta  and  Aleppo. 

Abel  Mehola  is  mentioned  in  Judges  vii.  22,  as  a  place  to  which  the  ^^^^^^^ 
Midianites  fled  in  their  panic  from  Gideon :  the  term  here  used  is 
literally  "  to  the  lip  of  Abel  Mehola,"  and  to  this  I  shall  presently  ad- 
vert. In  1  Kings  iv.  12,  the  place  is  mentioned  in  conjunction  with 
Bethshean.  There  is  a  ford  over  Jordan,  some  five  miles  north-east 
of  Jericho,  called  Makhadhet  Umm  Enkhola,  but  this  seems  much  too 
far  south.  However,  there  is  a  Mazar,  or  Moslem  chapel,  on  the  east  of 
Jordan,  about  eight  and  a  half  miles  south-east  of  Baysan,  called 
Sherhabil— or,  as  one  man  named  it  to  me,  Shefa  Habil,  which  would 
mean  the  lip  of  Habil.  I  asked  many  of  the  Arabs  what  the  place  was, 
but  the  only  answer  I  could  get  was,  that  it  was  a  Mazar,  and  called 
Sherhabil,  but  why  they  did  not  know.  One  of  the  Ghazawiyeh  Arabs 
told  me  that  it  was  the  tomb  of  a  certain  Shaykh  Mohammed  Sherhabil, 
but  this  seemed  a  palpable  invention  for  my  special  delectation,  as  none 
of  his  companions  had  ever  heard  of  such  a  person.  Eusebius  places 
Abel  Mehola  at  a  place  called  Abelmea,  eight  miles  from  Baysan,  which 
agrees  well  enough  with  this  site. 

Zarthan  (1  Kings  iv.  12;  vii.  46)  is  mentioned  as  being  below  Jezreel, 
and  near  Baysan.  Between  it  and  Succoth  were  the  clay  grounds  in 
which  Solomon  cast  the  brass  utensils  for  the  temple  services.  Hitherto 
no  trace  of  the  name  has  been  found.  The  reading  of  the  Alexandrine 
Codex  seems,  however,  to  throw  a  light  on  the  subject.  Here  we  have 
2tapa^,  and  there  is  a  very  conspicuous  and  unusually  large  mound 
three  miles  south  of  Baysan,  called  Tell  Sarem,  a  name  identical  with 
that  in  the  Greek  text.  There  is  a  good  deal  of  clay  to  be  found  also 
between  this  place  and  Dabbet  Sakfit,  which  may,  I  think,  be  accepted 
as  Succoth.  Zarthan  is  also  mentioned  (Josh.  iii.  16)  as  near  the  city 
Adam;  the  proper  rendering  here  is,  "  and  the  waters  which  came  down 
from  above  rose  up  upon  a  heap  very  far  oif  by  Adam,  the  city  which  is  Adaic. 
beside  Zarthan"  (see  Bib.  Diet.  sec.  v.  Adam).  The  meaning  of  Adam 
is  red  earth.  Near  Tell  Sarem,  one  mile  to  the  south,  is  Khirbet  el 
Hamrath,  the  Red  River,  which  may  not  impossibly  be  a  translation  of 
the  old  name.  The  colour  of  the  soil  in  this  district  is  also  pointed 
out  by  the  name  of  a  ford  near  Dabbet  Sakut — this  is  Makhadhet  el 
Imghar  (red  earth).  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  waters  of  the 
Jordan  were  suddenly  dammed  up  by  a  landslip  or  similar  convulsion ; 
the  adherents  of  this  theory  might  perhaps  point  to  the  present  appear- 
ance of  the  banks  and  the  curious  bends  of  the  river  near  this  place  in 
support  of  their  idea. 

A  few  other  ancient  sites  and  their  supposed  identifications  may 


32  Mil.    TYRWHITT   DRAKe's    IJEPOHT.S. 

well  be  mentioned  here.  A  monntl,  marked  Umm  el  Ashera,  is  found 
on  Van  de  Yelde's  map  and  quoted  by  Dr.  Tristram  (Topography 
H.  Land,  p.  219),  but  all  inquiries  among  the  Arabs  failed  to  show  it 
me.  None  of  them  had  ever  heard  of  such  a  place.  In  Robinson, 
however,  I  found  it  Um-el-'Ajra,  and  this  gave  me  the  clue,  and  I 
then  saw  how  Tell  el  Ma'ajerah  had  been  corrupted  into  Umm  el 
Ashera. 

^non  and  Salim  (John  iii.  23)  have  been  identified  by  Yan  de  Yelde 
as  Bi'r  Salim  and  Shaykh  Salim.  Inquiries  of  the  Arabs  and  fellahin 
of  the  district  resulted  in  not  a  man  of  them  having  ever  heard  of 
either  of  these  places.  Salim  is  mentioned  by  Eusebius  as  being  8  e.m. 
from  Baysan  to  the  south.  I  can  only  imagine  that  there  is  a  mistake 
in  the  distance,  and  that  Tell  Sarem,  which  I  have  proposed  above 
for  Zarthan,  must  be  the  place  intended. 

There  are  a  very  large  number  of  springs  about  here,  and  it  is 
emphatically  a  place  "  where  there  is  much  water." 

Meroz  and  Beth  Shittah  are,  I  think,  without  doubt,  IMarassas  and 
Shatta,  two  villages  occupying  important  positions  on  the  summits  of 
knolls,  to  the  north  of  Wady  Jalud.  Dr.  Tristram  speaks  of  "a 
large  inhabited  village,  Kefrah,  with  many  Jewish  ruins,  and  apparently 
the  remains  of  a  large  synagogue."  At  present  it  is  uninhabited,  the 
small  ruins  are  quite  modern,  consisting  of  rough  stones  and  mud, 
while  hardly  a  dressed  stone  is  to  be  found  in  the  place,  and  there  is  no 
trace  of  a  large  building  of  any  kind. 

A  considerable  extent  of  Wady  Jalud  and  the  Ghor  is  under  cultiva- 
vation,  but  the  chief  wealth  of  the  district  consists  in  flocks  and  herds. 
Of  these  the  greater  part  belongs  to  the  Sagr  Arabs.  From  one  point 
may  often  be  seen  several  herds,  containing  from  one  to  three  hundred 
head  of  cattle,  besides  innumerable  sheep  and  goats  and  a  fair  sprink- 
ling of  camels  and  horses  ;  of  these  latter  the  tribe  formerly  possessed 
a  large  niimber,  and  freely  harried  their  neighbours  by  their  means 
till  their  power  was  broken  some  seven  or  eight  years  ago  by  Moham- 
med Said,  then  Pasha  of  Nablus.  Since  then  they  have  remained 
quiet,  but  are  gradually  recommencing  their  marauding  habits  under 
the  present  impotent  government  of  Nablus. 

The  satisfactory  identification  of  Antipatris  in  face  of  the  various  con- 
flicting accounts  seems  now  impossible.  The  usual  site  assigned  to  it 
is  Kefr  Saba.  Kal'at  Ras  el  'Ain  was  first  proposed,  I  believe,  by  Major 
Wilson,  and  by  Herr  Shick,  of  Jerusalem.  The  evidence  in  Josephus 
seems  to  me  slightly  in  favour  of  the  latter  position,  as  do  the  dis- 
tances given  in  the  Itineraries,  but  the  ancient  name  of  Capharsabe 
points  to  the  modern  Kefr  Saba.  The  following  table  shows  the 
distances : — 

Antipatris.  Kefr  Salia.     Kas  el  'Ain. 

.Jerusalem       ....     38    (42  i:.M.)  40^  35 

Ccesarea 2m-Hi  n.yi.)  23  28i 

Lvdda 9^(10u.M.)  16  lOA 


MR.    TYRWHITT    DRAKE's    REPORTS.  33 

From  Kefr  Saba  a  ditch,  eighteen  miles  long  is  said  to  have  been  dug 
(Ant.  xiii.  15.  1)  to  the  sea,  or  shore  of  Joppa  (B.  J.  1.  iv.  7).  There  is  a 
manifest,  error  in  this  distance,  which  will  only  touch  the  sea  either 
south  of  Jatia  or  north  of  Nahr  el  Falik.  This  ditch  did  not  serve  its 
purpose,  and  is  said  to  have  been  filled  up ;  so  that  we  can  hardly 
imagine  it  to  have  been  a  work  of  any  magnitude.  No  trace  whatever 
of  any  ditch  is  to  be  seen  west  of  Kefr  Saba,  where  the  ground  consists 
of  rolling  hills  of  sandy  loam.  At  the  commencement  of  the  Survey,  in 
1872,  I  noticed  a  ditch  falling  into  the  'Awjeh,  near  the  village  of 
Jerisheh,  and  running  in  the  direction  of  Ras  el  'Ain,  at  the  foot  of  the 
low  hills  south  of  the  'Awjeh  bridge.  It  does  not,  however  extend  for  much 
more  than  a  mile.  Antipatris  is  said  to  have  been  near  the  mountains, 
a  description  which  applies  equally  well  to  the  rival  sites.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  well  watered,  and  to  have  had  a  river  flowing  round  the  city 
(J.  Ant.  xvi.  6.  2).  This  cannot  apply  to  Kefr  Saba,  but  does  to  Eas  el 
'Ain.  The  goodness  of  soil  applies  equally  well  to  both,  but  the 
presence  of  a  grove  of  large  trees  round  it  seems  to  point  to  Kefr  Saba, 
to  the  east  of  which  still  exist  the  remains  of  the  forest  which  formerly 
covered  all  the  low  hills  on  the  Maritime  Plain  between  Carmel  and 
Jaffa. 

An  old  man  of  the  neighbouring  village  of  Jeljulyeh  told  me  that  he 
had  heard  that  the  ancient  name  of  Kefr  Saba  Avas  Antifatrus,  but  of 
course  a  statement  of  this  kind  is  not  of  much  value. 

It  is  pei'haps  not  impossible  that  formerly  Capharsabe  stood  at  the 
fountains  of  the  'Awjeh ;  for  it  is  remarkable  that  such  an  important 
position  should  only  be  called  the  "  Fountain-head,"  and  that  subse- 
quently it  was  transferred,  name  and  all,  to  the  position  it  now 
occupies.  Such  a  solution  may  appear  forced,  but  in  face  of  the  con- 
flicting evidence  above  quoted  seems  to  me  the  only  solution  of  the 
difficulty. 

In  1  Chron.  vii.  it  is  curious  to  compare  the  proper  names  with  those 
of  villages  existing  at  the  present  day ;  for  instance,  in  Benjamin, 
Anathoth  and  Alameth  with  the  modern  Anata  and  'AJmit ;  in 
Manasseh,  Ulam  with  the  village  of  'Awlam  (in  this  case,  however,  the 
initial  Hebrew  Aleph  is  changed  into  the  Arabic  'Ain).  In  Ephraim, 
'Zabad  and  Uzzensherah  with  Kefr  Zibad  and  Bayt  Sira. 

Ea  route  from  Kefr  Saba  to  Jerusalem,  I  visited  the  village  of  Mejdel 
Yaba,  or  Mejdel  et  Sadik  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  in  order  to  copy  the 
Greek  inscription  said  to  exist  there.  It  is  in  a  winged  tablet  on 
the  lintel  of  a  door  on  the  right-hand  side  as  you  enter  the  Shaykh's 
palace — for  the  building  he  occupies  is  nothing  less — and  is  founded  on 
an  older  fort,  having  three  bastions  to  the  west.  The  arch  over  the  in- 
scription, which  faces  eastwards,  is  semicircular,  with  a  keystone  ;  the 
masonry  is  good.  Inside  the  doorway  the  arch  is  very  slightly  pointed, 
and  the  barrel  vault  of  the  chamber,  which  seems  to  have  been  the 
ground  floor  of  a  corner  tower,  is  seemingly  of  later  date.  The  in- 
scription is  in  bold  letters,  some  four  inches  long,  and  runs  thus  : 

D 


34  ON    THE    SITE    OF   NOB    AND    THE    HIGH    PLACES, 

MAPTTPIONTOT 
AnOTKHPTKOT 

A  few  yards  N.W.  of  the  Shaykli's  dwelling  is  a  fragment  of  riiin, 
to  all  appearance  of  Crusading  date. 

An  English  gentleman,  a  civil  engineer,  is  now  engaged,  at  his  own 
expense,  in  making  many  alterations  and  improvements  in  the  Bishop's 
School  on  Zion.  The  run  of  tkis  scarpe^l  rock,  which  he  has  laid  bare 
in  many  places,  is  curious,  but  one  point  in  his  work  is  especially 
worth  noticing.  In  the  scai*p  he  has  found  several  water  channels, 
some  small  excavated  caves  with  steps  across  them,  and  some  cisterns 
constructed  against  the  face  of  the  rock,  which  undoubtedly  formed  part 
of  a  system  of  baths.  In  confirmation  of  this  idea  it  is  curious  to  find 
that  this  point  is  called  by  the  natives  Hammam  Tabariyeh  (or  Ham- 
mam  Daoud) — the  Baths  of  Tiberius  (or  David),  the  latter  name  is 
probably  due  to  the  neighbotirhood  of  the  so-called  Tomb  of  David. 
The  former  name  is  given  by  Dr.  Schultz  in  his  map,  cd.  1845. 


ON  THE  SITE   OF  NOB  AND  THE  HIGH  PLACES. 

By  Lietttenant  Conder,  R.E. 

The  wanderings  of  the  ark,  and  the  positions  of  the  great  religious 
centres  in  Palestine  previous  to  the  final  settlement  at  Jerusalem,  are 
questions  not  so  easily  understood  from  the  Bible  accounts  as  might  at 
first  be  supposed,  and  the  identification  of  one  principal  site  connected 
with  this  question,  namely,  the  city  of  the  priests,  to  which  David  fled 
from  Saul,  has  remained  hitherto  a  moot  point. 

After  the  conquest  of  the  hill  country  by  Joshua,  the  ark  and  the 
tabernacle  "were  removed  to  Shiloh,  where  they  remained  until  the  dis- 
astrous days  of  the  high-priesthood  of  Eli.  It  w^as  thence  that  the  de- 
feated Israelites  brought  the  great  palladium  of  their  nation  to  the  camp 
at  Eben  Ezcr.  It  is  not  stated  whether  or  not  the  ark  was  unprotected 
by  any  proper  covering  or  tent,  but  the  general  impression  produced  by 
the  description  is,  that  the  tabernacle  remained  stationary,  and  the  ark 
only  was  moved.  On  the  defeat  of  Israel  it  was  carried  to  Ashdod 
(Esdud),  whore  it  was  lodged  in  the  house  of  Dagon,  another  indication 
that  the  ark  alone  was  taken.  On  the  destruction  of  Dagon's  statue,  it 
was  senttoGath  (a  site  yet  to  be  identified),  and  thence  to  Eki-on  (Akir), 
in  the  valley  of  Soreg  (Wady  Serar).  From  Ekron  the  kine  brought  it  in 
the  cart  to  Beth  Shemesh  ('Ain  Shemis),  and  hence  the  men  of  Kirjath 
Jearim  (Kariet  el  'Anab)  fetched  it  tip  to  their  own  village,  w^here  it 
rested  until  the  time  of  David.  When  finally  it  was  decided  to  bring 
the  ark  to  Jerusalem,  we  find  that  David  went  down  (2  Sam.  vi.)  to 
Baalath  of  Judah  and  fetched  it  from  Gibeah.  It  was  then  left  after  the 
death  of  the  unhappy  Uzzah  in  the  house  of  Obed  Edom  the  Gittite, 
and  from  thence  finally  taken  to  Jerusalem,  where  it  dwelt  "  within 


ON    THE    SITE    OF   NOB   AND    THE    HIGH    PLACES.  35- 

cm-tains  "  xmtil  the  consecration  of  Solomon's  temple.  Baalath.  was,  as. 
■we  learn  from  another  passage  (Joshua  xv.),  the  same  jjlace  as  Ku'juili. 
Jearim,  bvitof  the  site  of  the  house  of  Obed  Etlomwehave  no  indication. 
The  word  Gibeah  is  the  "  hill  "  of  1  Sam.  vii.  1,  the  higher  part  of  the 
village  of  Kirjath  Jearim. 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  from  the  time  of  Eli  to  that  of  David 
the  ark  was  wandering,  and  separated  from  the  great  religious 
centre  of  the  country.  It  seems  also,  from  the  .various  accounts  of  its 
transport  on  carts  from  place  to  place — no  mention  being  made  of  the 
transfer  of  the  sanctuary  with  it,  whilst  its  temporary  lodging  was  a 
house  or  a  heathen  temple— that  the  ark  was,  during  that  period,  sepa- 
rated from  the  tabernacle,  for  the  history  of  which  we  are  obliged  to 
seek  other  indications  in  the  books  of  Samuel.  A  passage  in  the  second 
book  of  Chronicles  is  conclusive  on  this  point.  Solomon,  we  learn,  went 
to  the  "  great  high  place  of  Gibeon  "  (1  Kings  iii.  4),  "  for  there  wa.s 
the  tabernacle  of  the  congregation  of  God,  which  Moses  the  servant  of 
the  Lord  made  in  the  wilderness."  "  But  the  ark  of  God  had  David 
brought  up  from  Kirjath  Jearim  to  the  place  which  David  had  prepared 
for  it :  for  he  had  j)itched  a  tent  for  it  at  Jerusalem  "  (2  Chron.  i.  4). 

The  indications  of  places  in  which  the  tabernacle  Avas  pitched  are  not 
numerous.  We  find  Israel  gathering  to  Samuel  in  Mizpeh,  where  he 
sacrificed  to  God  (1  Sam.  vii.  9).  A  high  place  near  the  boundary  of 
Benjamin  is  mentioned  soon  after  as  one  where  Samuel  was  accustomed 
to  sacrifice,  and  which  seems  probably  to  be  the  same  Mizpeh  again 
mentioned  as  the  rendezvous  of  the  nation  demanding  a  king  (1  Sam.  x. 
17).  Mizpeh  and  Bethel  were  sacred  places  before  Eli's  time,  but  the 
pouring  out  of  water  "before  the  Lord,"  together  with  its  being- 
a  place  of  general  assembly  for  all  Israel,  seems  to  place  it  above 
the  rank  of  the  secondary  places  of  worship  at  one  time  considered 
lawful. 

The  places  chosen  as  sacred,  and  for  judgment  of  the  people  by 
Samuel,  were  Gilgal  (near  Jericho),  Bethel  (Beitin),  and  Mizpeh,  his. 
home  being  at  Eamah  (Er  Earn).  Mizpeh  is  mentioned  in  Joshua 
(xviii.  2(3),  in  connection  with  Gibeon  (El  Jib),  Eamah  (Er  Eam), 
Beeroth  (Bireh),  Chephivah  (Kefireh),  all  in  the  hiU  country  of  Ben- 
jamin). In  Nehemiah  (iii.  7)  it  appears  with  Gibeon,  and  in  Jeremiah 
it  is  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  same  toAvn  as  the  stronghold  of 
the  Jews. 

Vague  as  these  intimations  are,  it  seems  more  than  probable  that 
Mizpeh  was  at  one  time  the  religious  capital,  that  it  was  near  Gibeon, 
and  that  probably  the  tabernacle  was  there  erected  on  its  removal  from 
Shiloh.  When,  however,  we  advance  to  rather  a  late  period,  we  find 
that  the  site  of  the  tabernacle  is  at  Nob.  Thus,  David  fleeing  from 
Saul  at  Eamah  (Er  Eam),  after  his  interview  with  Jonathan  and  on  his- 
way  to  Gath,  comes  to  Nob,  where  Ahimelech  the  priest  gives  him  the- 
shewbread,  and  inquires  for  him  of  God  ;  the  ephod  also  is  mentioned, 
and  it  seems  from  the  passage  clear  that  the  tabernacle  was  at  that  tima 


36  ON    THE    SITE    OF    NOB   AND  THE    HIGH    PLACES. 

placed  at  Nob  ( 1  Sam.  xxii. )  Of  the  position  of  this  important  place  we 
have  but  little  indication,  and  it  has  consequently  been  placed  in  a 
variety  of  sites.  In  the  book  of  Joshua  it  does  not  appear  at  all,  or  at 
all  events  not  under  that  name.  We  find  it,  however,  once  more  in 
the  great  descriptive  chapter  in  Isaiah,  where  its  position  is  indicated 
with  some  exactitude.  The  host  has  come  to  Aiath  (El  Tell),  passed 
to  Migron,  laid  up  its  carriages  at  Michinash  (Mukhmas),  gone  over  the 
passage  (Wady  Suweinit),  and  lodged  at  Gcba  (Jeba).  "As  yet," 
says  the  prophet,  ' '  shall  he  remain  at  Nob  that  day :  he  shall  shake 
liis  hand  against  ....  the  hill  of  Jerusalem  "  (Isaiah  x.  32). 
It  seems,  therefore,  that  Nob  Avas  a  place  of  some  military  im- 
portance, as  are  the  others  previously  mentioned — -that  it  was  within 
sight  of  Jerusalem,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Benjamite 
cities. 

It  is  at  once  evident  that  there  is  a  strong  parallelism  between  the  two 
sites  of  Nob  and  Mizpeh,  and  it  is  remarkably  suggestive  that,  as  shown, 
the  two  names  never  occur  in  one  passage.  Mizpeh  was  a  high  place, 
at  which  apparently  the  tabernacle  was  for  some  time  erected,  a  place 
of  military  strength  and  importance,  and  situate  in  the  hill  country  of 
Benjamin,  near  Gibeon  and  Eameh.  Nob  in  like  manner  was  the  site 
of  the  erection  of  the  tabernacle,  a  place  of  military  importance,  and 
situate  in  the  hill  country  of  Benjamin,  near  Eameh  and  Gebim,  which 
is  in  all  probability  Gibeon.  When,  in  addition  to  this  parallelism 
between  the  Mizpeh  of  Samuel  and  the  Nob  of  David,  we  find  the 
meaning  of  the  name  to  be  nearly  the  same — Mizpeh  being  a  watch- 
tower,  and  Nob  a  high  place — the  conclusion  seems  almost  irresistible 
that  the  two  are  but  varieties  of  one  name,  that  of  the  "  great  high 
place." 

Bold  as  it  may  appear,  there  is  yet  room  for  still  further  identif jang 
these  two  sites  with  the  high  place  of  Gibeon  mentioned  in  the  time  of 
Solomon.  It  has  been  ali-eady  seen  that  the  tabernacle  was  for  some 
time  at  least  placed  at  Gibeon,  whilst  the  ark  was  in  Jerusalem,  and 
nnless  there  be  good  evidence  in  favour,  it  should  hardly  be  assumed 
that  the  centre  of  worship  underwent  continual  and  unnecessary  change  ; 
nor  is  there  anything  strained  or  unnatural  in  the  supposition  of  their 
identity,  since,  as  already  noted,  both  Nob  and  Mizpeh  are  mentioned 
in  various  passages  in  connection  with  this  important  royal  to\vn. 

The  full  confirmation  of  the  theory  depends,  however — (1st)  on  the 
further  information  contained  in  the  Talmud  ;  and  (2nd)  on  certain 
topographical  and  philological  indications  existing  at  the  present  time. 

The  account  given  in  the  Mishna  with  reference  to  the  tabernacle  is 
so  interesting  that  it  may  well  be  given  here  in  full.  It  is  to  be  found 
in  the  14th  of  Zebahim,  and  may  be  translated  as  follows : — ■ 

§4.  "Before  the  tabernacle    was    erected  high   places  were   lawful 

after  the  tabernacle  was  erected  high    places  were  not 

lawful." 

§  0.  "  When  they  came  to  Gilgal,  and  the  high  places  were  lawful, 


ox    THE    SITE    OF    NOB    AND    THE    HIGH    PLACES.  37 

tlic  most  holy  tilings  were  eaten  within  the  enclosure,  the  less  holy 
anywhere." 

Maimonides  comments  on  this,  quoting  Levit.  xvii.  3,  and  explains 
that  there  was  no  permanent  structure  at  GUgal,  but  merely  th.e  original 
tabernacle. 

§  6.  "  ^Vhen  they  came  to  Shiloh,  the  high  places  began  to  be  un- 
lawful ;  but  there  was  no  roof  there,  but  a  lower  structure  of  stone  and 
an  upper  tent.  And  it  was  a  place  of  rest.  Then  the  most  holy  things 
were  eaten  only  within  the  enclosure,  but  the  less  holy  and  the  second 
tithes  wherever  the  house  was  visible." 

Maimoilides  says  this  building  was  called  either  "the  house"  or 
"the  tabernacle;  "  quoting  1  Sam.  i.  24,  "the  house  of  the  Lord  in 
Shiloh,"  and  Psalm  Ixxviii.  60,  "the  tabernacle  of  Shiloh."  As  tbe 
structure  Avas  semi-permanent,  he  explains,  high  places  were  unlawful. 

§  7.  "When  they  came  to  Nob  and  Gibeon,  the  high  places  were 
allowed,  but  they  used  to  eat  the  most  holy  things  within  the  enclosure, 
and  the  less  holy  in  all  the  cities  of  Israel."" 

Maimonides  explains  as  follows  : — 

"  After  the  sanctuary  erected  in  Shiloh  was  destroyed  for  our  sins, 
they  erected  the  tabernacle  whicli  used  to  be  in  the  desert  in  Nob,  and 
transferred  it  to  Gibeon,  and  it  was  in  Nob  and  Gibeon  fifty-seven 
years.  Meantime  it  was  lawful  to  sacrifice  in  the  high  places,  for  Shiloli- 
was  the  place  of  rest  and  Jerusalem  the  heritage  (as  mentioned  Deut.. 
xii.  9,  "the  rest  and  the  inheritance").  He  then  explains  that  dui-ing 
the  time  of  rest  the  high  places  were  temporarily  disallowed,  but  on  the 
establishment  of  the  inheritance  they  became  unlawful  for  ever,  as  is 
also  stated  in  the  next  verse  of  the  Mishna. 

§  8.  "  "WTien  they  came  to  Jerusalem  the  high  places  were  prohibited.,, 
nor  were  they  ever  again  lawful.     For  this  was  the  heritage     .     .     .     " 

Maimonides  and  Bartenora  both  explain  precisely  that  the  Divine 
Majesty  abode  in  Shilob  369  years ;  that  in  Saul's  time  the  site  Avas 
changed  to  Nob,  and  talcing  Nob  and  Gibeon  together,  it  remained  there 
fifty-seven  years,  or  until  the  time  of  the  building  of  Solomon's 
temple. 

This  interesting  and  exact  account  fully  bears  out,  as  wUl  be  seen, 
the  conclusions  already  deduced  from  the  Bible  records.  The  first  period 
at  Gilgal  Avas  but  a  temporary  pitching  of  the  tabernacle  of  the  AvUder- 
ness.  The  establishment  at  Shiloh  for  more  than  three  and  a  half 
centuries  Avas  a  structure  of  a  more  permanent  character,  intended  to 
last  only  until  Jerusalem  came  into  the  hands  of  the  Jcavs  by  the  defeat 
of  the  Jebusites,  after  Avhich  the  first  natm-al  thought  of  DaAdd  Avas  to- 
estabhsh  permanently  the  sacred  service  in  the  holy  city  of  inheritance. 
But  Avath  the  disastrous  times  of  Eli  came  the  great  shock  of  separation 
betAveen  the  ark  and  the  tabernacle.  The  established  place  of  sacrifice 
at  Nob,  where  the  mercy-seat  Avas  never  present,  and  Avhere  only  the 
desert  tabernacle  Avas  erected,  was  felt  to  be  but  a  temporary  arrange- 
ment, and  the  same  laAvs  which  held  good  for  the  Avanderers  of  the 


•38  ON    THE    SITE    OF    NOB    AND    THE    HIGH    PLACES. 

v-vvilderness  were  resumed.  Finally,  it  must  be  remarked  tliat  the  natural 
interpretation  of  the  account  is  that  Nob  and  Gibeon  were  close  together, 
or  the  removal  from  one  place  to  another  would  have  constituted  a 
period  as  distinct  as  the  others  mentioned  by  the  Mishna.  The  word 
Mizpeh  is  not  used  in  this  passage  of  the  Talmud,  and  we  are  therefore 
led  to  the  conclusion  that  if  Mizpeh  were  the  site  of  the  erection  of  the 
tabernacle  it  must  be  identical  with  Nob  or  Gibeon. 

Enough,  then,  is  found  to  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  only  four  sites 
have  to  be  considered  as  being  at  various  times  the  religious  centres — 
■Gilgal,  Shiloh,  the  high  place  (or  Nob)  of  Gibeon,  and  Jerusalem  itself. 
At  the  first  we  should  not  now  expect  to  find  any  traces  of  the  site  of 
the  tabernacle,  though  the  sand  mounds  at  Birket  Jiljulieh,  which  I  men- 
tioned in  the  report  on  the  establishment  of  the  probable  site  of  Gilgal, 
may  by  some  be  supposed  to  have  some  connection  with  this  account. 
At  Shiloh,  however,  we  naturally  expect  to  see  traces  of  the  more  per- 
manent structure  erected,  and  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  they  exist, 
as  already  pointed  out  by  Major  Wilson,  who  says, — 

"  Northward  the  Tell  (at  Seilun  or  Shiloh)  slopes  down  to  a  broad 
shoTilder,  across  which  a  sort  of  level  court,  77  feet  wide  and  412  long, 
has  been  ciit.  The  rock  is  in  places  scarped  to  a  height  of  o  feet  .  .  . 
there  is  no  other  level  space  on  the  Tell  sufficiently  large  to  receive  a 
■tent  of  the  dimensions  of  the  tabernacle." — Quarterly  Statement,  Jan., 
1873,  p.  38. 

The  tradition  of  the  tabernacle  is  no  doubt  recognisable  in  the  unusual 
.title  of  the  principal  mosque  at  Seilun,  Jami'a  ed  Daim  (mosque  of  the 
Eternal). 

The  interest  attaching  to  the  third  site  is  equal  to  either  of  the  former. 

Dean  Stanley  has  shown  that  the  site  of  the  high  place  of  Gibeon  is 
indisputable,  but  the  position  of  Nob  is  not  settled  in  the  same  satis- 
factory manner.  The  simple  examination  of  the  original  Hebrew  leads, 
however,  to  an  irresistible  conclusion,  and  allows  us  to  reconcile  his 
identification  Avith  that  commonly  given  for  Mizpeh,  and  also  to  fix  that 
■of  Nob.  The  Hebrew  word  Nob,  or  Neb,  contains  no  vowel,  and  there 
is  therefore  no  philological  difficulty  in  connecting  it  with  the  Arabic 
Nebi.  We  have  here  the  common  process  of  change  of  meaning  which 
has  preserved  so  many  Hebrew  names  with  scarce  an  alteration  beyond 
that  necessary  to  give  them  an  intelligible  meaning  in  Arabic.  As 
instances,  Timnath  converted  into  Tibneh,  "  strawy  ;"  Sycaminum  into 
Tell  el  Semak  (mound  of  the  fish) ;  and  a  host  of  similar  cases  may  be 
mentioned.  Neb  having  no  meaning  of  "  high  "  in  Arabic,  is  converted 
into  Neby,  "  a  prophet ;  "  and  as  tradition  naturally  grows  more  detailed, 
so  the  name  of  a  particular  prophet  of  one  who  was  most  intimately 
•connected  with  the  place  iii  question  is  added,  and  the  Hebrew  Nob 
reappears  in  the  modem  unusual  title  of  Nebi  Samwil. 

The  site  in  question  fulfils  in  a  remarkable  manner  the  requisites 
already  explained.  As  in  the  case  of  the  Altar  of  Ed,  we  here  again  deal 
svith  one  of  the  most  remarkable  sites  in  the  country.     Nebi  Samwil  is 


OS    THE    SITE    OP   NOB    AND    THE    HIGH    PLACES.  39 

SO  close  to  Gibcon  that  there  can  bo  no  doubt  as  to  its  being  the  high 
place  visited  by  Solomon.  It  is  within  sight  of  Jerusalem,  and  not  far 
from  Michmash  and  Geba,  whilst  as  a  military  point  it  is  of  the  greatest 
importance.  Thus  the  description  of  Isaiah  applies  exactly,  and  it  is, 
moreover,  directly  on  the  way  of  Da\4d's  journey  from  Eamah  to  Gath, 
Thus,  as  Dean  Stanley  remarks,  by  its  close  connection  with  the  most 
interesting  period  of  Jewish  history,  "a  significance  is  given  to  what 
would  other-svise  have  been  a  blank  and  nameless  feature  in  a  region 
where  all  the  less  conspicuous  hills  arc  distinguished  by  some  historical 
name." 

As  generally  happens  in  Palestine,  the  site  still  retains  its  original 
character.  A  great  high  place  in  JcAvish  time,  it  Avas  the  site  of  a 
beautiful  church  biult  by  the  Crusaders,  and  this  in  turn  has  become  a 
mosque  whose  minaret  is  visible  from  great  distances  in  every  direction. 
The  Aiew  from  Nebi  Samwil  is  splendid,  and  its  steep  sides  form  a 
picturesque  detail,  contrasting  with  the  rounder  outlines  of  the  Judsean 
and  Bonjamite  summits. 

In  a  report  Aviitten  during  last  Avinter  {Quarterhj  Statement,  April, 
1874),  I  noticed  the  curious  rock-cut  approach  to  the  gi'eat  church,  which 
we  were  at  the  time  inclined  to  attribute  to  Crusading  date  ;  it  does 
not,  however,  show  any  very  distinctive  marks  of  date,  and  may  very 
well  be  older.  It  is  true  that  no  permanent  structure  was  erected  at 
iSTob,  but  a  flat  court  of  some  kind  would  be  necessary  for  the  outer 
enclosure;  and  when  we  reflect  on  the  discovery  by  Major  Wilson  of  a 
similar  com-tyard  at  Shiloh,  it  seems  very  probable  that  this  cutting  was 
originally  intended  for  the  accommodation  of  the  tabernacle.  A  very 
curious  narrow  passage  conducts  to  it ;  outside  are  pools  carefully  hewn  ; 
and  a  great  birket,  with  an  aqueduct  channel  and  a  number  of  rock-cut 
chambers,  are  found  lower  doAvn  the  hill.  The  plan  of  the  top  of  the 
hill  we  have  taken  very  carefully,  though'not  at  the  time  aware  of  its 
probable  importance,  and  thus  all  the  traces  indicative  of  the  tabernacle 
have  been  properly  noted  and  preserved. 

The  outcome  of  the  preceding  pages  amounts,'therefore,  to  this — ^that 

.at  Nebi  Samwil  we  find  Nob  the  high  place  of  Gibeon,  and  probably, 

though  it  is  not  possible  to  assert  this  definitely,  the  Mizpeh  of  Samuel, 

and  that  traces  of  the  exterior  court  of  the  tabernacle  in  this  great  high 

place  are  yet  discoverable  on  the  summit  of  the  hill. 

Before  leaving  this  interesting  subject,  a  few  words  may  in  conclusion 
be  said  as  to  the  high  j)laces  mentioned  in  the  passage  quoted  from  the 
Talmud,  and  of  which  traces  are  yet  visible  in  Palestine. 

The  land,  on  the  invasion  by  the  children  of  Israel,  was  fuU  of  sites  of 
pagan  worsliip,  and  we  find  a  special  command  given  (Deut.  xii.  2)  to 
destroy  all  the  places  of  the  false  gods  "  upon  the  high  moimtains  and 
upon  the  hills  and  under  every  green  tree.''  This  tradition  of  worship 
was,  however,  never  completely  eradicated,  and  to  the  present  day  it  is 
a  remarkable  feature  in  Palestine  that  almost  every  important  hiU-top 
is  the  seat  of  a  white  mazar  or  tomb-house,  a  sacred  place  of  prayer, 


40  ON    THE   SITE    OF    NOB    AND   THE    HIGH    PLACES. 

generally  shaded  by  a  great  tree,  and  often  no  doubt  preserving  tbe  site 
of  a  pagan  altar.  Every  green  tree  in  similar  manner  is  in  the  more 
barren  part  of  the  hill  country  held  sacred  ;  rags  and  threads  hang  from 
its  branches  as  votive  offerings,  and  the  name  of  a  saint  or  prophet  is 
often  connected  with  the  spot. 

There  are,  however,  allusions  in  the  Bible  to  "high  places"  which  da 
not  seem  directly  connected  with  idolatrous  worship.  Thus,  in  the 
time  of  Solomon's  accession,  "the  people  sacrificed  in  high  places, 
because  there  was  no  house  built  unto  the  name  of  the  Lord  until  those 
days."  Asa,  again,  though  irreproachable  in  his  religious  conduct,  did 
not  remove  the  high  i^laccs,  and  in  the'time  of  Jehoshaphat  "  the  people 
offered  and  burnt  incense  in  the  high  place  "  (1  Kings  xv,  14,  and  xxii.. 
43).  Still  later  we  find  the  Cutheans  mentioned  as  fearing  the  Lord, 
and  making  priests  of  the  high  places. 

The  Talmudical  comments  explain  how  it  came  to  bo  merely  a  venial 
offence  that  these  high  places  were  not  removed.  Until  the  building  of 
the  temple  they  had  been  at  alternate  periods  lawful  places  of  worship- 
and  unlawful.  On  the  establishment  of  the  kingdom  at  Jerusalem  they 
became  forever  \mlawful,"and  the  danger  of  theii-  leading  to  a  local 
perversion  of  the  purity  of  the  religion  rendered  their  destruction  of  the 
greatest  importance.  Their  use  had,  however,  become  a  habit  of  the 
people,  and  was  not  so  easily  abolished  as  would  have  been  the  case  had 
Jerusalem  fallen  in  the  first  attack  on  the  country.  The  foreseen 
consequence  came  quickly,  and  the  worship  of  golden  calves  symbolical 
of  Jehovah  in  the  high  j)laces  made  by  Jeroboam  (1  Kings  xii.  32) 
led  soon  to  the  adoption  of  the  original  idolatry  of  the  indigenous, 
population  with  all  its  paraphernalia  of  groves,  teraphs,   images,  and 

pillars. 

The  site  chosen  by  Jeroboam  gives  a  most  remarkable  confirmation  of 
this  view,  for  one  of  the  calves  was  erected  in  Bethel,  a  place  specially 
sacred  to  the  true  God  since  the  time  of  Jacob,  and  one  of  the  three 
visited  yearly  by  Samuel  at  a  period  of  the  history  when,  as  shown  by 
the  Talmud,  high  places  were  still  lawful. 

Durino-  our  Survey  we  have  met  with  two  sites  which  seem  tmdoubtedly 
to  bear  traces  of  this  worship  in  high  places,  but  which  have  been  scarce 
mentioned  in  our  former  reports. 

The  first  is  situate  at  Jebel  Bir  Asur,  on  the  range  north  of  Samaria  ; 
here  on  the  highest  point  of  the  shed  is  a  great  square  structure,  some 
ten  feet  high,  of  roughly-he^^'n  blocks.  It  is  evidently  of  great  antiqmty, 
and  the  size  of  the  stones  precludes  the  possibility  of  its  being  erected, 
by  the  shepherds.  It  served  us  instead  of  a  rijm  for  a  trigonometrical 
point,  and  we  whitewashed  it  most  irreverently.  A  well  exists  near,, 
and  on  the  same  ridge  are  no  less  than  three  saint-houses  all  overshadowed 
with  large  trees. 

The  second  site  of  the  kind  is  mentioned  in  a  report  of  Mr.  Drake's. 
I  made  a  lAnn  of  it  and  carefvil  notes.  It  is  close  to  the  small  temple 
of  Abu  'Amr,  west  of  the  Plain  of  Esdraelon.     The  soil  is  soft  and 


SCENERY    OF    DAVId's    OUTLAW    LIFE.  41 

marly,  and  a  deep  pit  has  been  roughly  hewn  and  still  holds  water— a 
narrow  flight  of  steps  leads  down  to  it.  Immediately  above  is  a  solid 
mass  of  masonry,  the  stones  of  great  size  and  roughly  he^vn  ;  two  or 
three  fine  oaks  overshadow  it;  it  measures  35ft.  by  30ft.,  and  is  some 
Oft.  to  8ft.  high.  Close  by  is  the  tomb-house  of  Sheikh  Selameh,  and  a 
little  farther  on  the  same  hill  is  the  Roman  temple.  There  is  no  reason 
to  doubt  that  we  here  find  an  instance  of  the  altars  erected  "  under 
every  green  tree." 

In  concluding  this  paper  I  would  remark  that  there  arc  two  methods- 
of  studying  the  subject  of  identification.  The  one  natural  in  England 
is  the  literary  comparison  of  various  passages  leading  to  conclusions 
which  it  is  sought  to  verify  by  aid  of  the  map.  In  Palestine  the  process 
is  naturally  reversed.  The  prominent  points  in  the  landscape  arrest  the 
eye,  and  the  interest  of  connecting  them  with  Scripture  history  is  far 
greater  than  that  of  the  study  of  obscure  Hebrew  names.  The  prose- 
cution of  this  method  must  naturally  lead  to  discoveries  of  the  greatest 
interest,  and  among  these  may  be  mentioned  those  made  lately  durmg 
the  prosecution  of  the  Survey,  of  which  a  list  is  given  below. 

1.  Kh.  Semmakah  (Ecbatana,  a  Eoman  town  on  Carmel). 

2.  Kh.  Deir  Serur  (Sozuza,  an  early  Christian  episcopal  town). 

3.  Kerawa  (Archelais,  a  site  not  as  yet  described). 

4.  Tell  el  Semak  (Sycaminum — according  to  Mr.  Drake). 

5.  Eshu'a  (Eshtaol — with  the  probable  tomb  of  Samson). 

6.  Jiljulieh  (Gilgal — a  confirmation  of  former  discovery). 

7.  Wady  Suweinit  (the  Senneh  of  Jonathan,  with  the  site  of  Philistine 
camp). 

8.  'Ain  Zahrah  (Zererath  or  Zerthan,  mentioned  in  Gideon's  history). 

9.  Tubas  (probably  the  Tabbath  of  the  same  passage). 

10.  'Ash  el  Ghoriib  (Eock  Oreb  of  the  same  account). 

11.  Tuweil  el  Dhiab  (mnepress  of  Zeeb  in  the  same  connection). 

12.  Kum  Surtabeh  (the  altar  of  Ed,  Josh.  22). 

13.  Beit  'Atab  (Eock  Etam  of  Samson,  as  suggested  by  Sergeant 
Black). 

14.  Nebi  Samwil  (the  high  place  of  Gibeon  and  city  of  Nob). 

Claude  E.  Condee,  Lieutenant  E.E. 


THE  SCENEEY  OF  DAYID'S   OUTLAW  LIFE. 

By  Lieutexaxt  Conder,  E.E. 

The  extension  of  the  Survey  in  the  hill  country  of  Judah  has  now 
enabled  us  to  explain  the  wanderings  of  David  in  his  outlaw  life,  during 
the  latter  period  of  the  reign  of  Saul ;  a  story  which,  in  its  romantic 
incidents,  yields  in  interest  to  none  of  the  many  adventurous  histories  of 
the  Old  Testament.  Four  new  identifications  may  now  be  published 
■with  a  great  degree  of  confidence,  and  the  thorough   examination   of 


42  SCENERY    OF    DAVID's    OUTLAW    LIFE. 

the  country  forming  the  theatre  of  these  episodes  enables  us  to  give 
force,  by  the  comparison  of  its  existing  character  with  that  reqiiired  by 
the  narrative,  to  the  faithful  indications  of  the  ancient  accounts. 

David's  first  flight  was  from  the  royal  capital  of  Gibeah  of  Benjamin, 
probably  the  present  Jeb'a,  which  stands  on  a  plateau  on  the  south  brink 
of  the  great  Michmash  Valley,  in  the  centre  of  the  lot  of  Benjamin.  His 
first  resting-place  on  his  way  to  the  Philistine  plain  was  at  Nob,  then  the 
resting-place  of  the  Tabernacle  and  the  chief  religious  centre.  For  this 
site,  hitherto  unfixed,  I  have  already  proposed  the  modern  Nebi  Samwil, 
which  fits  well  with  the  requisites  of  the  present  narrative.  Leaving 
immediately  the  fated  spot,  soon  desecrated  by  the  daring  murder  of  the 
entire  priestly  family,  David  descended  into  the  borders  of  the  Shephalah, 
then  in  the  hands  of  the  Philistines,  and  took  refuge  with  Achish,  King 
of  Gath,  a  Philistine  capital  not  as  yet  fully  identified,  but  which  seems 
most  probably  identical  with  the  great  White  Mound  of  Tell  el  Safi,  on 
the  borders  of  the  Maritime  Plain,  commanding  one  of  the  main  adits 
to  the  hill  country,  the  Valley  of  Elah,  already  so  famous  in  David's 
history  as  the  scene  of  the  death  of  Goliath  of  Gath.  A  confirmation  of 
this  identification  (first  proposed,  I  believe,  by  Dr.  Porter),  from  a 
passage  in  Josephus,  where  Gath  appears  under  another  name,  I  pro- 
pose to  put  forward  later  on.  In  the  meantime  it  is  sufficient  to  say 
that  the  distance  at  w  hich  David  now  considered  himself  safe  from  the 
purstiit  of  Saul  was  less  than  thirty  English  miles. 

Indeed,  in  the  whole  account,  nothing  is  more  striking  than  the  small 
extent  of  the  country  traversed,  and  its  short  distance  from  the  royal 
capital.  David  appears  to  have  wandered  in  an  area  the  radius  of 
which  did  not  exceed  twenty  miles  from  his  native  town  of  Bethlehem. 
Generally  speaking,  he  inteiiDOsed  this  city  between  himself  and  Saul, 
and  as  we  know  that  he  was  able  to  communiaate  with  relations  there 
(1  Sam.  XX.  1),  it  seems  probable  that  he  thus  ensured  an  early  notice 
of  any  attempt  on  the  king's  part  to  surprise  him  when  betrayed  by  the 
men  of  the  various  localities  in  which  he  sought  refuge. 

Recognised  at  Gath,  David  again  fled  and  entered  the  possessions  of 
Judah,  hiding  in  the  far-famed  Cave  of  AduUam.  This  site  is  as  yet 
outside  the  bounds  of  the  Survey,  but  has  been  identified  by  M.  Ganneau 
with  a  great  degree  of  certainty.  There  was  a  city  of  the  name,  and  an 
important  place,  enumerated  among  the  royal  Canaanite  capitals.  The 
cities  which  occur  in  connection  with  it — Maresha  (El  Marasb),  Jarmuth 
{Yarmuk),  Socoh  (Shuweikeh) — all  lie  in  a  short  distance  of  one  another 
in  the  low  hills  south  of  the  Valley  of  Elah  (Wady  el  Sumt)  close  to 
the  scene  of  the  famous  duel.  It  is  here  that  M.  Ganneau  finds  the 
name  of  'Aid  el  Mia,  which  represents  very  well  the  Hebrew  'Adlem, 
an  identification  which  we  hope  aiterwards  to  confirm.  The  site  is  a 
hill-side  near  Socoh  (Shuweikeh),  which  is  burrowed  with  caves,  part 
natural,  partly  enlarged  by  human  agency. 

JIa7'eth. — From  Adullam,  David  next  went  over  to  Moab,  to  seek  an 
asylum  for  his  father  and  mother  in  the  country  of  his  ancestress  Euth. 


SCENERY    OF    DAVID  S    OUTLAW    LIFE.  43 

It  appears  that  he  then  lived  for  a  time  in  the  desert,  for  the  parallel 
passage  in  Josephus  represents  the  piophot  Gad  as  recommending  him 
to  leave  "  the  desert,"  and  go  into  "  the  portion  of  Judah  "  (Ant.  VI., 
xii.  4).  The  Authorised  Version  gives  "  the  hold,"  a  title  which  it 
applies  to  more  than  one  of  David's  places  of  refuge.  The  place  to 
•which  he  next  departed  is  called  in  the  English  the  "  Forest  of  Hareth," 
and  many  theories  on  the  ancient  fertility  of  Palestine  are  founded  on 
tlie  existence  of  this  forest,  and  of  the  "  Wood  of  Ziph."  It  may,  how- 
ever, appear  in  this  paper  that  both  these  readings  are  mistaken,  and  we 
may,  in  fact,  succeed  in  cutting  down  both  the  forests  at  a  single  blow. 

The  word  used  in  the  Hebrew  is  (°iy),  Y'ar,  which  means  properly 
a  grove ;  but  a  remarkable  difference  exists  in  the  Septuagint.  The 
Vatican  and  Alexandrine  manuscripts  both  read  ey  noXft,  in  the  city,  a 
difference  which  is  due  to  the  transposition  of  Yeh  and  'Ain,  reading 
'Ayr  for  Y'ar.  The  parallel  passage  of  Josephus  also  reads  the  "  city  " 
of  Hareth. 

The  improbability  of  any  forest  or  collection  of  timber  trees  having 
existed  in  this  part  of  Palestine  cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  on. 
That  extensive  woods  have  been  cut  down,  that  a  forest  once  covered 
half  the  Plain  of  Sharon,  that  wild  thickets  abounded  as  they  still  do 
on  the  slopes  of  Carmel,  is  certain ;  but  it  is  contrary  to  the  character 
of  Judaean  scenery  to  suppose  in  times  as  late  as  that  of  David,  when 
the  water  supply  and  seasons  were  almost  the  same  that  they  now  are, 
and  just  befora  the  time  when  Solomon  was  forced  to  bring  all  his 
building  timber  from  Lebanon,  that  any  forest  properly  so  called  should 
have  existed. 

We  are  bound,  it  seems  to  me,  to  take  the  concurrence  of  the  two 
ancient  manuscripts  with  the  authority  of  Josephus,  when  thus  taking 
the  side  of  probability,  rather  than  the  translation  of  the  Authorised 
Version,  depending  upon  a  transposition  of  the  letters,  which  might  so 
easily  have  occurred. 

The  second  part  of  the  question  is  to  discover  the  position  of  the  town 
of  Hareth,  thus  transformed  into  an  imaginary  forest.  It  is  not  men- 
tioned in  any  other  passage,  and  we  have  only  two  indications  of  its 
position,  and  these  but  slight.  In  the  first  place,  it  was  in  the  lot  of 
Judah,  and  from  the  general  indications  above  noticed,  we  should  be 
inclined  to  place  it  south  of  Bethlehem,  though  the  Onomasticon  puts  it 
west  of  Jerusalem,  probably  close  to  the  boundary  of  the  tribe.  The 
second  indication  is  more  precise.  From  thence  David  went  to  the  aid 
of  the  men  of  Keilah  attacked  by  the  Philistines.  There  was  no  special 
reason  for  his  succouring  this  town  except  one.  Keilah  (now  Kilah)  is 
a  well  known  place  at  the  foot  of  the  higher  hills,  south-east  of  AduUam, 
and  some  six  miles  from  it.  It  is  not,  therefore,  in  the  region  of  David's 
native  place,  and  its  inhabitants  were  in  no  way  specially  attached  to 
him,  for  we  find  that,  with  the  ingratitude  so  characteristic  of  the 
ordinaiy  oriental,  they  were  ready  to  deliver  up  their  deliverer  to  Saul, 
immediately  after  he  had  saved  their  threshing-floors  from  the  Philistine 


44  SCENERY    OF    DAVID's    OUTLAW    LIFE. 

nomadic  hordes.  The  simple  reason  must,  therefore,  have  been  that 
David  and  his  men  were  at  the  time  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of 
the  village,  and  that  his  own  safety  was  to  a  certain  extent  endangered 
by  this  unusually  far-pushed  Philistine  ghazoo. 

We  may,  therefore,  look  for  Hareth,  or,  as  the  Hebrew  is  properly 
transliterated,  Kharith,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  modern  village  of 
Kilah,  and  here,  up  higher  in  the  hills,  on  the  north  side  of  Wady 
Arneba,  one  of  the  heads  of  the  Yalley  of  Elah,  now  stands  the  small 
modern  village  of  Kharas,  a  name  embodying  all  the  essential  letters 
of  Harith,  though  with  a  slightly  different  termination.  The  site  is  an 
ancient  one,  with  the  usual  indications — ancient  wells,  cisterns,  and 
rough  caves  in  the  hill  side.  Its  position  in  the  same  district  formerly 
serving  as  a  refuge  to  David  is  interesting,  and  it  may,  I  believe,  bo 
accepted  as  the  site  of  the  City  of  Hareth. 

The  confinement  in  a  citj' "  that  hath  gates  and  bars  "was  not  con- 
sistent with  David's  predatory  and  fugitive  life.  From  I\eilah  he 
escapes  yet  further  south,  a  distance  of  fifteen  miles,  and  "  abode  in  the 
wilderness  in  strongholds,  and  remained  in  a  mountain  in  the  wilder- 
ness of  Ziph  ;  and  Saul  sought  him  every  day." 

We  now  come  to  one  of  the  most  beautiful  episodes  of  the  history. 
The  unselfish  love  of  Jonathan  (perhaps  the  finest  of  the  Old  Testament 
characters)  prompted  him  to  seek  the  oppressed  and  fugitive  bandit,  and 
renew  his  pledges  of  friendship.  Jonathan  goes  to  seek  David,  who  was 
"in  the  wilderness  of  Ziph  in  a  tvood"  and  went  to  David  "into  the 
wood  and  strengthened  his  hand  in  God  "  (1  Sam.  xxiii.  16). 

Wood  of  Ziph. — We  are,  therefore,  here  called  upon  to  identify  or 
to  destroy  a  second  forest,  and  this  with  even  greater  certainty  than 
that  of  Hareth.  The  position  of  the  northern  Ziph,  at  Tell  Zif,  has 
long  been  known.  It  is  a  conspicuous  mound,  lying  south-east  of 
Hebron,  and  although  it  shows  at  the  present  day  no  trace  of  build- 
ings, we  found  a  quarry  on  the  northern  side,  and  some  large  Jewish 
tombs;  one,  having  a  portico  with  rude  rock  pilasters,  is  to  be  found 
lower  down  on  the  south.  It  is,  however,  usual  to  say,  "  that  the  wood 
of  Ziph  has  disappeared,"  which  we  may  further  supplement  by  asserting 
that  in  all  probability  it  never  had  any  real  existence. ' 

The  Septuagint  versions  seem  here  to  give  the  local  colouring  with 
unusual  fidelity;  the  "  wilderness  of  Ziph"  they  translate  by  the  word 
(avx/j-^s),  meaning  dried  up  or  parched,  and  the  wood  appears  as  yr)  Kawn 
in  the  Vatican,  and  rj  Katvij  in  the  Alexandrine — "the  new  ground,"  or 
the  "new  place"  of  Ziph.  It  is  very  striking  to  find,  on  turning  to 
Josephus,  whose  works  date  earlier  than  either  manuscript,  that  the 
interview  is  said  to  take  place  "  in  a  certain  place  called  the  New  Place 
belonging  to  Ziph"  (Ant.  VI.  xiii.  2).  The  explanation  is,  however, 
very  simple,  and  the  verdict  must  once  more,  I  think,  be  given  against 
the  English  reading.  The  Hebrew  term  here  used  is  Choresh,  and  the 
difference  between  it  and  the  word  translated  by  the  Septuagint,  "the 
New  Place,"  is  not  one  of  letters,  hut  merely  of  points. 


SCENKRY    OF    DAVID's    OUTLAW    LIFE.  45 

This  is  by  no  means  a  solitary  instance.  Many  others  could  be  cited 
in  the  topographical  passages  of  the  Bible  in  which  the  points  cause 
a,  considerable  difference.  It  is  evident  that  the  modern  points  cannot 
have  been  the  same  as  those  used  (if  any)  at  the  time  of  the  Septuagiut 
trani^lation,  and  in  a  question  turning  upon  points  alone,  the  decision 
must  be  made  on  independent  grounds. 

The  existence  at  any  time  of  a  wood  in  this  part  of  the  country  is 
geologically  almost  an  impossibility.  From  Hebron  to  Beersheba  not 
a  single  spring  of  any  importance  exists  in  the  eastern  hills  in  which  the 
story  now  lies.  The  soil  is  a  soft,  chalky  limestone,  so  porous  that 
every  drop  of  water  sinks  through  the  strata  to  the  hard  dolomite 
beneath.  The  rounded  hills,  which  invariably  mark  this  formation,  are 
not  only  entirely  without  culture,  but  show  no  signs  of  any  different 
condition  at  a  former  period,  except  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of 
some  of  the  large  sites,  where  the  vine  seems  to  have  been  cultivated. 
The  country  is  emphatically  a  dry  land,  looking  down  on  the  barren 
wastes  which  lie  above  the  Dead  Sea  between  Masada  and  Engedi. 
There  is  no  moisture  capable  of  supporting  vegetable  growth.  The 
cistus  and  the  belan  bushes  grow  among  the  ledges,  but  not  a  single 
tree  exists  in  the  whole  country. 

The  character  of  the  district  leads  us  therefore  to  adopt  the  Septuagiut 
reading  and  that  of  Josephus,  but  yet  further  we  have  recovered  amongst 
the  two  hundred  names  in  the  country  round  Yutta,  that  of  Khirhet 
KJioreisa,  which  is  applied  to  an  ancient  site  about  one  mile  south  of 
Tell  Zif.  I  have  occasion  to  speak  more  fully  of  this  site  iu  another 
report,  as  we  found  in  it  a  Greek  Christian  inscription  of  some  interest, 
but  it  is  sufhcient  here  to  say  that  its  bell-mouthed  cisterns  and  extensive 
caves  burrowing  the  hill  side,  prove  it  to  be  an  ancient  localitj^  and  we 
can  have  little  hesitation  in  identifying  it  with  the  Choresh  of  Zif,  a 
village  or  hamlet  belonging  to  the  larger  town  at  Tell  Zif. 

The  Bock  of  Maori. — The  inhabitants  of  the  district  seem  to  have  been  no 
better  than  their  descendants,  and  their  betrayal  of  David  forced  him  to 
descend  still  further  south.  In  the  wilderness  of  jNIaou  he  abode,  accord- 
ing to  Josephus,  "  in  a  great  rock."  The  passage  in  Samuel  has  the  curious 
expression  that  he  "  went  down  unto  a  rock."  Maon  is  no  doubt  the 
present  Tell  Ma'in,  the  most  prominent  object  in  the  landscape,  a  huge 
knoll,  some  100  feet  high.  It  is,  however,  on  the  same  level  as  Tell  Zif, 
and  I  would  suggest  that  the  passage  refers  to  ]Vad)/ d  Wa'r,  "the 
valley  of  Eocks  " — a  place  so  rugged  as  to  be  particularised  by  a  namo 
which  might  be  considered  in  some  degree  applicable  to  many  of  the 
neighbouring  valleys.  The  wady  has  its  head  close  to  Tell  Ma'in,  and 
the  long  ridges  running  east  to  the  Dead  Sea  form  a  fitting  site  for 
that  narrow  escape,  when,  separated  but  by  a  single  crest,  David  was 
only  saved  from  discovery  by  the  dramatic  incident  of  a  sudden  Philistine 
invasion. 

The  scene  now  changes  to  the  vicinity  of  Engedi,  where  David  next 
retii-ed.     It  may  be  remarked  that  thus   descending  gradually  to  the 


46  SCENERY    OF    DAVID's    OUTLAW    LIFE. 

lower  level,  and  again  retiirning  at  a  later  period  to  the  neighbourhood 
of  Ziph,  David   follows   the  custom  of  the  modern  Bedawi,  whose  tents 
in  winter   are   on   the   sheltered  plains  by  the  Dead  Sea  shore,  but  in 
summer  on  the  hills  at  the  verge  of  the  cultivated  districts.     It  is  very 
probable  that  in  this  we  have  an  indication  of  the  season,  and  that  it 
was  only  the  unbearable  heat  of  summer  that  forced  the  band  from  their 
secure  fastnesses,    "  the  rocks  of  the  wild  goats,"  or  ibex,  still  found  in 
Wady  TJmm  el  Bcden,  to  the  hills  of  Ziph,  where  they  had  already  so 
little  cause  to  expect  a  safe  retreat.     Saul  again  pursues  David,  and  the 
magnanimous  treatment  which   the   king  receives  at  his  hands  brings 
about  a  temporary  reconciliation.     The  scene  is  a  cave  which  Josephus 
mentions  as  being  deep  and  hollow,  and  also  near  Engedi.     That  it  was 
on  the  roadside  from   Gibeah  we  learn  from   the  Authorised  Version. 
Caves  are  not  very  numerous  in  that  district,  and  we  may  succeed,  when 
surveying  that  part  of  the  country,  in  determining  by  these  indications 
the  exact  cavern  in  question.    Meanwhile  it  may  be  remarked  in  illus- 
tration of  the  passage,  that  nothing  is  more  usual  in  Palestine  than  the 
herding  of  sheep,  goats,  and  cows  in  the  innumerable  caverns  which  are 
found  everywhere.     The  cave  in  question  must  have  been  of  considerable 
extent   to   have   given   shelter   to   David    "and  his  men."     His  band 
numbered  about  600  at  this  time,  although  it  does  not  follow  that  they 
were  all  in  the  cave. 

The  next  episode  is  that  of  Nabal  of  Carmel.  Of  this  there  is  little  to 
write.  The  fact  of  his  possessions  being  in  Carmel,  whilst  he  himself,  a 
Ziphite,  lived  in  Maon,  is  easily  understood,  for  the  distance  from  Maon 
to  Carmel  is  only  about '  two  miles.  It  is  possible  that  the  latter  place 
was  chosen  for  the  sheep- shearing,  in  consequence  of  the  fine  reservoir 
lying  in  a  hollow  beneath  the  great  Crusading  castle.  Even  in  autumn 
it  was  full  of  water,  and  surrounded  by  herds  of  the  Arab  camels.  The 
country  in  this  part  preserves  its  original  character  ;  a  little  corn  and 
maize  is  grown  in  the  valleys,  and  at  the  ruins  are  traces  of  wine-presses, 
showing  the  former  cultivation  of  the  grape,  but  the  greater  part  is 
pasture  land,  rough  rocks  with  the  dry  vegetation  on  which  goats  and 
even  sheep  seem  to  thrive.  The  village  of  Yutta  is  said  to  boast  17,000 
sheep  alone,  the  sheikh  himself  owning  2  jO,  besides  goats,  cows,  camels, 
asses,  and  good  horses. 

The  possessions  of  Nabal  would  therefore  entitle  him  to  be  considered 
one  who  "  liveth  in  prosperity  "  at  the  present  day,  as  he  owned  3,000^ 
sheep  and  1,000  goats — the  latter  being  still  the  less  numerous  here, 
whereas  in  other  districts  they  outnumber  the  sheep  by  perhaps  ten  to 
one. 

In  connection  with  the  character  of  the  country,  it  is  also  interesting 
to  note  the  present  brought  by  Abigail— 200  loaves,  two  skins  of  wine, 
five  sheep,  five  measures  of  parched  corn,  100  clusters  of  raisins  (now 
extensively  manufactured  around  Hebron),  and  200  cakes  of  figs.  These 
products  show  the  cultivation  to  have  materially  decreased,  though  the- 
pastures  remain  probably  unchanged. 


SCENERY   OF    DAVIB's   OUTLAW    LIFE.  47 

The  Hill  of  Hachilah.—We  now  come  to  the  last  meeting  wliicli  took 
place  between  Saul  and  David,  the  last  reconciliation  which  was  soon 
followed  by  the  diastrous  defeat  on  Gilboa,  and  the  termination  of  David's 
nomadic  life.  From  the  wilderness  of  Paran  ho  comes  up  again  to  the 
territory  of  the  treacherous  Ziphites,  who  bear  news  to  Saul  in  Gibeah — 
"  Doth  not  David  hide  himself  in  the  hill  of  Hachilah,  which  is  before 
the  Jeshimon."  From  another  passage  we  learn  that  it  was  "  on  the 
right  hand  "  of  the  Jeshimon,  and  from  Josepbus  it  appears  that  Saul, 
coming  down  to  Ziph,  was  overtaken  by  nightfall  in  the  hill  over  which 
or  by  which  the  road  ran,  and  so  encamped;  "and  Saul  lay  in  the 
trench,  and  the  people  pitched  round  about  him,"  1  Sam.  xxvi.  5.  From 
the  bolster  at  his  bead  David  took  the  king's  spear  and  the  cruse  of 
water,  which  is  never  found  far  from  a  sleeping  Syrian ;  resisting  the 
temptations  of  his  nephew,  marked  with  the  same  cruelty  which  the 
other  brother,  Joab,  showed  afterwards  to  Abner,  David  ascended  a  hill 
top,  far  off  yet  within  call,  and  there  upbraided  the  sleeping  guard, 
"  for  they  were  all  asleep,  because  a  deep  sleep  from  the  Lord  had  fallen 
upon  them." 

The  topographical  indications  in  this  passage  are  so  definite,  and  the 
scenery  of  the  country  so  marked,that  there  can  be  but  little  question  as  to 
the  locality  of  this  closing  scene.  From  Hebron  southwards  to  Maon  the 
country  presents  one  uniform  surface,  rising  eastwards  to  a  long  clilf  over 
the  lower  plateau  of  Engedi.  Ploughed  as  it  is  by  shallow  valleys,  it 
yet  presents  no  stronghold  or  remarkably  high  hill,  but,  as  viewed  from 
the  summit  of  Tell  Ma'in,  a  succession  of  long-succeeding  rounded  ridges. 
The  site  must  have  been  north  or  north-east  of  Ziph,  where  the  hills  rise 
to  a  greater  elevation,  and  where  deep  wadies  start  suddenly  and  fall 
steeply  down  towards  the  desert.  Such  a  position  agrees  also,  as  shown 
above,  with  the  requisite  position  of  Saul's  camp.  The  hill  must,  more- 
over, face  the  Jeshimon  on  the  right  hand,  that  is  to  say,  in  speaking 
from  Gibeah  on  the  west.  A  site  fulfilling  these  requisites  has  necessarily 
a  very  limited  choice  of  positions. 

The  Jeshimon  (for  the  article  is  invariably  used)  was,  as  the  word  sig- 
nifies, a  desert  or  solitude.  Peor  and  Pisgah  are  mentioned  in  another 
passage  (Num.  xxi.  20)  as  facing  the  Jeshimon,  and  we  cannot  hesitate 
to  identify  it  with  the  plateau  or  Bukera  abovo  the  Dead  Sea  on  its 
western  side. 

The  probable  site  of  Hacbilah  is  the  high  hill  bounded  by  deep  valleys 
north  and  south  on  which  the  ruin  of  Yekin  now  stands.  Yandervelde, 
with  some  hesitation,  suggests  this  as  the  town  of  Cain,  but  apparently 
is  unaware  of  the  proper  form  of  that  name,  which  is  written  Kakin  in 
the  Hebrew,  thus  considerably  closer  to  the  T)resent  form  than  he  appealrs 
to  have  supposed.  Between  Hakin  and  Hakila  there  is  a  very  strong 
afiinity,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to  state  that  the  n  and  the  1  are 
frequently  interchanged,  as  for  instance  in  the  words  Sinasil  or  Silasil 
which  in  modern  Arabic  both  mean  an  earthquake. 

The  name  therefore  exists  almost  unchanged,  and  the  indications  on  the 


48  THE    ROYAL    CANAANITF.    AND     LEVITICAL    CITY    OF    DEBIR, 

■spot  are  strong.  A  good  road  following  the  Juda3an.  watershed  and 
leading  south  to  Ziph  exists  on  the  side  of  the  hill.  A  large  ancient  ruin 
with  caves  and  cisterns  stands  on  the  brink  of  the  steep  slope,  and 
looks  down  upon  the  white  maid  ridges  of  the  Jeshimon,  barren  and 
rugged,  patched  with  buff  and  brown,  dotted  with  low  black  tents,  but 
destitute  of  any  single  shrub  or  tree.  On  the  north  the  twin  peaks  of 
Jebel  el  Shukuf  above  Ain  Jidy,  and  beyond,  all  separated  by  the  gleam- 
ing thread  of  sea,  scarce  seen  in  its  great  chasm ;  below  are  the  long 
ridges  of  Moab,  the  iron  precipices,  the  thousand  watercourses,  the  great 
plateau  of  Kerak,  the  black  volcanic  gorge  of  Callirhoe,  all  lying  in  deep 
shadows  under  the  morning  sun,  or  brightened  with  a  crimson  flush  at 
sunset.  The  scene  is  as  wild  and  striking  as  could  be  desired  for  the  drama 
there  enacted. 

Yet  further  the  meaning  of  the  "  trench  "  may  perhaps  be  explained. 
On  the  south  side  the  road  passes  by  a  fiat  plot  of  ground,  lying  low 
and  having  steep  cliffs  on  either  side  ;  it  forms  the  head  of  a  large  wady, 
and  has  two  wells  of  living  water  close  to  the  roadside.  It  was  no  doubt 
here,  sheltered  from  view  and  near  to  water,  according  to  the  modern  Arab 
fashion  of  hiding  an  encampment,  that  Saul  would  pitch  his  tents.  High 
up  on  either  of  the  hill  tops  David  stood  to  call  to  the  host,  and  no  doubt 
the  special  expression  that  he  passed  over  to  the  other  side  intimates  his 
crossing  the  valley  and  ascending  the  opposite  hill. 

Here  we  may  close  the  record  ;  the  town  of  Ziklag  is  not  yet  known 
to  which  David  retired,  and  where  he  was  at  the  time  of  the  battle  of 
Gilboa.  Its  position,  north  of  the  Brook  of  Besor,  in  the  territory  of 
Gath,  three  days'  hard  journey  from  Jezreel,  will,  however,  I  hope, 
•enable  us  to  fix  it  next  spring,  when  surveying  the  southern  Maritime 
Plain. 

The  extremely  definite  character  of  the  topographical  notices  was 
insisted  upon  by  Mr.  Grove  in  the  "  Bible  Dictionarj^"  and  first  drew 
my  attention  to  the  subject.  "  It  is  very  much  to  be  desired,"  he  says 
(See  Maon,  "Bible  Dictionary"),  that  some  traveller  should  take  the 
trouble  to  see  how  the  actual  locality  of  M'ain  agrees  with  the  minute 
indicationsof  the  narrative."  I  hope  that  the  preceding  pages,  the  result 
of  careful  comparison  of  the  various  passages,  and  a  detailed  inspection 
of  the  ground,  maybe  considered  satisfactory  in  settling  the  disputed  points 
and  in  giving  clearness  and  consistency  to  the  history  of  the  nomadic  life 
of  David  and  his  men. 


THE    EOYAL    CANAANITE    AND    LEYITICiVL    CITY    OF 

DEBIR. 
By  Lieutenajs't  Conder,  R.E. 

El  Dhoheriyeh,  Nooemher  7,  1874. 
TiiE  systematic  arrangement  of  the  topogi-aphical  lists  of  the  Book 
•of  Joshua  is  a  subject  which  has  as  yet  been  little  studied,  and  very 


THE    ROYAL    CANAAXITE    AND    LEVITICAL    CITY    OF    DKBIK.  49 

often  it  is  altogether  denied.  Tlie  present  siu-vey,  by  placing  known 
sites  in  tlieir  proper  relative  positions,  by  coiifinning  identifications 
already  proposed,  and  yet  more  by  the  addition  of  a  larger  number  of 
new  identifications  than  have  been  made  since  the  time  of  Robinson^ 
will  be  most  invaluable  in  the  elucidation  of  these  difficult  questions. 

"  So  little,"  says:Mr.  Grove  (article  "  Zior,"  "  Bib.  Diet."),  "  is  known 
of  the  principle  on  which  the  groups  of  towns  are  collected  in  these 
lists,  that  it  is  impossible  to  speak  positively  "  as  to  many  probable 
identifications. 

A  careful  inspection  of  the  various  groups  in  the  lot  of  Judah  has  led 
me  to  a  discovery  which,  as  I  have  never  met  with  it  in  any  standarci 
work,  I  am  led  to  consider  new.  It  is  one  of  immense  interest,  as 
showing  tljat  the  topographical  system  is  far  more  perfect  than  would 
at  first  be  imagined.     It  may  be  briefly  stated  thus  : — 

TJie  list  give/1  in,  the  t'velfth  cJiajiter  of  Joshua,  and  preceding  all  other 
topographical  lists,  forms  the  key  to  the  whole. 

Nothing  could  be  simpler  than  the  system  depending-  on  this  defini- 
tion.    The  towns  here  referred  to,  thirty-one  in  number,  were  royal 
cities  of  the  Canaanites.     They  reappear  in  the  succeeding  lists,  and  it 
will  be  found  that,  with  one  exception  easily  explained,  every  separate- 
group  of  towns  contains  a  royal  city.     The  larger  groups  occurring  in 
the  plains  and  lowlands  contain  naturally  more  than  one,   bnt  the- 
country  is  at  once  divided  by  these  royal  cities  into  districts,  which  will,, 
on  inspection,  be  found  to  have  natural  boundaries,  and  to  be  to  a 
certain  extent  preserved  to  the  present  day. 

Without  enlarging  further  on  this  subject,  which  T  propose  to  follow 
out  later  on,  it  will  l^ecome  evident  that  of  all  sites  in  the  country  these  , 
royal  cities  are  the  most  valuable  as  indicating  the  locality  of  other 
towns  connected  with  them. 

Of  the  thirty-one  no  fewer  than  twenty-six  were  known  long  ago^ 
M.  Ganneau  added  one  to  the  list  in  the  discovery  of  Gezer,  and  only 
four  remain  to  be  fixed,  Debir  in  the  south,  and  Lasharon  in  the 
north  of  Palestine,  with  Libnah  and  Makkedah  in  the  Philistine  plain. 

The  site  to  which  ovir  attention  has  been  specially  directed  since 
leaving  Jerusalem  is  that  of  Debir,  which  has  never  as  yet  been  placed 
in  a  satisfactory  manner.  The  name  Dewir  Ban,  which  some  have 
supposed  to  be  the  modern  representative  of  the  site,  exists  within  a 
couple  of  miles  of  Hebron,  south,  and  not  as  placed  on  Mnn-ay's  new 
map,  north  of  the  valley  containing  Ain  Unkiir,  which,  under  the 
incorrect  form  of  Nunkur,  Dr.  Rosen  mentions  as  a  probable  site  for 
the  Upper  and  Lower  Springs. 

There  is,  however,  a  fatal  objection  to  this  identifi.cation.  Dewir 
Ban  is  the  name,  not  of  an  ancient  site,  but  merely  of  a  hill-top  among 
the  vineyards  close  to  Hebron. 

To  say  nothing  of  its  being  far  out  of  the  district  where  Debii'  should 
be  sought,  it  is  not  natural  to  suppose  that  this  capital  city  should  have 
existed  so  close  to  Hebron,  especially  as  it  does  not  occur  in  the  list  of 
the  Hebron  group. 

E 


THE    llOYAL    CANAANITE    AISD    LEVITICAL    CITY    OF    DEBIR. 

A  second  identification  is  proposed  by  Vandevelde  at  Khirbet  Dilbeli ; 
it  is,  however,  very  evident  from  his  remarks  that  he  never  visited  the 
spot.  The  city  of  Debir  stood,  as  will  be  seen,  in  a  dry  land,  and  it  is 
therefore  directly  contradictory  to  the  plain  statement  in  Joshua  to 
place  it  at  the  only  spot  in  the  country  where  fine  springs  occur.  In 
addition  to  vrhich  Khirbet  Dilbeh,  which  lies  close  to  the  spring  of  that 
name,  is  an  unimportant  site,  and  not  apparently  of  any  great 
antiquity. 

"  The  subject,  and  indeed  the  whole  topography  of  this  district, 
requires  further  consideration,"  is  Mr.  Grove's  comment  on  the 
attempts  as  yet  made  to  fix  the  position  of  Debir ;  and  indeed  there 
are  few  parts  of  Palestine  so  little  known  and  so  incorrectly  mapped. 
It  is  evident  that  most  of  the  sites  have  been  fixed  by  inquiries  made  in 
passing  along  the  rziain  lines  of  communication,  and  it  is  often  quite 
plain  that  where  two  ruins  have  been  seen  almost  in  line,  the  traveller 
pointed  to  the  one  generally  the  farthest,  whilst  the  native  gave  the 
aame  of  the  nearer. 

Indeed,  the  proper  district  of  Debir  has  never  been  correctly  under- 
stood, in  consequence  of  a  very  fatal  mistake  made  in  the  first  instance 
by  Dr.  PLobinsou. 

Fixing  correctly  the  position  of  Socoh,  or  Shueikeh,  he  has  placed 
Anab  (the  modern  'Andb)  immediately  east  of  it.  I  was  considerably 
surprised  at  not  being  able  to  find  this  important  name  in  our  list  from 
Yutta  camp,  but  our  guides  explained  with  one  accord  that  this  ruin 
was  much  farther  west  out  of  their  country,  and  west  of  ElDhoheriyeh, 
and  such  proved  to  be  the  case,  according  to  the  testimony  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  latter  place. 

Tne  site  so  named  by  Dr.  Eobinson  is  really  called  Deir  el  Shems,  a 
name  which  has  been  placed  farther  north  on  the  maps. 

This  error  lias  been  followed  by  other  travellers,  who  have  no  doubt 
merely  copied  from  Robinson's  map.  .  It  is  even  to  be  found  in  Professor 
Palmer's  route  sketch,  although  he  spent  a  night  at  El  Dhoheriyeh  ; 
"but  there  is  not  a  shadow  of  doubt  that  the  name  was  either  wrongly 
given  to  or  wrongly  understood  by  Eobinson,  and  that  the  true  site  of 
Anab  is  a  ruin  containing  remains  of  a  church  and  a  modern  tov/er 
existing  on  a  ridge  immediately  w^est  of  El  Dhoheriyeh.  This  fatal 
error  has  caused  the  site  to  be  sought  in  the  wrong  direction,  and  its 
correction  leads  naturally  to  the  identification.  The  group  of  cities  of 
which  Debir  was  the  capital  was  eleven  in  number,  as  follows : 


1.  Shamir 

2.  Jattir 

3.  Soooh     

4.  Danuah 

..     'Attir 

, ..     Shueikeh  ... 

...     Domeh 

Eobinson. 
. .     Eobinson, 
..     C.  R,  Condcr. 

5.  Kirjatli  Seplier 

Kirjatli  Saiinah,  or  Debir 
(5.   Anab      

...     El  Dhoheriyeh     ., 
...     'Anab 

..     C.  E.  Conder. 

..     Eobinson,  C.  E.  C, 

7.  Eshtomoa         

...     Scmu'a 

..     Eobinson. 

THE    ROYAL    CAXAANITE    AND    LEVITICAL    CITY    OF    DEBIR.  51 

8.  Amm El  Dilbeh C.  R.  C. 

9.  Goshen Lekiyeli     C.  R.  C. 

10.  Holon,  or  Hileii 

11.  Giloh 

It  will  be  seen  tliat  a  sufficient  nvimber  are  known  to  allow  of  the 
district  being  pretty  evident.  It  is  an  area  of  some  Imndred  square 
mile  of  low  hill  country,  including  part  of  the  gi-eat  valley  which, 
starting  at  Hebron,  flows  to  Beersheba,  and  thence  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean. 'Attir  and  Semi'i'a  lie  on  the  eastern  limit,  beyond  the  Wady 
Khalil.  The  northern  boundary  is  given  by  Domeh,  lying  near  the 
foot  of  a  higlier  range  which  runs  east  and  west,  on  Avhich  stands 
Dura.  This  higher  district  belongs  to  the  Hebron  capital.  On  the 
south  the  desert  of  Beersheba  forms  the  natural  boundary  of  the 
district,  and  on  the  west  the  hills  sink  suddenly  into  the  Shephalah,  in 
which  stand  the  sites  of  Umra  el  Eumamin  and  Khuweilfeh,  identified 
with  towns  belonging  to  Simeon  and  now  inhabited  only  by  Arab 
tribes.  The  district  of  Debir  is  indeed  just  the  limit  of  the  settled 
population  and  of  cultivation ;  it  is  remarkable  for  its  broad  rolling 
downs,  with  a  fruitful  soil.  The  inhabitants  of  its  two  modern  villages, 
El  Dhoheriyeh  and  Semu'a,  are  very  rich,  especially  in  horses,  flocks, 
herds,  and  cattle.  It  is  pre-eminently  a  dry  land,  as  not  a  single  spring 
is  to  be  found  in  it ;  but  it  is  not  less  remarkable  that  in  the  very 
corner  of  the  land  the  finest  collection  of  springs  in  Southern  Palestine 
is  to  be  found,  which,  though  not  properly  belonging  to  it,  seem  yet 
included  in  its  territory.  The  explanation  of  this  irregularity  in  the 
following  of  the  natural  boundaries  is  found  very  fully  in  the  Book  of 
Joshua. 

"We  may  now  turn  to  the  accounts  of  the  capital  contained  in  the 
Old  Testament. 

Debir,  or  Debr,  for  it  occurs  ydi\i  and  without  the  yeli,  is  first  men- 
tioned in  the  account  of  Joshua's  Philistine  campaign.  From  Eglon  and 
Lachish  the  conqueror  advanced  up  the  main  pass  of  Wady  Duweimeh 
to  the  mountains  of  Hebron,  and  having  seized  this  important  town 
he  attacked  Debir.  '•  And  Joshua  returned  (or  turned  back),  and  all 
Israel  with  him,  to  Debir  ;  and  fought  against  it :  and  he  took  it,  and 
the  king  thereof,  and  all  the  cities  thereof ;  and  they  smote  them  with 
the  edge  of  the  sword  ...  he  left  none  remaining"  (Josh.  x.  38 — 40). 

The  expression  here  used  is  peculiar,  and  not  found  in  any  other 
verse.  It  shows  that  Debir  was  not  in  the  direct  line  of  his  march,  but 
required  a  special  detour.  This  would  place  it  south  of  Hebron  most 
probably,  for  being  the  last  of  his  conquests  the  next  march  would  by 
rights  have  been  northwards,  from  Hebron  to  Gilgal. 

It  does  not,  however,  appear  that  Debir  was  deserted  by  its  original 
inhabitants,  for  we  find  soon  after  that  in  the  time  of  Caleb  it  stood 
another  siege,  when  Othniel,  his  nephew,  took  it  and  received  it  as  a 
dower  with  the  hand  of  Achsah,  his  cousin. 

This  again  points  to  its  being  near  Hebron,  the  possession  of  Caleb. 


52  THE    ROYAL    CANAANITE    AjSD    LEVITICAL    CITY    OF    DEBIR. 

There  is  a  peculiar  expression  in  tlie  Book  of  Samuel  where  the 
Egyptian  slave  relates  how  the  Amalekites  had  attacked  the  coasti 
belonging  to  Judah  and  "the  south  of  Caleb"  (1  Sam.  xxx.  14).  It 
would  appear  therefore  that  the  possession  of  Caleb  extended  to  the 
South  land,  or  Negeb.  The  most  important  passage,  however,  imme- 
diately follows  this  second  conquest,  and  relates  how  Aclisah  begs  of 
her  father  an  additional  "  field,"  or  territory. 

The  wording  of  the  account  is  the  same  in  the  two  records,  Joshua  xv, 
19  and  Judges  i.  15.  "  Give  me  a  blessing  ;  for  thou  hast  given  me  a 
south  land ;  give  me  also  springs  of  water.  And  he  gave  her  the  upj)er 
springs  and  the  nether  springs." 

The  following  notes  for  the  elucidation  of  the  passage  -were  kindly 
sent  me  by  Dr.  Chaplin,  and  are  of  great  use  in  the  correction  of  the 
rather  obscure  translation  : — 

(1)  A  south  land,  in  the  Hebrew  Erets-han-negeb,  an  arid  land. 
(This,  I  may  remark,  is  the  avxfios  of  the  Septuagint,  Avhich  I  have 
mentioned  in  the  paper  on  the  wood  of  Ziph.)  Negeb  is  from  a  Semitic 
root,  signifying  to  he  dry.  The  Vulgate  and  French,  Italian,  and 
Spanish  versions  have  "  a  dry  land."  Jewish  commentators  have  the 
following:— "  A  portion  of  territory  dry  and  without  springs  of  water. 
Negeb  signifies  dry."  The  Targum  of  Jonathan  Ben  Uziel  has 
Daruma,  a  south  (a  name,  I  may  add,  used  in  the  "  Onomasticon  "  to 
specify  the  territory  of  which  we  are  now  speaking).  The  southern 
part  of  Palestine  seems  to  have  been  called  Negeb,  because  it  was 
dry. 

To  this  note  I  may  add  that  the  expression  Negeb  would  properly 
refer  to  all  that  district  of  hills  of  soft,  porous,  chalky  limestone 
extending  from  the  desert  on  the  east  (the  Jeshimon)  to  'An:ib  and  the 
plain  on  the  west,  and  from  Dilbeh  and  Yutta  on  the  north  to  Beersheba 
on  the  south. 

The  water  supply  in  this  district  is  derived  from  the  rain  alone,  and 
not  a  single  spring  of  any  importance  occurs. 

(2).  Springs  of  tmter. — In  the  Hebrew,  GuUotli  maim  {Fools  of  tuater). 
The  Targum  of  Jonathan  Ben  Uziel  has  Beth  Shalcah  d'Maiah — locus 
irrigedionis  eiquccrum — a  well-watered  place,  as  in  Gen.  xiii.  10.  Bashi 
says  QuUoth  maim  is  "  beth-hab-haal,"  a  piece  of  land  that  does  not 
require  irrigation.  Other  Jewish  commentators  say  it  was  a  land  Avitb 
fountains  and  springs  of  water. 

(3).  Upper  Springs  and  Lower  Springs — GallotJi,  'ileth  and  GuUotk 
takhteth. 

(4).  The  Vulgate  rendering  of  the  passage  is,  "Quia  terram  arentem 
dedisti  mihi  da  et  irreguaiu  aquis.  Dedit  ergo  ei  Caleb  irriguam 
superiam  et  irriguam  inferiam." 

In  this,  as  in  many  other  cases,  the  Vulgate  seizes  the  full  force  of 
the  passage,  which  is  obscured  by  the  reading  "  south  land,"  although, 
strictly  speaking,  the  south  land  and  dry  land  were  synonymous  terms. 
The  passage  may  be  better  paraphrased  thus,  "  Thou  hast  given  me  a 


THE    ROYAL    CANAANITE    AND    LEVITICAL   CITY   OF    DEBIR.  53 

tliy  district ;  give  me  also  a  stream."     Here,  then,  we  may  sum  up  all 
materials  which  come  to  hand  for  the  identification  of  Debir. 

1st.  Debir  is  to  be  found  in  the  south-west  of  Hebron,  and  between 
the  towns  of  Socoh  and  'Aniib,  near  Dannah,  that  being  its  position  on 
the  list. 

2nd.  It  must  itself  be  placed  in  a  district  destitute  of  springs,  but  at 
some  little  distance,  on  the  borders  of  its  territories,  a  well-watered 
district  with  springs  at  the  head  of  and  lower  down  in  a  valley  must 
occur. 

With  regard  to  the  name  Debir,  which  is  a  form  unlikely  to  endure 
in  Arabic  without  change,  it  is  said  to  signify  remote,  and  occurs  in  one 
passage  as  Debir  (1  Chron.  vi.  5,  8),  in  another  as  Debr  (Josh.  x.  38), 
and  in  a  third  Deberah,  or  Debrah  (Josh.  xv.  49).  Under  this 
name  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been  known  to  Jerome.  In 
the  earlier  passage  (Josh.  xv.  49)  its  original  name  is  given  as 
Kirjath  Sannah,  "  the  city  of  the  Palm."  In  another  it  is  said  to  have 
been  first  called  Kiijath  Sepher  (Judges  i.  Ill,  "  the  city  of  books,"  a 
title  which  has  given  rise  to  many  conjectures  as  to  the  civilisation  of 
the  Canaanites,  some  having  looked  upon  Debir  as  a  sort  of  collegiate 
town  or  Amalekite  university. 

The  name,  however,  is  not  in  this  case  so  safe  a  guide  as  the  two 
indications  before  noticed,  to  which  must  be  added  that  so  important  a 
site  must  have  left  traces  which  are  unmistakable.  Rock  excavation 
is  the  surest  indication  of  antiquity  in  Palestine.  The  Troglodytes,  who, 
as  Josephus  informs  us,  descended  from  Abraham  and  Keturah,  must 
at  one  time  have  existed  throughout  the  country,  or  imparted  their 
habits  to  other  tribes.  The  ancient  Canaanites  seem  to  have  lived 
principally  in  caves,  and  no  nation  subsequently  has  done  as  much  in 
the  country  in  the  excavation  of  caves,  cisterns,  and  tombs  out  of  the 
living  rock  as  was  done  by  the  early  Jews  or  their  Canaanite  prede- 
cessors. 

But  beyond  these  excavations  evidence  must  also  be  derived  from  the 
roads.  A  capital  such  as  Debir  must  have  communicated  with  its 
dependent  towns  on  every  side,  and  these  ancient  roads,  marked  with 
rude  boundary  blocks  of  rock,  are  easily  traceable  in  the  south  of 
Palestine. 

There  is,  I  think  we  may  now  say  with  certainty,  only  one  site  which 
fulfils  all  these  requisites.  The  modern  village  of  El  Dhoheriyeh. 
This  site  has  hitherto  been  much  neglected.  Professor  Palmer  slept 
-there  one  night  in  1870,  and  was  the  first  to  recognise  its  antiquity. 
Murray  asserts  that  "  there  is  nothing  of  interest  to  detain  the  pilgrim," 
but  he  finds  it  "  a  most  interesting  place.  The  dwellings  consist 
principally  of  caves  in  the  natural  rock,  some  of  them  with  rude  arches 
carved  over  doorways,  and  all  of  them  of  the  greatest  antiquity.  .  .  . 
The  village  is  evidently  an  ancient  site,  and  in  the  centre  is  a  building 
of  massive  masonry  containing  three  arched  apartments." 

Professor  Palmer,  misled  by  Eobinson's   mistake  as  to   'Anab,  does 


54  THE    ROYAL    CANAANITE    AND    LEVITICAL    CJTY    OF    DEBIR. 

not,  ho-wever,  propose  any  identification. ^"With  regard  to  tlie  caves 
with  arched  entrances  their  antiquity  is  doubtful,  for  from  their  con- 
stant connection  with  Christian  ruins,  as  well  as  from  the  fact  that  no 
arches  occur  in  the  really  ancient  ruins  of  the  country,  I  have  been  led 
to  consider  them  Christian.  The  central  building,  called  El  Ilosn  by  the 
villagers,  is  also  probably  of  the  same  date.  That  El  Dhoheriyeh  is  a 
really  ancient  site  is,  however,  indubitable. 

Hewn  cisterns  with  well-worn  mouths  and  ancient  rock-cut  tombs  are 
seen  on  every  side,  and  it  forms  the  central  point  whence  many  ancient 
roads  diverge.  To  Attir  and  Zanuta  on  the  south-east,  to  Shuweikeh 
and  Semii'a  on  the  east,  to  'Aniib  and  Ghuzzeh  on  the  west,  to  Beersheba 
on  the  south,  to  Domeh,  Dura,  and  Hebron|on  the  north ;  to  all  of  these 
good  roads  principally  of  antiquity  lead.  A  careful  examination  of  the 
country  shows  farther  that  El  Dhoheriyeh  is  the  only  ancient  site  in  the 
neighbourhood  which,  as  I  have  already  shown,  is  very  restricted  by  the 
terms  of  the  various  indications. 

It  is  also  very,  probable,  though  much  stress  cannot  be  laid  on  this 
point,  that  Dhoheriyeh  is  a  corruption  of  the  ancient  name  of  Deberah, 
and  the  more  so  as  the  name  has  a  distinct  meaning  in  Arabic,  being 
derived  from  Dhohr  or  Zohr,  a  back,  and  thus  in  the  adjective  form  signi- 
fying the  village  on  the  ridge,  for  it  stands,  not  as  shown  in  previous 
maps  half  way  up  a  slope,  but  oa  the  very  top  of  the  long  flat  ,ridge 
which  runs  south  from  the  higher  hills  of  Diira. 

Debir  was  one  of  the  Levitical  cities,  we  therefore  carefully  searched 
for  inscriptions  or  other  marks. 

I  had  occasion,  in  one  of  my  last  reports,  to  explain  how  we  found  the 
boundary  of  3,000  cubits  at  Semu'a  marked  bj'  a  large  stone  with  a  name 
still  forming  the  boundary  of  the  lands  belonging  to  the  village.  This 
discovery  is  all  the  more  interesting  if,  as  has  been  suggested,  the  SjOOO 
cubits  marks  the  distance  of  a  Sabbath  day's  journey. 

In  the  case  of  El  Dhoheriyeh  Corporal  Brophy  discovered  on  the  main 
road  leading  south,  and  exactly  at  the  distance  in  question,  taking  the 
sixteen-inch  cubit,  a  stone  similar  to  the  Hajr  el  Sakhain  but  larger:  it 
had  not,  however,  a,  name ;  there  was  also  another  stone  of  the  same 
character  (a  large  rough  block  similar  to  some  of  the  English  primeval 
monuments)  to  the  west  on  the  line,  and  at  the  south-east  corner  and 
close  to  the  south-west  corner  were  large  wells. 

On  the  north  side  Sergeant  Black  observed  wells  and  wine-presses 
placed  on  the  boundary  line,  if  drawn  with  the  sides  not  the  diagonals  of 
of  the  square  facing  the  cardinal  points,  which  still  seems  to  me  the 
more  natural  explanation  of  the  Biblical  account. 

The  second  part  of  the  question  remains,  however,  still  to  be  dis- 
cussed. To  place  Debir  at  a  spring  is,  as  has  been  seen,  evidently  a 
mistake,  but  we  are  still  bound  to  find  in  its  neighbourhood  the  Zipper 
and  Loioer  Springs  of  the  Book  of  Judges. 

As  has  been  shown,  no  ordinary  spring  will  satisfy  this  account; 
a  copious  suj^ply  of  water  is  to  be  inferred,  and  two  springs  or  groups  of 


THE    ROYAL   CANAANITE   AND    LEVITICAL    CITY   OP    DEBIR.  55 

springs.  Tho  account  is,  ho-wever,  fully  satisfied  by  tlie  Seil  El  Dilbeli, 
a  secluded  valley  to  the  west  of  Yutta,  and  only  six  and  a  lialf  miles 
north  of  El  Dhoheriyoh. 

On  visiting  this  beautiful  spot  in  the  very  end  of  October  I  found  a 
considerable  brook  running  in  the  midst  and  extending  through  tho 
small  gardens  a  distance  of  four  or  five  miles.  Such  a  supply  of  water  is 
indeed  a  phenomenon  in  Palestine,  and  yet  more  extraordinary  in  the 
Negeb  where  no  others  occur.  There  are  also,  as  required,  both  upper 
and  lower  springs,  and  these  so  copious  that  the  various  translations, 
pools  of  water,  fountains  for  irrigation,  or  Ayell  watered  places,  are  all 
fully  accounted  for. 

There  are  in  all  fourteen  springs  divided  into  three  groups. 

The  first  includes  'Ain  El  Pureidis,  'Ain  abu  Kheit,  and  'Ain  Shkhakh 
abu  Thor,  and  one  other,  situate  near  one  another  high  up  on  the  slopes 
of  the  hills  south  of  Dura. 

From  thence  the  Seil  or  brook  runs  east  to  the  second  group,  including 
'Ain  el  Majur,  'Ain  el  Dilbeh,  'Ain  el  Hejeri,  and  three  smaller  springs 
situate  in  the  bottom  of  the  valley  some  100  yards  apart.  The  Seil  then 
gradually  turns  south  and  passes  the  third  group  a  little  lower  down, 
consisting  of  'Ain  el  Fowar  and  three  smaller.  The  total  "amounts, 
therefore,  to  fourteen.  The  site  thus  discovered  exists,  as  would  be 
expected,  not  exactly  in  the  natural  territory  of  Debir,  but  on  its 
extreme  north-east  limit ;  so  that  it  could,  at  the  request  of  Achsah,  be 
added  to  the  Negeb  country  which  she  already  possessed. 

I  would  propose  also  to  j^lace  near  to  it  the  town  of  Anim,  which  is 
written  with  the  yli'H,  and  is  no  doubt  derived  from  '■Ainainj\the'  two 
springs.  The  Yeh  does  not  appear  in  the  present  Hebrew  text,  but  may 
very  probably  have  been  lost,  being  a  small  letter,  for  it  is  represented 
in  the  Septuagint  version  of  AiSafj..  This  town  was  supposed^  by 
"Wilson,  the  traveller,  to  be  found  at  Ghuweiu,  but  this  site  has  been 
with  more  probability  identified  with  the  'Ain  of  Simeon. 

Khirbet  el  Dilbeh  is,  as  I  have  before  said,  not  an  important  ruin,  but 
on  the  hill  bounded  north  and  east  bj'  the  Seil  are  two  fine  tombs,  and 
south  of  this,  at  Khirbet  el  Jif ,  there  is  an  ancient  site  which  may  pos- 
sibly be  the  exact  spot  where  Anim  is  to  be  placed. 

"We  have  seen,  therefore,  that  El  Dhohcriyeh  is  the  only  ancient  site 
between  Socoh  (Shuweikeh)  and  Anab  ('Andb,  as  now  correctly  placed). 
The  position  of  Dannah,  or  Deneh,  has  not  been  hitherto  proposed.  I 
have  supposed  it  to  be  the  modern  Domeh,  which  is  immediately  north 
of  El  Dhoheriyeh,  at  a  distance  of  about  two  miles.  Domeh  has  hitherto 
been  identified  with  Dumah,  under  the  impression  that  it  was  north  of 
Khirbet  Dilbeh.  In  its  true  position  it  cannot,  however,  be  so  identified, 
for  Dumah  belongs  to  the  group  immediately  round  Hebron,  amongst 
which  Beth-Tappuah  (TerfEdh),  Arab  (Khirbet  el  'Arabiyeh),  and  Zior 
(S'air),  are  enumerated,  a  district  in  the  high  hills  north  of  the  Negeb. 
In  order,  however  to  make  the  identification  more  certain,  I  may  re- 
mark that  on  the  western  boundary  of  this  higher  district  stands  the 


5G       GREEK    IXSCRIPTIOIf    FOUND    IX    THE    SAKHRA    OF    JERUSALEJI. 

village  of  DmueimeJt,  whicli  may  be  identified  with  far  greater  propriety 
■with  Dumah,  thus  leaving  Domeh  for  the  town  of  Deneh,  in  the  exact 
position  which  it  holds  in  the  list. 

I  may  point  to  this  as  a  fair  example  of  the  results  of  the  Survey. 
Nothing  but  minute  examination  would  have  led  to  the  discovery 
of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Springs,  to  the  correction  of  Eobinson's  error 
as  to  Anab,  or  to  the  proj^er  placing  of  Domeh,  which  destroys  the  very 
plausible  identification  as  yet  attached  to  its  supposed  position. 

It  will  be  remarked  also  that  from  this  instance  of  the  exactness  of 
the  lists,  they  seem,  as  in  the  case  of  Zanoah  and  of  Maarath,  to  give, 
by  the  order  in  which  the  towns  occur,  correct  indications  of  relative 
position. 

Claude  E.  Condee,  Lieut.  E.E. 


GEEEK  INSCEIPTION  FOUND  IN  THE  SAKHEA  OF 

JEEUSALEM. 

The  following  notes  on  the  inscription  mentioned  by  Lieut.  Conder 
(p.  6),  appeared  in  the  Academy  for  November  7,  1874.  They  were, 
together  Avith  the  passage  on  the  word  AXkios  and  that  on  forgeries  in 
Jerusalem,  taken  from  a  letter  by  M.  Ganneau  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Fund.  The  notes  are  here  reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Editor  of 
the  Academy : — 

A  Greek  inscription  has  recently  been  discovered  on  the  buried  side  of 
one  of  the  flags  used  in  the  flooring  of  the  Sakhra  at  Jerusalem.  Copies 
of  it  have  been  sent  to  the  ofiice  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund, 
both  by  M.  Clermont -Ganneau  and  by  Lieut.  Conder.  The  following  is 
the  text,  with  the  short  commentary  furnished  by  M.  Ganneau  : — 

KHMEPKIAPIOS  ANEYI02APE0BI  .   . 

nNT2  .    .   .   riN   EN0A  RATA  KITE  .    .   OA  .  . 
.   .    SKriNETHETE  THEnATTOT  A 

H 
no  TH2  02IA2   MNHMH2   MAEKEMB  .   . 

+    INA   A   ETOY2   PA  + 

+ 

Commerciarius,  covisin  of  Arcob  (indos  ?)  .  .  of  the  .  .  lies  here, 
the  .  .  Pray  for  him  ...  of  holy  memory  .  .  in  the  month  of  Decem- 
ber .  .   .   +  Indiction  I.  year  104.  +  . 

About  half  of  the  inscription,  that  on  the  left,  appears  to  be  want- 
ing. Comerciarius  is  put  for  KafifxepKiapios,  an  official  title  under  the 
Byzantine  Empire  ;  the  proper  name  Areobindos  is  nearly  certain,  and 
is  that  of  a  historic  family  which  played  an  important  part  under  Anas- 
tasius  and  Justinian  :  several  persons  of  this  name  were  invested  with 
important  functions,  and  that  of  our  inscription  would  be  one  of  them, 


GREEK    INSCRIPTION    FOUND    IN    THE    SAKHRA    OF    JERUSALEM,         5/ 

since  it  was  thought  proper  to  mention  his  relationship  with  the  object 
of  the  inscription. 

It  seems  that  the  Icttei'S  which  precede  ivda  KaraKire  (for  KaraKUTai) 
belong  to  the  genitive  plural  in  uv,  pointing  out,  perhaps,  the  titles  of 
Areobindos  :  the  same  observation  appHcs  to  the  first  word  of  the  tliird 
line,  perhaps  (5  aTro  ....  The  imperative  et/|6T6  shows  the  cax-ver's  im- 
perfect knowledge  of  Greek. 

The  day  of  the  month  of  December  was  probably  indicated.  The 
grave  question  is  that  of  the  date :  according  to  what  era  is  the  year  104 
calculated  ?  If,  as  one  is  tempted  at  first  to  beUevc,  it  is  the  era  of 
Diocletian  and  the  martyrs,  this  date  would  correspond  to  the  year  of 
our  Lord  388,  according  to  the  Art  de  Verifier  les  Dates.  The  number  of 
the  indiction  agrees  perfectly  in  this  case.  Nevertheless,  the  debased 
forms  of  the  orthography  and  the  appearance  of  the  characters  would 
lead  us  to  admit  an  epoch  somewhat  earlier ;  but  we  know  how  little 
these  orthographic  and  palseographic  rules  are  applicable  in  Palestiue. 
If  this  date  be  exact,  we  are  brought  to  the  time  of  Theodosius. 

M.  Gamieau  thinks  he  has  possibly  obtained  some  clue  to  the  mys- 
tei'ious  "AAkios  of  the  Gezer  inscription.     He  ■writes  : — 

"  A  jjropos  of  the  AUdos  of  the  bilingual  texts  of  Gezcr,  I  have  lit 
upon  a  curious  coincidence.  Some  years  ago  a  sarcophagus  was  dis- 
covered at  Lydda  with,  a  Greek  inscription,  of  which  Major  Wilson  gives 
a  part  only.  I  myself  found  the  commencement  about  foui'  years  since. 
It  mentions  a  certain  Pyrinoiiu,  surnamed  Malthakes,  grandson  of  AUdos, 
son  of  Simon,  (son  of)  Gobar.  The  two  names  of  Alkios  being  identical, 
perhaps  they  are  those  of  the  same  personage !  In  fact,  between  the 
date  of  the  sarcophagus,  which  probably  belongs  to  the  Herodian  period, 
and  that  of  Alkios,  there  are  two  generations,  which  brings  us  to  the  time 
of  the  Maccabees,  at  which  I  place  the  Gezer  inscription.  In  this  case 
our  Alkios,  son  of  Simon,  Governor  (r)  of  Gezer,  would  have  this  Pyri- 
noun,  who  was  buried  at  Lydda,  for  his  grandson. 

' '  If  the  tomb  which  I  opened  on  my  last  excursion  is  a  family 
sepulchre,  which  everything  leads  me  to  beKeve  it  to  be,  it  would  result 
that  our  Alkios  of  Gezer  was  a  native  of  Lydda.  We  may  remark  the 
resemblance  between  the  Greek  "AXkios  and  the  Hebrew  Hilkiah." 


m\ 

mi 


Of 

z 
or 


<    t    f     f    r    t  <  I  '      t  '    f  ^   * 

"      '       '     '    ,  ,     r         '  •        '  t 


I  11! 


UJ 

O 

z 
< 
I- 


1-    •- 


— >      X       " 

CO     H      < 
or     en     "- 

z 

5ir 
o 

o 


Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1875.] 


THE 


PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND, 


PREFACE. 

The  latest  news  from  the  Survey  party  is  satisfactory.  Lieut. 
Couder  liad  removed  from  Jerusalem  to  the  "Wilderness  of  Judah, 
whither  he  was  to  be  followed  by  Lieutenant  Kitchener,  who  had 
completely  recovered  from  a  severe  attack  of  fever.  Sergeant  Black 
has  returnedto  England,  and  will  be  immediately  replaced  by  another 
non-commissioned  officer  who  has  already  been  asked  for.  The 
reports  furnished  in  the  present  number  of  this  Quarterly  Statement 
contain  the  Survey  hi  Tell  Jezer,  a  proposed  identification  of 
Bethabara  (John  i.  28),  a  paper  on  the  Mediceval  Topography  of 
Palestine,  a  detailed  account  of  Mr.  Henry  IMaudslay's  work  on 
Mount  Zion,  and  a  report  from  Hallud  which  should  have  been 
published  in  the  last  Quarterly  Statement. 

The  illustration  wliich  appears  as  the  frontispiece  is  drawn  from 
a  water-colour  sketch  made  by  the  late  Mr.  Tyi'whitt  Drake.  It 
represents  the  peak,  now  called  Kvu-n  Surtabeh,  which  Lieutenant 
Couder  proposes  as  that  on  which  the  "  Altar  of  Witness  "  was 
raised  (see  Quarterly  Statement^  October,  1874). 

With  regard  to  their  financial  position  the  Committee  ask  for  the 
sum  of  £3,500  before  the  end  of  the  year.  This  will  enable  them  to 
clear  off  their  debts  as  well  as  to  support  the  Survey  expedition. 


60  NOTES. 

Perhaps  it  would  be  possible  for  other  towns  to  follow  the  example 
of  Manchester  and  to  endeavour  to  raise  a  definite  sura. 

While  desiring  to  give  all  publicity  to  the  suggestions  of  the 
exploring  ofiicers  of  the  Fund,  the  Conamittee  again  beg  it  to  be 
distinctly  understood  that  they  leave  such  statements  to  be  accepted 
or  not,  on  their  own  merits,  and  that  their  publication  here  of 
proposed  identifications,  conclusion  as  to  tribe  boundaries,  theories 
in  the  date  of  any  building,  and  such  subjects,  does  not  imply  their 
sanction  and  adoption  by  the  Committee. 


NOTES. 

A  meeting  was  held  on  March  11th  at  the  Theatre  of  the  Royal  Institution, 
Albemarle  Street,  at  which  a  paper  by  M.  Clermont-Ganneau,  on  "Unknown 
Palestine,"  was  read,  the  chair  being  occupied  by  Dr.  Birch,  F.E  S.  The 
author,  after  enumerating  some  of  the  principal  archaeological  results  of  his 
expedition,  plunged  at  once  into  the  subject  of  his  paper,  which  was  an  attempt 
to  prove  the  lineal  descent  of  the  modern  fellaheen  from  the  Canaanites  by 
reference  to  their  language,  their  manners,  customs,  and  superstitions,  and  by  a 
comparison  of  the  two  invasions  of  Joshua  and  the  Caliph  Omar.  The  paper  was 
heard  with  the  greatest  interest.  It  will  be  published,  in  the  first  instance,  in 
the  May  number  of  Macmillans  Magazine. 


The  forthcoming  work  by  M.  Clermont-Ganneau  will  be  the  second  great 
published  instalment  of  tlie  Society's  labours.  It  will  thus  be  the  successor  to 
the  "Recovery  of  Jerusalem."  Full  particulars  will  be  advertised  in  the  next 
Quarterly  Statement.  Meantime,  those  who  wish  to  possess  the  work  may 
forward  their  names  to  the  Secretary.  It  will  be  issued  at  a  reduced  rate  to  sub- 
scribers. 


Lieutenant  Conder  reports  that  he  has  now  duplicate  lists  of  names  in  Arabic 
as  follows  : — 

Jerusalem  sheet       ....         1,400  names. 

Nablus         „  .         .         .         .  900       „ 

Jaffa  ,,  ....  300  approximately. 

Caesarea       ,,  ....  300  ,, 

In  all  2,900  names.     The  Jerusalem  sheet  was  submitted  to  Mr.  Nt)el  Temple 


NOTES.  61 

Moore,  H.M.  Consul  at  Jerusalem,  who  very  kindly  went  through  it,  finding 
only  twenty  correetions  to  make  out  of  the  whole,  and  these  consisting  of 
vulgarisms  used  by  the  fellaheen  and  purposely  adopted  by  Lieut.  Conder. 


The  Balance  Sheet  and  Treasurer's  Statement  for  1874  will  be  found  in  their 
usual  place.  The  Balance  Sheet  shows  a  larger  expenditure  on  exploration  than 
in  any  preceding  year.  The  heavy  debt  under  the  head  of  Sundry  Unpaid 
Accounts  has  already  been  reduced  by  £450. 


The  amount  of  subscriptions,  donations,  and  proceeds  froni'  lectures  and  other 
sources  paid  to  the  central  office  from  Juue  1  to  March  22nd,  was  £1,439  14s.  5d. 
The  balance  of  current  account  at  the  same  date  was  £469  18s.  Id. 


It  will  be  a  great  help  to  the  Committee  if  subscribers  will  kindly  pay  their 
subscriptions  to  the  local  secretaries  or  to  the  central  office  without  waiting  to  be 
reminded. 


The  following  are  the  Resolutions  which  have  been  passed  by  the  Manchester 
Committee  : — 

"That  this  meeting  warmly  approves  of  the  objects  of  the  Palestine  Explora- 
tion Fund,  and  pledges  itself  to  use  every  exertion  to  raise  the  sum  of  at  least 
£500  during  the  year  1875." 

"That  the  Committee  are  highly  gratified  to  learn  that  there  is  a  prospect 
of  the  £500  asked  for  at  the  Manchester  meeting  being  raised,  and  that  it 
shall  be  devoted  to  the  outfit  and  maintenance  of  another  special  man  on  the 
Survey." 

"  That  an  effort  be  made  to  raise  the  sum  of  £500  as  soon  as  possible." 

Meantime  up  to  the  present  date  (March  20)  the  sum  of  £272  has  been 
subscribed  and  forwarded  to  the  central  office.  A  new  man  has  been  asked 
for  at  the  War  Office. 


Among  Lieutenant  Conder's  reports  will  be  found  a  special  account  of  the 
discoveries  made  by  Mr.  Henry  Maudslay,  M.  Inst.  C.E.  (whose  name  was 
erroneously  spelt  Maudsley  in  the  last  Quartcrhj  Statement)  of  the  rock  scarp 
on  Zion  already  referred  to. 


A  part  of  the  collections  made  in  Palestine  by  Captain  Warren,  M.  C'lermont- 
Ganneau,  and  other  officers  of  the  Fund,  will  be  sent  in  April  to  the  Yorkshire 
Exhibition,  which  will  be  held  in  Leeds. 


(62  NOTES. 

Many  of  the  back  numbers  of  the  Quarterly  Statement  are  out  of  print. 
Inquiries  are  constantly  made  as  to  the  possibility  of  procuring  complete  sets. 
The  Committee  would  be  very  much  obliged  to  any  subscriber  who  does  not 
want  his  old  copies  if  he  will  kindly  forward  them  to  the  Secretary. 


In  the  January  Quarterly  Statement,  p.  6,  the  name  of  Dr.  Thevictz  is  wrongly 
called  Thevier. 

Also,  p.  51,  Lekiyrh  should  have  been  placed  opposite  to  Giloh :  opposite  to 
Holon  should  be  Hilch.  No  identification  has  been  as  yet  suggested  by  Lieut. 
Conder  for  Goshen. 


THE  SURVEY  OF  PALESTINE. 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDER'S  REPORTS. 

XXV. 

Eetrospect  of  the  Principal  Results  of  the  Survey 

"Work  in  1874. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  which  has  proved  the  most  eventful  of  the 
three  which  have  yet  passed  during  the  Survey  of  Palestine,  I  may,  I 
think,  very  well  sum  up  the  results  as  far  as  they  are  new  and 
important. 

The  first  number  of  the  Quarterly  contained  the  account  of  the  site  of 
Gilgal  at  Shejeret  el  Ithleh,  where  first  Robinson  (though  vaguely), 
then  Herr  Zschokke,  had  already  found  the  name  Jiljulieh  applied 
to  certain  mounds,  and  a  ruined  pool  in  the  neighbourhood  of  a 
tree  which  is  considered  a  famous  and  sacred  site  to  the  Bedouin.  It 
appears  that  in  all  probability  there  was  a  convent  once  on  the  spot, 
and  the  name  may  be  a  relic,  not  of  Jewish  but  of  early  Byzantine 
memories.  Mr.  Drake,  however,  pointed  out  that  this  site,  the  only 
one  in  the  plain  where  any  relic  of  the  name  of  Gilgal  has  ever  been 
found  to  exist,  fulfilled  the  requisites  of  the  Biblical  and  Jewish 
accounts  better  than  any  formerly  proposed. 

In  February  we  commenced  our  difficult  and  trying  work  in  the 
Jordan  valley,  and  our  first  results  were  the  exploration  of  'Ain  Fasail, 
the  Phasaelis  of  Herod,  and  the  discovery  of  the  true  junction  of  Wady 
Far'a,  seven  miles  lower  down  than  it  had  been  ever  fixed  before.  We 
also  discovered  a  large  area  in  which  salt  springs  occur,  possibly 
one  of  the  sources  of  the  Dead  Sea  salt.  Up  to  this  point  also  I 
succeeded  in  tracing  the  old  geological  shore  line  of  the  Dead  Sea,  the 
geological  notes  being  throughout  of  the  highest  interest. 

Our  second  camp  was  in  Wady  Far'a  at  the  feet  of  the  mysterious 
Kurn  Surtabeh,  the  identification  of  which  with  the  great  witness  altar 
Ed.  one  of  the  most  interesting  sites  in  Palestine  which  rer.-ained  un- 
known, I  have  already  suggested.  The  identification  of  the  Eock  Oreb, 
lower  down  the  valley,  was  made  during  the  December  of  the  preceding 
year. 

We  wei-e  also  able  to  give  fresh  proof  of  the  theory  proposed  by 
Robinson,  but  not  generally  accepted,  that  Wady  Far'a  is  the  true  site 
of  the  springs  of  (Enon,  where  St.  John  baptized — a  site  of  immense 
interest,  hitherto  placed  at  a  Sheikh  Salim,  of  which  we  failed  to  find  the 


64  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

name  known  at  a  spot  where  tlie  supply  of  water  is  insufficient  and  not 
as  at  Wady  Far'a  perennial.  In  Wady  Far'a,  also,  the  town  of 
Arclielais  had  been  placed  as  marked  on  the  Peutinger  tables  (a.d.  393). 
It  had,  however,  been  always  placed  at  Tell  Busiliyeh,  where  no  ruins  of 
any  interest  occur.  "We  found  that  at  the  plain  which  lies  at  the  base  of 
the  Kurn-Surtabeh,  through  which  Wady  Far'a  flows,  there  are  remains 
of  a  large  and  important  site,  with  tombs  of  the  Greek  period,  one 
having  a  much  defaced  Hebrew  inscription,  containing,  however, 
nothing  beyond  a  common  Jewish  name.  This  ruin,  called  Keiawa,  is 
probably  the  site  of  Archelais,  of  which  Josephus  tells  us  that  it  was 
built  by  Archelaus  the  Ethnarch  (Ant.  xvii.  13.  1). 

We  passed  next  to  Wady  Maleh,  where  we  were  obliged  to  drink 
brackish  water  for  ten  days,  and  suffered  much  from  the  rain  and 
oppressive  atmosphere.  We  here  took  the  temperatm-e  of  the  various 
springs  and  visited  the  site  of  Succoth  ('Ain  Sakut).  The  geological 
observations  here  were  very  interesting,  tending  to  show  that  another 
lake  once  filled  the  plain  of  Beisan,  and  that  a  region  of  great  volcanic 
activity  hitherto  unknown  existed  round  Wady  Maleh.  This  is  the  last 
salt  stream,  and  the  springs  higher  up  the  valley,  as  well  as  the  Sea  of 
Galilee,  are  sweet. 

We  continued  the  work  to  within  a  few  miles  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee, 
and  made  a  large  plan  of  Beisan,  showing  the  hippodrome  and  other 
interesting  details,  as  well  as  the  line  of  the  Roman  walls.  We 
also  were  able  to  throw  much  light  on  the  defeat  of  Midian  by 
Gideon,  identifying  the  Zererath  of  that  account  with  'Ain  Zahrah, 
and  showing  that  the  account  is  in  accordance  with  the  existence  of 
the  Eock  Oreb  near  Jericho. 

Marching  across  the  country  to  the  Maritime  Plain,  we  completed 
100  square  miles  and  surveyed  Arsuf  (Apollonia),  confirming  Major 
Wilson's  identification  of  Antipatris  with  the  ruins  of  Kala'at  Kas  el 
'Ain,  and  showing  the  improbability  of  any  large  town  having  stood  at 
Kefr  Saba,  the  ordinary  identification. 

The  period  of  my  absence  in  England  was  not  without  work.  The 
site  of  Alexandrium  was  visited,  and  the  great  tower  which  there  exists 
measured  and  observed ;  various  other  short  expeditions,  intended  to 
check  former  observations,  were  made,  and  100  square  miles  completed. 

The  autumn  campaign  commenced  later  than  I  could  have  wished, 
but  was  carried  through  country  intensely  interesting  and  very  little 
known. 

The  principal  Biblical  results  were — (1)  The  possible  identification 
of  the  Choresh  of  Ziph  (doubtfully  translated  wood)  with  the  Khoreisa 
close  to  Tell  Zif,  and  of  the  wood  of  Hareth  (probably  a  cori-uption)  with 
the  town  of  Kharas  close  to  the  little  village  of  Keilah.  (2)  The  hill  of 
Hachilah  I  also  proposed  to  find  at  Nebi  Yekin,  and  the  striking  agree- 
ment of  the  site  with  the  requisites  of  the  Bible  account  of  David's 
attack  on  Saul's  camp  were  explained.  (3)  Still  more  important  was 
the  examination  of  Robinson's  position  of  'Anab,  suggesting  the  iden- 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDER'S  REPORTS.  65 

tification  of  the  royal  city  of  Debir  witliElDhohenyeb,  and  the  "  upper 
and  lower  springs "  with  the  Seil-ed-Dilbeh,  the  only  stream  in  this 
country  whicli  is  dry  and  dependent  on  rain-water  throughout.  (4)  The 
recovery  of  Zanoah  at  Kh.  Saniit,  which  is  more  in  accordance  with  the 
position  of  this  town  in  the  lists  of  the  cities  of  Judah  than  the 
identification  by  Robinson  with  Kh.  Zanuta.  (5)  From  Yuttah,  also, 
we  made  the  interesting  and  valuable  discovery  of  the  possible  Levitical 
boundary  of  the  town  of  Eshtemo'a  (Semu'a),  a  large  stone  called  Hajr 
el  Sakhain  existing  beside  the  north  road  to  the  village,  at  the  distance 
of  3,000  cubits,  and  forming  the  boundary  of  the  village  possessions  at 
the  present  day. 

In  visiting  Beersheba  we  made  an  important  difference  in  the  posi- 
tion of  the  wells  as  formerly  fixed ;  we  also  saw  reason  to  suspect  that 
the  stone-work  of  the  well  was  far  more  modern  than  had  been  pre- 
viously supposed.  In  surveying  the  line  from  thence  to  Moladah  we 
discovered  a  site  previously  unknown,  called  El  Meshash  (the  pits),  with 
two  fine  weUs,  answering  well  to  the  position  of  the  Scriptural  Heshmon, 
not  previously  identified.  We  also  fixed  the  sites  of  Hazar  Shual  and 
Hazar  Gaddah,  and  found  the  interesting  fact  that  these  sites  are  walled 
towns  of  flint,  answering  to  the  meaning  of  Hazar  or  enclosure. 

In  conclusion,  the  report  just  sent  home  shows  how  important  our 
work  has  been  in  the  possessions  of  the  tribe  of  Benjamin ;   and  the 
suggested  identification  of  Sechu,  possibly  fixing  the  sites  of  Ramah  and 
Gibeah  at  Er  Ram  and  Jeb'a,  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  we  have  yet 
obtained.    The  exploration  of  the  Adasa  of  the  book  of  Maccabees,  the 
explanation  of  the  various  places  passed  by  in  Saul's  journey  in  search 
of  the  asses,  the  probable  identification  of  Beth  Car,  giving  the  line  of 
Philistine  invasion  in  the  time  of  Samuel,  the  fixing  of  many  unknown 
sites  in  the  west  of  Benjamin  or  on  the  border  of  Dan,  the  recovery 
of  Luz  at  Khirbet  Lozeh,  close  to  Beitin,  and  further  illustration  of  the 
grand  descriptive  passage  in  Isaiah  x.,  are  among  the  most  valuable  of 
these.     The  identification  of  Nob  and  Mizpeh  with  Sh'afat,  and  the  sug- 
gestion that  Tell  el  Eul  is  one  of  the  resting-places  of  the  tabernacle, 
cannot  fail  to  be  considered  of  interest,  and  although  not  entirely  new 
are  given  on  new  grounds. 

In  conclusion  we  have  added  the  surveys  of  Tell  Jezer  and  of  the 
Zion  Scarp,  and  brought  the  total  amount  surveyed  to  over  3,400  square 

miles. 

Claude  R.  Conder,  Lieut.  R.E. 


66 


XXVI. 

The  Hill  Cottntry  of  Judah — Fifth  Campaign. 

On  the  otli  of  October,  we  arrived  at  our  new^camp,  on  the  highest 
part  of  the  Hebron  watershed,  near  the  village  of  Halhul,  and  just  above 
the  fine  spring  'Aia  el  Dherweh,  which  an  ancient  though  erroneous 
tradition  points  out  as  the  site  of  the  baptism  of  the  Eunuch  by  Philip, 
as  commemorated  by  a  small  mediteval  chapel,  now  in  ruins.  On  the 
7th  we  recommenced  the  out-door  work,  and  the  rest  of  the  week  was 
spent  in  erecting  cairns  and  observing  from  them. 

The  country  we  have  now  entered  is  a  district  containing  a  great 
deal  of  interest,  but  it  is  fairly  well  known  already,  and  was  carefully 
explored  by  Dr.  Robinson,  whose  information  appears  throughout  to 
be  extremely  exact.  The  number  of  ancient  sites  is  unusually  large, 
and  the  majority  of  them  have  been  identified  in  a  satisfactory  manner. 
Among  these  maybe  mentioned  Halhul  itself,  unaltered  from  the  name 
in  Joshua's  time  ;  Beth  Anoth  (Beit  'Ainun) ;  Jedor  (Kh.  Ejdur) ;  Ado- 
raim,  fortified  by  Eehoboara  (Dura) ;  Tekoa  (Teku'a) ;  Eamah  (El  Ea- 
meh)  ;  Beth  Tappuah  (Tuffiih) ;  and  Keilah,  on  the  borders  of  the  low 
land,  or  Shephelah,  now  the  village  of  Kila.  Immediately  north  lies  a 
district  which  is  omitted  in  the  list  of  the  cities  of  Judah  in  the  Hebrew 
Bible.  This  omission  is  supplied  by  an  insertion  in  the  Septuagint  of 
eleven  cities,  all  immediately  south  of  Jerusalem ;  and  it  is  remarkable 
that  nine  out  of  the  eleven  are  easily  identified.  The  passage,  however, 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  much  studied,  and  it  is  possible  that  one 
or  two  of  the  identifications  will  be  new  as  given  below : — 

Teku'a. 


Theco    . 

Ephrata,  or  Bethlehem 

Phagor  . 

.^tan    . 


Beit  Lahm. 

Beit  Faghiir  (Rob. )  not  Beit  Fejjar. 

Urtas  (the  name  remains  in  'Ain 

'Atan,  near  the  pools). 
Kelonia. 


Kulon  . 

Tatam  . 

Thobes  .....     Soba. 

Karem 'Ain  Karem. 

Galem Beit  Jala. 

Thether  (or  Baither)      .         .         .     Bittir. 

Manocho 

All  these  places  are  sites  of  some  importance,  if  not  in  the  early,  at  all 
events  in  later  times.  The  passage,  if  interpolated,  is  due  to  some 
authority  having  an  intimate  knowledge  of  the  country,  but  is  more 
natural  to  suppose  it  lost  from  the  Hebrew  lists  of  the  fourth  century. 

E'thcol. — Another  identification  of  some  interest  proposed  by  Vandevelde 
seems  to  fall  to  the  ground  on  careful  examination.  He  mentions  Eshkali 
as  the  name  of  a  fountain  in  the  valley  north-west  of  Hebron,  but  the 
fellahin  have  pronounced  the  name  to  us  as  Keshkali.  Whether  the 
letter  Kaf,  or  Chaf,  as  here  pronounced,  can  be  supposed  to  have  taken 


THE    HILL   COUNTRY    OF   JUDAH.  67 

the  place  of  the  aleph  in  the  Hebrew,  I  leave  to  others  to  determine,  but 
those  who  would  place  the  great  vine  valley  farther  south,  will  not 
readily  feel  disposed  to  accept  the  identification.  Hebron  has,  however, 
been  always  famous  for  its  vines,  and  their  luxuriance  is  very  striking, 
as  no  special  advantages  of  climate  seem  observable,  unless  it  be  the  low 
sweeping  cloud  wreaths  which  come  up  in  autumn  from  the  sea,  covering 
the  hills,  as  they  do  also  in  Lebanon  and  on  Hermon,  where  the  cultiva- 
tion of  the  vine  is  still  considerable. 

Bethsura.— One  of  the  most  interesting  questions  in  this  part  of  the 
land  is  the  campaign  of  Antiochus  Eupator  against  Judas  Macchab?eus, 
which  I  have  now  studied  carefully  on  the  ground.  Autiochup,  coming 
from  Antioch,  ari'ived  in  Idumsea  and  laid  siege  to  the  strong  town  of 
Bethsura  (Antiq.  xii.  9).  The  position  of  this  town  as  fixed  by  Eobinson, 
is  as  good  an  identification  as  any  in  Palestine.  Built  as  a  stronghold 
against  Idumaja,  and  occurring  under  the  name  of  Bethzur  in  the  list  of 
towns  between  Halhul  and  Jedor,  with  the  name  existing  unchanged 
almost  to  this  day  as  Beit  Sur,  there  can  be  no  question  as  to  its  position. 
It  is  remarkable  that  a  confusion  should  have  been  made  which  would 
make  this  word  the  name  of  the  citadel  of  Maccabean  Jerusalem,  and 
refer  the  events  here  occurring  to  the  siege  of  the  capital,  but  a  careful 
examination  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  such  a  theory  is  not  supported 
by  any  passage  in  Josephus  or  in  the  Book  of  Maccabees.  The  impor- 
tance of  the  site  consists  in  its  natural  strength,  in  its  commanding  the 
only  good  line  of  advance  upon  Jerusalem  from  the  south,  and  in  the 
existence  of  a  fine  spring.  The  ruins  are  exactly  opposite  the  camp,  upon 
a  rounded  hill,  the  sides  of  which  are  scarped  in  parts.  A  large  tower,  of 
mediaeval  origin,  stands  ruined,  and  is  surrounded  by  vaults  and  founda- 
tions of  a  late  town,  but  large  stones  and  a  rude  column  or  two  have 
been  used  in  these  constructions,  giving  the  usual  indications  of  an  older 
site.  On  the  east  are  three  rock-cut  chambers,  square  and  without  loculi, 
and  farther  away  on  the  west  are  two  groups  of  similar  tombs,  but  all 
are  filled  with  earth  or  closed  by  the  natives,  probably  containing  the 
body  of  some  unfortunate  stranger,  murdered  at  perhaps  no  distant 
period,  for  a  robbery,  causing  the  death  of  one  victim  and  the  maiming 
of  two  or  three  others,  occurred  on  the  high  road  not  far  off,  scarcely 
more  than  a  week  ago.  The  spring  itself  is  at  some  little  distance,  being 
on  the  main  road,  but  situated  so  low  as  to  be  under  control  of  the 
defenders.  In  case  of  a  siege,  they  could  also  fall  back  on  a  well,  fed 
apparently  by  a  spring  which  exists  on  the  north-west,  in  the  midst  of 
the  ruins. 

The  town  thus  situated  formed  a  formidable  obstacle  in  the  advance  of 
Antiochus,  as  it  had  been  the  site  also  of  many  Maccabean  successes 
before.  Judas,  leaving  Jerusalem,  hastened  to  raise  the  siege,  and  took 
up  a  position  at  Beth  Zachariah,  a  distance  of  70  fuidongs  north. 
Antiochus  advanced  at  once  to  meet  him,  and  the  battle  so  graphically 
described  by  Josephus  took  place  at  "certain  straits."  The  unwieldy 
elephants  were  made  "to  follow  one  another  through  the  narrow  passes 


68  THE    HILL    COUNTRY   OF   JUDAH, 

because  they  could  not  be  set  sideways  by  one  another."  The  rest  of  the 
army  was  made  to  "  go  up  the  mountains,"  and  "  exposed  to  sight  their 
golden  and  brazen  shields,  so  that  a  glorious  splendour  was  sent  from, 
them,  and  when  they  shouted  the  mountains  echoed  again."  It  was  in 
this  battle  that  the  gallant  Eleazer,  brother  of  Judas,  perished  beneath 
the  suj^posed  royal  elephant,  but  the  commander,  "seeing  the  strength 
of  the  enemy,  retired  to  Jerusalem." 

Nothing  could  well  be  more  exact  than  this  description.  In  many 
parts  of  Judsea  it  would  be  almost  an  impossibility  to  make  use  of 
elephants,  and  this,  no  doubt  was  the  reason  why  Antiochus,  though 
coming  from  Antioch,  advanced  on  Jerusalem  from  the  south.  The  road 
from  Beit  Sur  to  Beit  Iskaria,  though  in  places  rough  and  rocky,  has 
nowhere  very  steep  gradients,  and  is  generally  open  and  smooth,  allow- 
room  for  the  march  of  a  great  force.  The  distance  of  the  latter  site  is 
about  seven  and  a  half  English  miles  from  Beit  Sur,  the  distance  given  by 
Josephus  being  a  little  over  eight.  It  appears  to  me,  however,  that  the 
exact  site  of  the  camp  of  Judas  has  not  as  yet  been  satisfactorily  fixed. 

Beit  Iskaria  stands  on  an  almost  isolated  hill  promontory,  being  con- 
tained on  the  east,  west,  and  north,  by  valleys  of  great  depth  starting 
suddenly  from  the  narrow  watershed,  whilst  on  the  south  is  a  narrow 
neck  of  land  connecting  the  site  with  the  spurs  of  the  main  chain. 

The  ruin  stands  just  within  this  isthmus  on  the  north,  but  shows  few 
signs  of  antiquity.  Two  or  three  columns  are  observable  amidst  the 
remains  of  ruined  houses,  and  in  the  entrance  to  the  little  mosque  are 
two  capitals  of  a  Byzantine  style,  belonging  to  the  eleventh  century. 
There  are  two  or  three  cisterns  in  the  village,  and  the  most  ancient  indica- 
tion is  a  broad  causeway,  protected  on  one  side  by  a  station  or  guard- 
house. Drafted  stones  are  observable  in  the  stone  fence  on  either  side  of 
the  road,  and  on  the  main  road  beyond  are  two  fallen  columns  and  a 
Eoman  milestone. 

The  site  thus  described,  and  supposed  by  Eobinson  to  be  that  of  Judas' 
camp,  is  indeed,  as  he  says,  "an  almost  impregnable  position;  "  but 
looked  at  from  a  military  point  of  view,  it  would  only  have  been  avail- 
able in  case  of  attack  from  the  north,  for  on  that  side  the  great  depth  of 
the  valley  forming  the  head  of  Wady  Musur  would  forbid  any  general  to 
select  a  place  where,  in  case  of  defeat,  he  would  be  driven  down  a  steep 
and  in  places  precipitous  hill-side.  In  the  two  accounts  by  Josephus 
there  is  no  indication  of  such  a  disastrous  flight,  but  the  idea  of  a  regular 
retreat  is  conveyed,  and  we  should  look,  therefore,  for  a  site  in  the  vicinity 
where,  whilst  defended  on  either  flank  and  in  front  by  the  conformation 
of  the  ground,  the  Maccabean  general  would  have  his  retreat  in  rear  left 
open,  and  where,  moreover,  he  would  be  supplied  with  water,  which  must 
always  have  been  deficient  at  the  village  itself. 

Now,  immediately  north-east  of  Beit  Iskaria  is  a  position  which  not 
only  fulfils  these  requisites  and  answers  to  the  description  by  Josephus, 
but  which  is  also  one  of  the  finest  strategical  points  in  Southern 
Palestine. 


THE    HILL   COUNTRY    OP   JUDAIL  69 

A  Ion"' narrow  range,  culminating  about  one  mile  from  Beit  Iskaria 
in  the  high  summit  of  the  Eas   Sherofeh,  is  separated  from  tlie  ruin 
by  the  deep  valley  already  noticed.     On  this  side  the  descent  to  the 
hills  is  very   sudden,  and  lines  of  grim   precipices   and  steep   slopes 
run   down  more  than    1,000    feet.     On    the    opposite    side   (the   east) 
the   descent   is   almost   as   steep,    and   the  ground  is  extremely  rocky 
and  difficult.     In   front,    a  low  and   narrow  ridge  leads  towards  the 
range,   which   widens    sufficiently    to   allow   of  the    deployment  of    a 
considerable   force.     The  importance   of  the  position  lies  in   its  com- 
munications.    The  main  Hebron  road  runs  beneath  it  on  the  east,  and 
is  here  so  bud  from  rocky  ground  and  narrow  passes,  that  a  very  small 
force  on  the  flank  would  effectually  arrest  the   approach  of  the  enemy, 
who  would  be  unable  to  turn  the  position,  as  the  valleys  towards  the 
east  grow  even  more  intricate  and  impassable.  Another  fine  road  leading 
up  from  the  south  winds  along  the  west  brow  of  the  range,  and  is  marked 
by  Roman  milestones.     Just  in  rear  it  joins  the  great  Roman  road  from 
Beit  Jibrin,  and  the  two  fall  afterwards  into  the  Hebron  road  near  the 
Pools  of  Solomon.     This  point  is  therefore  the  natural  defence  for  Jeru- 
salem on  the  south,  commanding  three  main  lines  of  advance  from  the 
Hebron  hills  and  from  the  plain.     The  retreat  over  open  ground  in  rear 
is  easy,  and  the  water  supply  from  a  good  spring  on  the  hill  side  ('Ain 
el  Kassisj,  with  the  great  reservoirs  behind,  is  sufficient  for  any  num- 
ber.    The  distance  of  the  summit  agrees  even  better  than  that  of  the 
ruin  of  Beit  Iskaria,  with  the  70  furlongs   from  Beit  Sur,  whilst  it  is 
sufficiently  near  to  be  best  indicated  by  the  name  of  this  the  nearest 
village.     In  order  to  bring    the    elephants    through    these    passes,  it 
would  have  been  necessary  to  divert  them  from  the  main  road  to  the 
gentler  approach  leading  to  the  hill,  and  no  doubt  the  Jewish  general 
foresaw  that  here,  if  anywhere,  he  could  make  certain  of  a  position  im- 
pregnable except  in  front. 

Bezeth.—A-nothev  site  famous  in  Maccabean  history  may  perhaps  be 
considered  as  now  identified  as  follows  : 

Bezeth,  or  Bethzetho,  is  described  as  a  village  with  a  great  pit.  It  was 
occupied  by  Bacchides,  after  retreating  from  Jerusalem  (A.nt.  XII.  x.  2), 
and  afterwards  by  Judas,  who  was  there  defeated.  There  is  no  mention 
of  the  direction  in  which  we  should  look  for  this  site,  but  as  Bacchides 
returns  thence  to  Antioch,  and  would  very  probably  have  advanced  in 
the  same  direction  in  which  Antiochus  himself  had  just  marched  on  the 
city,  we  may  very  well  look  for  Bezeth  on  the  south. 

I  would  suggest  therefore  the  identity  of  Bezeth  (which  in  the  Bible 
Dictionary  is  compared  with  the  name  Beth-zait,  applied  in  the  Syriac 
version  of  the  New  Testament  to  the  Mount  of  Olives)  with  the  ruin 
of  Beit  Z'ata,  inaccurately  obtained  formerly  as  Beit  Z'ater. 

The  only  known  requisite — the  large  pit — may  perhaps  be  considered 
as  satisfied  by  a  birket  or  pool  of  unusual  magnitude  from  which  one  of 
the  branches  of  Pilate's  aqueduct  leads.  The  site  is  without  doubt 
ancient  and  very  extensive.     On  the  west  is  the  ruined  village  of  Kufin, 


70  THE  HILL  COUNTRY  OP  JUDAH. 

and  nearer  the  road  are  crumbled  stones,  a  broken  sarcopliagus,  and  a 
fine  rock-cut  wine-press.  Farther  soiith  is  a  row  of  ancient  rock-cut 
sepulchres,  all  closed  by  the  modern  villagers,  and  one  in  especial,  a 
single  chamber,  is  remarkable  for  an  irregular  court  in  front  about  50 
feet  long  by  25  feet  wide,  containing  in  its  walls  over  150  niches  for 
lamps.  This  disposition  I  have  never  seen  except  here  and  at  the  tomb 
of  Joshua.  East  of  the  road  is  a  small  tower  or  station,  with  a  fine 
beehive  cistern,  and  yet  farther  east  a  ruined  building  of  considerable 
antiquity,  though  without  any  indication  of  date  or  origin.  The  site 
stands  high  on  the  east  of  Beit  Ummar,  and  commands  the  road  which 
on  either  side  ascends  to  it  from  a  valley. 

Ancient  Toimr. — Between  Beit  Iskaria  and  Beit  Z'ata  is  a  ruin  of  some 
interest.  It  lies  south  of  Beit  Sawir  and  east  of  a  ruin  called  Deshar. 
It  is  a  tower  about  50  feet  square,  composed  of  huge  blocks  of  very 
roughly-hewn  stone.  These  stones,  cut  from  the  rock  of  the  natural 
thickness  of  the  stratified  bed,  are  only  some  16  inches  thick,  whilst  in 
length  tbey  are  sometimes  8  or  9  feet,  by  5  feet  in  breadth.  No  modern 
peasant  hand  piled  such  large  blocks  upon  one  another,  and  they  bear 
throughout  the  marks  of  extreme  age,  and  of  having  been  exposed  to 
the  action  of  wind  and  rain  for  centuries.  Such  rude  drystone  monu- 
ments are  amongst  the  oldest  found  in  the  country,  and  may  well  date 
back  to  early  Jewish  times.  The  tower  in  question  is  too  large  to  be 
classed  with  the  ancient  vineyard  towers,  and  must  have  been  con- 
structed for  purposes  of  defence.  It  has  fallen  principally  on  the  south, 
where  many  courses  are  piled  above  one  another.  Not  far  off  is  a  square 
cemented  cistern,  also  covered  by  one  huge  block  of  similar  character,  but 
allowing  room  for  a  man  to  creep  in. 

The  Valley  of  Blessing. — One  of  the  most  graphic  passages  in  Chroni- 
cles is  connected  with  another  portion  of  the  work  from  this  camp, 
and  as  I  am  able  to  further  illustrate  it  by  a  new  identification,  it  may  be 
enlarged  upon  here.  In  2  Chron.  xx.,  we  read  that  the  children  of  Moab 
and  of  Ammon  having  come  in  great  multitudes  from  "  beyond  the  sea  " 
to  Hazazon  Tamar,  "which  is  Engedi,"  and  having  "come  up  by  the 
cliff  of  Ziz  to  the  end  of  the  brook  before  the  wilderness  of  Jeruel," 
had  finally  attacked  the  "inhabitants  of  Mount  Seir,  utterly  to  slay 
and  destroy  them  :  and  when  they  had  made  an  end  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Seir,  every  one  helped  to  destroy  another."  Jehoshaphat  meanwhile 
had  come  forth  with  his  army  "  into  the  wilderness  of  Tekoa."  "  And 
when  Judah  came  towards  the  watchtower  in  the  wilderness,  they  looked 
unto  the  multitude,  and,  behold,  they  were  dead  bodies  fallen  to  the  earth, 
and  none  escaped,"  verse  24,  "  and  on  the  fourth  day  they  assembled 
themselves  in  the  Valley  of  Berachah  (blessing),  for  there  they  blessed  the 
Lord."  To  this  account  Josephus  (Antiq.  ix.  1)  adds  but  little.  He 
mentions  a  place  called  "  the  eminence,"  apparently  as  identical  with 
the  "end  of  the  brook,"  and  also  clearly  explains  that  the  "sea"  in 
question  is  the  lake  Asphaltitis.  To  any  one  who  has  visited  the 
country  the  description  reads  with  remarkable  force  and  exactness. 


THE  HILL  COUNTRY  OF  JUDAH. 


71 


The  mixed  force  from  cast  aud  south-east  of  the  Dead  Sea  had 
crossed  round  its  southern  end,  or  perhaps  by  the  old  fords  of  the 
Lisan,  and  camped  at  Eagedi,  the  finest  spring  on  the  western  shores. 
The  cliff  of  Ziz  is  generally  supposed  to  be  a  pass  by  which  at  the 
present  day  (as  Dr.  Eobinson  remarks)  the  Arabs  ascend  towards  the 
villages  in  their  marauding  expeditions.  The  direct  road  leads  towards 
Teku'a,  and  an  important  pass  towards  the  village  of  Beit  'Ainuu.  No 
attempt  has  as  yet  been  made  to  identify  the  Seir  of  this  passage,  which 
must  not  be  confounded  with  that  east  of  Jordan,  or  with  the  Mount 
Seir  west  of  Jerusalem.  In  the  pass  just  mentioned  exists  the  village 
of  S'air,  hidden  between  the  hills  and  surrounded  with  gardens;  being 
well  supplied  with  water,  it  was  no  doubt  always  a  rich  district,  and 
it  lies  entirely  unprotected  from  such  incursions.  We  may,  therefore, 
•well  suppose  a  marauding  party  to  have  come  up  to  the  village,  aud 
retreated  to  the  desert  once  more  on  the  road  to  Tek'ua. 

The  position  taken  by  Jehoshaphat  at  the  "  watchtower  of  the  wilder- 
ness" beyond  (or,  as  Josephus  has  it,  below)  Tekoa,  was  intended  to  bar 
the  approach  to  the  capital,  and  was  no  doubt  on  the  edge  of  the  higher 
hills,  whence  the  view  extends  over  the  long  succession  of  rolling 
chalk  hills  which  lie  between  Engedi  and  the  watershed.  Thence  he 
would  look  down  on  the  discomfited  host,  who,  quarrelling  no  doubt 
over  their  booty,  had  so  providentially  turned  their  swords  on  one 
another. 

The  valley  of  Berachah  is  also  known.  The  name  Breikut  applies 
to  a  ruin  at  the  head  of  the  great  Wildy  'Arrub,  which  runs  under 
Beit  Fejjas  eastward,  at  no  great  distance  from  Teku'a.  Here,  then, 
in  a  broad  rich  vale,  well  watered  by  copious  springs,  and  giving  space 
for  the  collection  of  a  great  multitude,  the  people  assembled  returning 
from  the  desert  to  rejoice  in  their  deliverance.  In  the  same  way  now, 
when  the  waters  burst  out  from  the  well  of  Joab  at  Jerusalem,  the  whole 
valley  is  fiUed  with  the  inhabitants,  who,  bringing  down  their  provisions 
with  wine  or  raki,  sit  all  day  long  under  the  olive,  rejoicing  in  the  rare 
luxury  of  a  flowing  stream. 

Pilate's  Aqueduct.— In  a  report  from  Bethlehem,  the  late  Mr.  Drake 
gives  an  account  of  a  part  of  this  aqueduct,  which  we  have  been  the 
first  to  trace  to  its  source.  He  rode  along  it  as  far  as  the  neighbourhood 
of  Teku'a.  Corporal  Brophy,  in  whose  district  it  lies,  has  now  again 
taken  it  up,  and  traces  it  in  the  first  place  to  the  Wady  el  'Arrub 
just  mentioned.  Here  we  find  a  large  birket,  resembling  those 
near  Urtas  (Solomon's  Pools),  fed  originally  by  the  springs  of  the  valley. 
The  aqueduct  now  divides  into  two,  the  longer  line  following  the  foot 
of  the  hills  on  the  south  side  of  the  wady,  and  passing  through  another 
pool.  The  true  source  is  found  at  'Ain  Kueizib'ha,  in  the  wady  and  near 
the  ruin  of  the  same  name.  The  other  branch  comes,  as  before  noticed, 
from  the  birket  at  Kufin. 

The  length  of  this  extraordinary  engineering  work,  measured  along  its 
course,  cannot  be  less  than  30  miles.  The  southern  source  is  15  Koman 
miles  from  Jerusalem  in  a  straight  line  on   the  map.     Josephus  states 


72  THE   SITE   OF    BETHABARA, 

that  Pilate  brought  the  water  a  distance  of  200  furlongs,  or  25  Roman 
miles,  a  computation  which,  taking  the  course  into  consideration,  is  ex- 
tremely moderate.  The  channel  winds  like  a  seri^ent  along  the  contour 
of  the  hills,  and  succeeds  occasionally  in  running  up  a  valley  without 
losing  its  level.  It  is  carried  over  Wady  Marah  el  Ajjal  on  a  parapet 
over  12  feet  high.  The  masonry  is  throughout  similar  to  that  of 
the  pools,  and  of  the  other  aqueducts  near  them,  being  roughly  hewn 
and  packed  with  small  stones,  but  the  cement  throughout  is  hard  and 
well  preserved. 


xxvii: 

The  Site  op  Bethabaea. 

The  site  of  Bethabara  is  of  interest  as  the  probable  one  of  our 
Lord's  baptism,  and  as  such  has  been  eagerly  sought.  As  yet,  how- 
ever, no  trace  of  the  name  has  been  recovered,  and  the  arguments 
on  the  probable  position  are  far  from  satisfactory.  Bethabara  is  only 
once  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament,  as  the  place  where  John 
was  baptizing  soon  after,  and  probably  at  the  time  of  the  commence- 
ment of  Christ's  ministry  (John  i.  28).  We  learn,  first,  that  it  was 
"beyond  Jordan"  {jipav  tov  \ophavov) ;  and,  second,  probably  in  the 
"region  round  about  Jordan"  (Matt.  iii.  5);  the  -n-epixuipos  which  is 
supposed  identical  with  the  Ciccar  of  the  Old  Testament,  a  term  by 
which  Dean  Stanley  understands  the  Zor  or  lower  valley  through 
which  the  Jordan  flows  in  the  middle  of  the  Ghor  or  broader  de- 
pressed plain. 

From  the  fact  that  "Jerusalem  and  all  Judaea"  went  out  to  be 
baptized,  Bethabara  has  been  generally  located  in  the  southern  part 
of  the  valley  near  to  the  traditional  site  of  the  baptism,  and  in  ex- 
plaining the  topography  of  the  flight  of  Midian,  and  the  slaughter 
of  Oreb  and  Zeeb,  I  have  had  occasion  to  point  out  that  such  a  site 
would  best  fit  the  Bethabara  of  the  Book  of  Judges — the  ford  held  by 
the  men  of  Ephraim,  and  generally  thought  to  be  identical  with  the 
New  Testament  Bethabara. 

The  word  Bethabara  ("House  of  the  crossing  over"  or  "  Ford")  is 
one  very  likely  to  be  applicable  to  many  points  on  the  course  of  the 
Jordan.  In  the  south  it  would  have  a  special  application,  and  might 
be  considered  as  traditionally  preserving  the  memory  of  the  great 
"  crossing  over " — the  passage  of  the  Jordan  by  the  children  of 
Israel  under  Joshua.  It  would  seem  probable  that  the  Bethabara, 
or  house  of  the  ford,  was  a  small  hamlet  or  group  of  houses  in  the 
immediate  vicinity,  and  it  may  even  be  supposed  that  part  was 
west,  part  east  of  the  river,  thus  explaining  the  qualification  of 
"  Bethabara  heyond  Jordan."  This  is  rendered  yet  more  probable  if 
the  irepixaipos  be  properly  equivalent  with  the  Ciccar,  as  in  this  case 
the  site  of  Bethabara  is  limited  to  a  distance  of  about  half  a  mile 
from  the  water. 

Curiously  enough  the  oldest  manuscripts  read  Bethany  instead  of 


THE   SITE    OF    BETHABARA.  73 

Betliabai-a,  but  the  reading  is  not  admitted,  nor  would  tlie  Judaean 
Bethany  be  a  fit  place  for  baptism,  or  in  any  way  to  be  described  as 
in  the  region  of  Jordan.  Bethabara  is  mentioned  as  a  known 
place  by  Eusebius,  but  he  seems  evidently  to  refer  to  the  modern 
traditional  site.  In  the  absence  of  more  exact  information,  it  has 
been  generally  identified  with  Bethnimrah,  '.which  has  been  fixed  at 
the  modem  Nimrin.  This  identification  rests  solely  on  the  fact  that 
Eusebius  describes  Ne/^po  as  a  large  village  in  Katania,  and  called  Abara. 
It  seems,  however,  to  have  escaped  notice  that  there  is  a  serious 
objection  to  placing  Bethabara  so  far  south.  Our  Lord  descended 
from  Galilee  to  Jordan,  and  to  Galilee  he  returned  after  the  baptism 
and  temptation.  In  the  chapter  which  relates  the  testimony  of  John 
the  Baptist  to  Christ,  and  which  contains  the  passage,  "these  things 
were  done  in  Bethabara,  beyond  Jordan,  where  John  was  baptizing," 
we  leaa-n,  in  continuation  (ver.  43),  "  the  day  following  Jesus  would 
go  forth  into  Gaillee,"  and  the  next  chapter  commences,  "  and  on 
the  third  day  there  was  a  marriage  in  Cana  of  Galilee,"  at  which 
Christ  was  present  (John  ii.  1). 

It  seems  to  me,  therefore,  that  the  search  for  this  site  should  be 
confined  to  the  immediate  ^neighbourhood  of  Jordan,  within  thirty 
miles  of  the  site  of  Cana  of  Galilee  (the  present  Khii-bet  Kana),  and 
it  is  precisely  in  such  a  position,  one  mile  north  of  the  mouth  of 
Wady  Jalud,  within  an  easy  two  days'  joui-ney  (twenty-five  miles) 
of  Nazareth  and  Cana,  and  at  one  of  the  principal  fords,  that  we 
have  found  the  name. 

The  fords  of  Jordan,  some  shifting  and  insignificant,  but  others  per- 
manent and  lying  on  principal  roads,  have  as  yet  been  very  little  known. 
We  were  careful  to  collect  every  one  we  could,  and  to  verify  the 
names  and  positions.  It  was  no  slight  task,  as  our  sketch  of  the  river 
now  shows  upwards  of  fifty,  of  which  eight  only  are  to  be  seen  on 
Murray's  map  lately  published.  The  labour  of  this  part  of  the  Survey 
was  very  trying,  but  we  should  be  sufficiently  rewarded  by  this  simple 
discovery  if  generally  accepted. 

The  ford  in  question  is  called  Makhadhet  'Abara,  or  the  "  Ford  of 
the  Crossing  Over,"  for  the  name  is  derived  from  the  Ai-abic  root, 
'Abr,  having  the  meaning  of  crossing;  and  thus,  though  the  second 
a  is  an  alcph,  and  would  not  occur  in  the  Hebrew  Beth'abara,  the 
Arabic  root  and  the  Hebrew  root,  and  consequently  the  meaning  of 
the  name  in  both  languages,  is  identical. 

Makhadhet  'Abara  is  one  of  the  principal  northern  fords ;  the 
great  road  descending  Wady  Jalud  on  its  northern  side,  and  leading 
to  Gilead  and  the  south  of  the  Hauran,  passes  over  by  it.  The 
situation  is  well  fitted  for  the  site  of  the  baptism,  not  only  on  account 
of  its  nearness  to  Galilee  and  Nazareth,  but  also  because  the  river 
bed  is  here  more  open,  the  steep  banks  of  the  upper  valley  or  ghor 
lesser  and  farther  retired,  thus  leaving  a  broader  space  for  the 
collection  of  the  great  crowd  which  had  followed  John  the  Baptist 
into  the  wilderness. 


74  THE   SURVEY    OF    TELL   JEZER. 

As  regards  the  village  itself,  no  traces  seem  now  to  exist.  In  the 
valley  of  Jordan  there  was  scarcely  any  ruins,  and  those  round 
Jericho  all  date  seemingly  in  Christian  times.  Were  the  former 
villages  similar  to  the  miserable  mud  hovels  of  Jericho,  Scythopolis, 
and  Delhemiyeh,  it  would,  however,  be  quite  possible  for  all  traces 
to  have  vanished  of  the  hamlet  here  standing  eighteen  centuries 
ago.  The  position  on  a  principal  road  would  in  any  case  make  the 
proposed  site  that  most  probable  for  a  hamlet,  and  it  seems  unlikely 
that  any  more  important  place  would  have  been  situate  so  near  to 
the  banks  of  the  river. 


XXVIII. 

The  Survey  of  Tell  Jezer. 

In  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  Committee,  we  took  the 
earliest  opportunity  of  visiting  Tell  Jezer,  to  make  a  special  survey  of 
the  country  within  a  mile  of  the  tell  on  each  side,  to  the  scale  of  six 
inches  to  the  mile.  In  sending  home  a  finished  copy  of  this  survey,  as 
well  as  the  photographs  taken  by  Lieut.  Kitchener,  I  think  best  to 
append  a  detailed  report  on  the  work  and  notes  on  its  bearing  upon  the 
questions  which  make  the  spot  specially  interesting. 

We  started  oa  Thursday,  the  3rd  of  December,  and  reached  the 
village  of  Kubab  about  two  p.m.,  where  we  arranged  a  camping- ground, 
and  then  at  once  proceded  to  the  work.  We  measured  a  base  line  on 
the  tell,  and  found  the  position  of  the  various  stones,  and  made  the 
necessary  preparations  for  beginning  the  theodolite  work  next  morning. 

On  Friday  we  started  again  early  for  a  long  day's  work.  Our  base 
line,  which  was  traced  on  a  distant  tree  to  ensure  accuracy,  measured 
2,312  links,  and  had  a  true  bearing  of  73°  30'.  From  the  east  end  the 
position  of  the  first  stone  and  of  a  cairn  erected  near  the  second,  as  well 
as  that  of  the  inscription  found  by  Dr.  Chaplin,  were  visible.  Observa- 
tions wei'e  made  with  a  five-inch  theodolite  from  both  ends  to  the  top 
of  the  dome  of  Sheikh  Mohammed  el  Jezair,  which  is  a  point  in  the 
triangulation  of  the  one-inch  survey.  A  point  was  chosen  south  of  the 
base  line,  and  observed  from  both  ends  of  the  base.  Observations  were 
then  made  from  this  point  to  the  first  stone.  Dr.  Chaplin's  inscription, 
and  the  cairn  near  the  second  stone.  These  lines  will  be  calculated  and 
the  position  of  the  stones  definitely  fixed. 

Having  finished  this  part  of  the  work,  we  plotted  the  results,  and 
commenced  filling  in  the  necessary  detail.  The  plan  of  the  tell  itself 
will  be  reduced  from  a  much  larger  compass  sketch  made  last  winter. 
The  rest  was  done  by  the  ordinary  method  of  interpolation  used  on  the 
one-inch  plan,  and  every  precaution  has  been  taken  to  ensui-e  accuracy. 

The  day  was  one  of  the  worst  we  have  had  this  autumn.  A  strong 
east  wind  blew  in  our  faces  during  the  whole  course  of  the  observations, 
and  the  dryness  and  peculiarly  depressing  absence  of  ozone  made  our 
task  far  from  pleasant.     Lieut.  Kitchener  succeeded  in  obtaining  some 


THE    SURVEY    OF    TELL   JEZER.  75 

photographs  under  peculiarly  unfavourable  circumstances,  and  after 
nine  hours  fatiguing  work  we  returned  to  camp  very  tired. 

Saturday  morning  we  devoted  to  the  vicinity  of  the  inscriptions.  At 
the  stone  visited  by  Dr.  Chaplin  we  made  a  careful  measured  sketch  of 
the  letters,  and  a  rough  plan  of  the  position  of  the  blocks.  Between 
the  first  and  second  stones  Lieut.  Kitchener  at  once  found  the  other 
inscription  noticed  by  M.  Ganneau.  We  took  a  sketch  of  its  position 
on  the  stones,  but  I  was  aware  that  M.  Lecompte  had  made  a  good 
drawing,  and  taken  a  squeeze  of  it ;  we  therefore  only  fixed  its  exact 
position. 

The  Stones. — The  first  and  most  interesting  question  as  regards 
Jezer  is  that  of  the  position  of  the  inscribed  stones.  The  bearing  from 
the  second  or  south-eastern  stone  to  the  cairn  erected  for  observation 
■was  145°.  Fi-om  the  cairn  to  the  first  or  north-west'  stone  the  bearing 
Wtts  323°.  The  first  distance  was  53  paces,  the  second  138  paces.  This 
makes  the  bearing  from  one  stone  to  the  other  as  nearly  as  possible 
152°.  The  variation  of  the  compass  was  4°,  which  gives  148°  as  the 
true  bearing,  being  13°  otf  the  north-west  line.  The  stones*  are  so  near 
one  another  that  this  diff"erence  would  make  a  very  sensible  error  in  the 
plotting  of  such  a  large  area  as  is  supposed  to  be  represented  by  their 
direction.  The  reason  why  the  bearing  was  obtained  through  an  inter- 
mediate point  was,  that  the  two  stones  are  not  in  sight  of  one  another. 
The  true  east  and  west  line  from-the  south-east  stone  passes  through 
the  tell  towards  the  south  side. 

It  must  not  be  supposed  that  these  inscriptions  occupy  a  conspicuous 
position;  they  are  on  a  low  hill-side,  among  rough  rocks,  and  far  from 
any  road  or  track.  The  south-east  stone  is  not  visible  from  the  tell,  or 
from  the  first  inscription.  It  is  with  difficulty  that  one  recovers  the 
places,  even  when  knowing  approximately  where  to  look  for  them.  No 
indication  of  the  foundations  of  a  oippus  or  other  conspicuous  monu- 
ment which,  as  M.  Ganneau  pointed  out,  might  have  been  thought  to 
stand  above  them  is  traceable  near  to  either. 

The  next  question  is  that  of  the  distance  of  the  stones  from  the  tell, 
which  is  now  definitely  settled  by  the  theodolite  observations  from  an 
accurately  measured  base,  the  only  method  which  could  with  safety  be 
adopted,  owing  to  the  hilly  nature  of  the  ground.  It  will  be  seen  that 
they  measure  (85  chains)  5,600  feet  from  the  centre  of  the  tell,  but  it  is 
impossible  to  give  this  very  accurately,  as  there  is  no  fixed  point  from 
which  to  start. 

In  addition  to  these  two  stones,  which,  as  will  be  seen,  lie  at  a 
distance  of  480  feet  apart,  there  are  twoother  rude  inscriptions  in  the 
same  locality.  I  was  under  the  impression  at  the  time  of  our  visit  that 
a  fifth  was  known  to  the  villagers  of  Kubab.  Another  inscription  south 
of  those  mentioned  is  spoken  of  by  the  fellahin  of  Kubab  as  existing 
still,  but  they  profess  themselves  afraid  to  show  it.  I  informed  them 
that  I  knew  of  four  altogether,  at  which  they  appeared  surprised.  At 
'  length  one  volunteered  the  information  that  the  stone  which  remained 

G 


7G  THE   SURVEY   OF   TELL   JEZER. 

lay  between  tlie  otliei' two.  This  refers,  of  course,  to  the  Hebrew  inscrip- 
tion seen  by  M.  Ganneail,  which  lies  eight  paces  from  the  line  of  the 
boundary  stones,  and  seventy-two  paces  on  the  line  from  the  north- 
western or  first  stone.  I  send  a  sketch  of  the  block  upon  which  it 
occurs ;  the  face  of  the  stone  is  sloping,  and  a  sort  of  rim  is  left  above, 
as  if  to  protect  the  inscription. 

The  fourth  inscription,  north  of  the  two  others,  was  noticed  by  Dr. 
Chaplin  in  a  late  visit  to'Jezer;  it  consists  of  only  two  letters.  The 
bearing  from  the  first  stone  is  310°;  it  is  therefore  not  on  the  line. 

The  Stone  on  which  they  are  found  is  irregular  in  shape,  and  lies  upon 
a  second  with  one  side  seemingly  cut  hollow.  The  inscribed  stone  may 
once  have  stood  vertically ;  the  whole  group  may  be  natural,  but  bears 
some  resemblajice  to  a  rude  dolmen.  Lying  on  the  ground  between 
the  first  stone  and  the  last  described,  Lieut.  Kitchener  pointed  out  a 
broken  fragment  not  far  from  the  road,  on  which  appeared  to  be  two 
Roman  letters.  It  seemed  most  likely  a  fragment  of  a  milestone,  but 
we  did  not  consider  it  of  any  interest  in  its  present  condition. 

The' Site. — I  will  here  briefly  describe  the  points  noticed  whilst  making 
the  sui-vey  of  the  district.  The  first  point  of  importance  was  the  ex- 
amination of  the  other  angles  corresponding  to  that  supposed  to  be 
represented  by  the  second  or  south-east  stone.  We  determined  that 
there  was  no  hope  of  finding  anything  on  the  north  or  west,  as  both 
places  would  lie  beyond  the  rocks  and  in  the  middle  of  the  corn  land. 
On  the  south  also  we  found  no  inscription.  The  ruin  of  Sheikh  Jobas 
lies  near  to  the  point  in  question,,  upon  the  summit  of  the  hill. 

The  most  marked  featvire  at  this  site  is  the  great  number  of  wine- 
presses.* We  have  marked  twenty-three  on  the  plan,  and  it  is  possible 
that  one  or  two  may  still  be  omitted.  The  finest  specimen,  of  which  I 
send  a  plan,  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  tell,  at  the  spot  where  two  tombs 
and  two  winepresses  are  marked.  I  have  only  seen  one  finer  specimen 
in  Palestine.  The  tomb  is  also  interesting.  It  is  of  that  kind  which 
has  for  its  opening  a  shaft  descending  from  the  surface  of  the  rock,  and 
covered  usually,  as  at  El  Medyeh,  by  a  huge  block  of  stone.  A  single 
luculus,  parallel  to  the  length  of  the  shaft  (which  measures  6  or  7  ft.  by 
2  or  three  ft.,  and  is  about  5  ft.  deep),  is  placed  on  either  side.  I  have 
given  reasons  before  for  considering  this  style  of  tomb  early  Christian. 
In  the  north  of  Palestine  tradition  makes  them  so.  At  Iksal  is  a 
large  cemetery  of  such  tombs,  called  the  Frank  cemeterJ^  In  no 
instance  that  I  know  has  any  Hebrew  or  pagan  inscription  been  found 
on  such  a  tomb,  whereas  Greek  inscriptions,  with  crosses,  have  been 
found  in  more  than  one  instance  on  the  Mount  of  Olives.  Such  a  tomb 
was  found  containing  two  leaden  coffins,  each  with  crosses  on  it.  We 
hare  therefore,  it  seems  to  me,  evidence  of  Christian  work  at  Tell  Jezer. 

In  a  former  report  I  have  described  the  Tell  itself  {Palestine  Explora- 
tion Fund  Quarterly,  April,  1874,  p.  57),  with  its  terraces  of  rude  stone 
and  the  sort  of  citadel  at  its  eastern  end,  as  also  the  great  cistern  near 
*  See  M.  Ganneau's  letter,  Quarterly  Statement,  Jan.,  1874. 


THE    MURISTAN.  77 

the  farm,  whicli  seems  to  have  been  at  one  time  a  chapel,  the  apse 
hollowed  in  the  eastern  wall  being  still  visible.  There  are  compara- 
tively few  tombs  at  Tell  Jezer,  and  none  in  the  vicinity  of  the  inscrip- 
tions. According  to  the  Talmud,  no  tombs  should  exist  within  the 
Levitical  boundary.  At  Tell  Jezer  there  are  several  within  this  area, 
but  the  same  objection  would  hold  good  of  the  sites  of  Tutha  and 
Semu'a  as  well  as  at  El  Dhoheriyeh,  so  that  too  much  stress  must  not 
be  laid  upon  this  fact. 


XXIX. 

The  Muristan. 

1st  February,  1875. 

Lieut.  Kitcheni:r  and  I  have  lately  paid  two  interesting  visits  to 
the  large  site  in  Jerusalem  known  as  the  Muristan,  and  some  of  our 
remarks  seem  likely  to  be  of  value. 

This  large  area  is  bounded  by  the  streets  known  as  Christian  Street 
(the  Crusading  "  Street  of  the  Patriarch  ")  on  the  west,  David  Street 
on  the  south,  the  small  street  now  called  Harat  el  Dubbaghin,  and 
by  the  Crusaders,  Street  of  the  Palm-sellers,  on  the  north,  and  on  the 
east  by  the  Bazaars  (the  Crusading  "  Street  of  the  Latin  Gold- 
smiths ").  It  measures  about  170  yards  east  and  west,  and  150  north  and 
south,  and  in  the  year  1869  it  showed  only  ruins  of  a  church,  and  a 
field  some  fifteen  feet  in  level  above  the  outer  streets.  The  eastern 
half  of  the  property  was  granted  to  the  Prussian  Government  (see 
Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1872,  p.  100),  and  is  now  completely  ex- 
cavated, proving  stUl  to  hold  the  piers  and  walls  of  those  noble  buildings 
which  had,  it  was  supposed,  entirely  disappeared. 

The  site  thus  recovered  is,  however,  unfortunately  that  of  less  historic 
importance  ;  under  the  western  banks  of  rubbish  lie  the  remains  of 
the  most  interesting  of  mediaeval  ruins— the  Hospital  of  the  Knights  of 
St.  John  of  Jerusalem.  That  which  has  been  recovered  is,  however,  of 
considerable  importance  as  a  beautiful  example  of  the  best  period  of 
Italian  Gothic  in  the  East. 

The  history  of  the  site  is  very  fully  given  by  Count  de  Vogiie 
("Churches  of  Palestine"),  and  a  few  words  will  suffice  to  explain  it. 
The  large  church  of  Ste.  Marie  la  Grande  was  erected  in  the  north-east 
comer  of  the  domain  in  1130-40,  and  was  the  abbey  church  of  a  nunnery 
of  the  same  name  existing  south  of  the  church.  This  establishment  was 
connected  with  the  order  of  the  Ilosjjitallers,  founded  in  1099  by  the 
monk  Gerard  Tunc,  who  held  the  western  portion  of  the  property.  A 
narrow  street  separated  the  church  on  the  east  from  the  hospital  on  the 
west ;  but  after  the  Christians  under  Godfrey  entered  Jerusalem,  the 
importance  of  the  order  of  military  monks  so  increased,  that  by  the  time 
of  King  Amaury  they  obtained  leave  to  build  beyond  the  street 
boimding  their  property  eastwards,  and  filled  the  south-eastern  comer 


78  THE   MURISTAN. 

of  the  parallelogram  with  buildings  belonging  to  the  hospital,  occupy- 
ing the  part  south  of  the  nunnery,  and  thus  extending  over  more  than 
two-thirds  of  the  whole  area  described  above.  These  additions  also  date 
about  1140. 

The  original  hospital  is  mentioned  by  Bemhard  the  Wise  in  867  as 
the  Hostel  of  Charlemagne  ;  and  the  later  Crusading  works  by  Benjamin 
of  Tudela  in  1160-73.  In  1216,  Shehab  ed  Din,  nephew  of  Saladin,  con- 
verted the  church  of  the  hospital  (which  was  opposite  to  the  Church  of 
Calvary,  and  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  that  of  Ste.  Marie  la  Grande) 
into  a  mosque,  under  the  name  Kubbet  Dirkah,  which  is  probably  that 
now  known  as  the  Jami'a  Sidna  'Omar,  conspicuous  for  its  tall  minaret, 
dating  from  about  the  fifteenth  century.  We  endeavoured  lately  to 
penetrate  into  this  mosque,  but  only  reached  its  courtyard  by  a 
circuitous  passage,  and  saw  no  signs  of  ancient  work.  Its  floor  is 
about  the  level  of  Christian  Street,  and  the  mosque  itself  is  kept 
locked. 

The  hospital  was  still  standing  when  visited  by  Sir  John  Maunde- 
ville  in  1322,  and  he  notices  124  marble  columns  and  54  stone  pillars 
built  into  the  walls.  In  the  seventeenth  century  it  had  become  a 
total  ruin,  and  subsequently  it  entirely  disappeared,  and  still  lies 
buried  beneath  the  rubbish,  which  has  accumulated  in  an  inexplicable 
manner. 

The  most  complete  part  of  the  ruins  is  the  shell  of  the  church  of  Ste. 
Marie  la  Grande,  described  by  Count  de  Vog'i'ie,  a  plan  of  which  has  been 
published  by  the  Fund.  The  walls  and  the  apses  alone  remain.  The 
great  piers  are  now  entirely  broken  down,  and  only  their  bases  remain 
in  situ,  with  fragments  of  the  tesselated  pavement  which  once  covered 
the  whole  floor.  The  little  staircase,  with  its  window  surmounted  by  a 
double  horseshoe  arch,  is  no  part  of  the  original  jjlan,  but  an  Arab  addi- 
tion of  the  fifteenth  century.  The  only  points  of  special  importance  are 
the  two  doors.  The  principal  one,  on  the  north  from  the  Street  of  the 
Palm-sellers,  is  spanned  by  a  round  arch  carved  with  representations  of 
the  months  symbolised  by  small  figures.  The  southern  door  near  the 
apse  consists  of  another  round  arch,  ornamented  with  a  billet  pattern 
of  simple  character.  The  same  billet  pattern  occurs  on  the  exterior  of 
the  north  windows  of  the  church.  I  would  here  point  to  the  fact  that 
semicircular  arches  were  used  by  the  Crusading  architects  as  late  as  the 
middle  of  the  twelfth  century,  in  combination  with  the  pointed  arch, 
which  occurs  in  the  windows  of  Ste.  Marie,  of  a  peculiarly  graceful  shape, 
and  which  is  generally  found  in  all  the  Crusading  churches  of  Palestine. 
Passing  through  the  southern  door,  we  enter  the  square  court  sur- 
rounded with  cloisters  in  two  stories.  Most  of  the  masonry  is  inferior 
in  size  and  character  to  that  of  the  church  and  of  the  Crusading  buildings 
hereafter  to  be  described.  It  is  ascribed  by  the  Count  de  Vogiie  to  the 
fifteenth  century  as  Arab  work,  and  the  ai-ches  are  all  pointed,  badly 
shaped,  and  the  vaults  made  of  rubble,  with  ribs  of  ashlar.  It  is  here 
to  be  remarked  how  far  more  coarsely  the  stones  are  di-essed,  and  that 


THE   MURISTAN.  79 

we  found  no  masons'  marks,  after  careful  examination,  on  any  of  tbem. 
They  are  also  more  worn,  having  been  more  exposed  and  less  carefully 
chosen. 

The  walls  of  the  courtyard  appear  to  be  of  the  same  date  with  the 
church,  as  are  also  the  piers,  with  attached  slender  columns  having 
capitals  of  various  design,  some  unfinished  occurring  in  the  north  cloister. 
The  piers  in  question  have  a  simple  cornice,  similar  to  that  on  the  south 
wall  and  east  end  of  the  church.  The  south-east  pier  of  the  cloister  is  the 
same,  but  in  the  southern,  eastern,  and  western  walls  the  piers  are 
of  later  work.  The  arches  are  throughout  the  same.  The  appearance 
of  the  Crusading  cloister  must  have  been  extremely  fine;  the  piers  alter- 
nated with  pillars,  and  from  these  interior  arches  probably  sprung  to  the 
small  attached  semi-pillars. 

The  masonry  of  the  south  wall  of  the  church  is  Crusading  on  its  in- 
teiior  or  north  face,  but  on  the  south  face  the  wall  seems  to  have 
been  thickened  by  the  Arabs  when  rebuilding  the  cloister.  The  tooling 
of  the  stones  of  Crusading  origin  is  here  almost  entirely  diagonal,  but 
in  the  more  careful  apse  stones  for  the  most  part  vertical. 

Under  the  church  wall  a  grave  was  built,  from  which  a  skull  deeply 
dented  mth  a  long  sword  cut,  and  various  small  trinkets,  were  taken 
during  the  excavations.  At  the  east  end  of  the  church  was  a  solid  bel- 
fry tower,  and  beside  this,  in  the  west  wall  of  the  court,  is  one  of  the 
most  wonderful  windows  I  have  ever  seen.  Lieutenant  Kitchener  has 
photographed  it,  and  this  will  give  a  better  idea  of  its  character  than 
any  description.  It  has  a  broad  pointed  arch,  and  a  number  of  mould- 
ings remarkable  for  their  bold  relief  and  their  effective  shadows.  The 
dentellated  and  network  patterns  resemble  the  details  of  Norman  work 
in  the  West ;  but  these  are  not,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  usually  found  in 
connection  with  the  pointed  form  of  arch  here  visible,  as  well  as  in  other 
Crusading  relics. 

The  intelligent  Abyssinian  (an  old  overseer  of  Captains  Wilson  and 
WaiTcn)  who  showed  us  over  the  place,  took  us  out  of  the  middle  door 
on  the  west  side  of  the  court  (see  plan)  to  where  a  pier  stands,  between 
two  doors  leading  south  and  west,  and  on  the  bottom  of  this  pier  on  the 
east  side  he  pointed  out  to  us  the  following  inscription : — 

-f  0HKIAIA 
*EPOTCAM 

HNATnEPnnPoi; 

The  first  two  lines  are  of  well-formed  letters,  perfectly  distinct.  In 
the  lowest  line  the  letters  are  much  crowded.  The  last  letter  is  evidence 
of  the  barbarous  character  of  the  inscription. 

The  third  photograph  devoted  to  the  Muristan  shows  the  piers  which 
have  been  lately  cleared  out,  and  which  belong  probably  to  the  buildings 
of  the  hospital,  dating  about  1140.  They  stand  on  huge  walls  of  rougher 
masonry,  and  beneath  are  great  reservoirs,  forty  to  fifty  feet  deep,  sink- 
ing down  to  the  rock  in  the  Tyroposon  valley.     These  cisterns  I  visited 


80  THE   MURISTAN, 

in  1872,  but  the  notes  I  tten  made  are  now  in  England.  In  a  former 
report  I  have  mentioned  the  rock-cut  steps  at  the  bottom  of  the  prin- 
cipal reservoit,  and  the  manner  of  raising  water  by  a  huge  wheel  fitting 
in  a  slot  between  the  arches  of  the  vaults.  "We  have  as  yet  obtained 
no  plan  of  this  part  of  the  building,  but  I  shall  endeavour  to  get  one 
now  that  the  excavations  are  completed. 

On  the  west  of  the  Prussian  property  some  vaults  are  now  being 
explored  which  may  prove  of  interest.  The  roofs  are  perfect,  and  con- 
sist of  rubble  work  in  black  mortar  (full  of  cinders).  They  seem  to  me 
evidently  to  be  the  VoUoe  Concamhii  Hospitalis,  Avhich  opened  on  the 
narrow  street  between  the  hospital  and  the  church.  A  document  relative 
to  the  letting  of  these  as  storehouses  bears  the  date  1 144. 

There  is  one  point  of  great  interest  which  I  may  here  enlarge  upon — 
namely,  the  masonry  of  the  Crusading  portions  of  the  Muristan. 

M.  Ganneau,  in  a  late  report.  Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1874,  page  91, 
pointed  out  the  distinctive  character  of  mediaeval  dressing.  In  fact  it  is 
almost  always  easy  to  tell  a  stone  of  the  Crusading  time,  for  several 
reasons.  First,  the  masons'  mark,  which  neither  Jewish,  Eoman,  early 
Christian,  nor  Saracenic  builders  seem  to  have  used,  except  in  the  case 
of  the  north  wall  of  Baalbek.  Second,  from  the  stone  having  been 
well  selected,  its  edges  sharply  cut,  the  joints  fitting  very  closely,  and 
the  corners  very  squarely  made.  The  stone  is  laid  apparently  with  due 
regard  to  its  quarry  bed,  and  a  hard  species  of  mezzeh  is  preferred. 
Thirdly,  from  the  dressing,  which  differs  from  that  of  the  earlier  styles, 
and  is  far  finer  than  the  Saracenic  tooling. 

In  those  specimens  of  masonry  belonging  to  Crusading  interiors, 
which  I  have  studied  with  special  regard  to  the  tooling  of  the  masonry, 
and  of  which  the  best  examples  are  the  Madeleine  and  Ste.  Marie  la 
Grande  in  Jerusalem,  I  find  that  the  stones  are  finely  dressed  with  a 
pointed  instrument,  in  lines  generally  parallel,  or  very  nearly  so,  and 
differing  in  interval. 

Some  of  the  hues  are  continuous  chisel-marks,  others  are  in  detached 
strokes  of  various  lengths.  These  are  diagonal,  vertical,  horizontal,  or, 
in  less  careful  specimens,  curved ;  and  sometimes  the  same  stone  is 
differently  dressed  in  various  parts.  All  the  varieties  will  occur  in  a 
single  wall.  In  very  many  cases  some  parts  (perhaps  harder,  or  found 
to  project  when  the  tooling  had  been  completed)  are  tooled  with  short 
strokes  in  a  direction  opposite  to  the  general  lines.  Of  these  various 
details  I  have  made  sketches  on  the  spot.  The  great  blocks  of  the  piers, 
which  are  remarkably  fine  specimens  of  masonry,  are  differently  dressed. 
In  these  the  surface  of  the  hard  stone  has  a  mottled  appearance,  as 
though  worked  with  a  blunt  point,  carefully  and  lightly  struck  at  right 
angles  to  the  face  of  the  stone. 

In  studying  the  masonry  of  the  Arab  additions  to  the  Muristan,  I 
find  the  Crusading  tooling  imitated,  but  the  work  is  less  j:  atient,  the 
strokes  less  regular  and  farther  apart,  the  corners  and  edges  rougher, 
and  the  appearance  of  the  stone  often  very  patchy.  A  toothed  instru- 
ment is  also  often  used. 


THE  ROCK  SCARP  OF  ZION.  81 

It  seems  to  me,  therefore,  that  there  would  always  be  some  danger 
of  mistaking  between  the  better  specimens  of  Saracenic  masonry  and  the 
worse  of  Crusading  origin  ;  and  although  the  tooling  of  th'o  stones  may 
be  at  times  of  use  in  absence  of  other  indications,  its  importance  must 
be  held  secondary  to  that  of  the  masons'  marks.  In  general,  the 
appearance  of  the  stones,  without  a  more  minute  inspection,  will  suffice 
to  give  a  tolerable  guess  at  their  character  ;  but  nothing  Uke  certainty 
is  possible  unless  masons'  roarks  can  be  found. 

These  remarks  only  apply  to  the  smooth-dressed  masonry  of  interiors. 
The  coarse  hammer-di-essed  stones  of  the  outer  walls  show  neither 
masons'  marks  nor  fine  tooling  in  any  Crusading  building  I  have 
examined. 

Of  masons'  marks  the  late  Mr.  Drake  first  pointed  out  to  me  the 
value.  We  commenced  a  classification,  at  which  I  am  still  engaged  as 
new  examples  come  in.  We  agreed  in  considering  that  they  show  date 
to  a  certain  extent,  but  have  no  reference  to  the  position  of  the  stone 
iijL  the  building. 


XXX, 

TaE  EocK  Scarp  of  Zioif. 

Jerusalem,  \Oth  January,  1815. 

Hating,  in  accorclance  with  my  instructions,  made  a  proper  sur^y 
by  traverse,  with  five-inch  theodolite,  of  the  rock  scarp  of  Zion,  whifch 
very  probably  formed  the  south-west  angle  of  ancient  Jerusalem,  I 
think  it  best,  in  sending  home  a  tracing  of  the  plan,  to  give  a  detailed 
account  of  the  work, 

Mr.  Henry  Maudslay,  to  whose  unassisted  exertions  this  interesting 
exploration  is  due,  arrived  in  Jerusalem  last  winter  with  the  intention  - 
of  executing  some  work,  which  should  be  at  once  a  benefit  to  the  town 
and  a  labour  of  archaeological  interest.  The  jealousy  of  the  Turkish  > 
Government  prevented  his  carrying  out  his  original  intention  of  clearing 
the  Birket  Israil,  making  it  fit  to  hold  water,  and  at  the  same  time 
carrying  out  an  exploration  of  the  highest  interest ;  and  his  attention  was 
diverted  to  the  precincts  of  the  Bishop's  School  on  Zion,  where  there 
was  room  for  much  improvement  in  the  comfort  of  the  children  and  m 
the  sanitary  arrangements.  Mr.  Maudslay  very  ably  contrived ^to  extend 
his  researches  for  stones  and  building  materials  in  such  a  direction  as 
would  ensure  valuable  archseological  results,  and  enable  him  to  procure 
the  ancient  masonry  ready  cut  for  use.  His  work  is  now  nearly  complete  ; 
his  trenches  and  clearings,  extending  in  places  35  f6et  below  groimd, 
are  pushed  along  the  face  of  the  scarp  as  far  as  (and  even  beyond) 
the  property  of  the  bishop.  The  school  has  been  completed  and  re-opened,' 
and  Mr.  Maudslay  has  so  arranged  that  the  old  work  can  be  easily  seen 
throughout ;  thus  an  attraction  has  been  added  to  the  school  premises, 
which  will  well  repay  the  attention  of  visitors  to  Jerusalem,  who,  I 
believe,  for  the  most  part  yisit  this  school  for  its  own  sake. 


82  -THE   BOCK   SCABP   OF   ZION. 

It  will  perhaps  be  remembered  tbat  in  an  early  report  I  gave  an  account 
of  the  then  existing  condition  of  this  place  {Quarterly  Statement,  Oct., 
1872,  p.  167).  I  pointed  out  that  no  spot  near  Jerusalem  was  so  likely 
to  give  good  results  with  tolerably  easy  work.  I  supposed  that  mining 
would  not  be  necessary,  but  that  trenches  and  short  shafts,  perhaps  not 
lined,  such  as  Mr.  Maudslay  has  successfully  sunk  for  some  50  feet  or 
more,  would  be  sufficient.  Here,  if  anywhere,  we  have  a  solid  basis, 
whence  to  commence  our  reconstruction  of  the  city  of  Herod  and  of  David, 
and  if  we  add  to  this  the  valuable  work  of  Captain  Warren  on  Ophel, 
we  only  want  two  more  points  to  enable  us  to  reconstruct  the  first,  or  old 
wall  of  Josephus — namely,  first,  the  northern  line,  which  probably  passes 
very  near  Dr.  Chaplin's  town  house  (as  generally  admitted) ;  and,  second, 
the  point,  where  the  Tyropeeon  is  crossed,  which,  I  hold,  could  now  be 
found  by  continuing  Mr.  Maudslay's  work  to  the  eastward,  following  the 
scarp,  and  thus  tracing  the  Hue  of  the  wall  along  the  brow  of  the  hill. 

Commencing  from  the  west  I  will  now  describe  in  detail  all  that  has 
been  discovered. 

The  scarp  has  been  traced  from  the  corner  of  the  north  wall  of  the 
school-house  for  about  100  feet,  and  in  a  line  directed  on  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  present  city  wall.  The  scarp  is  here  perpendicular, 
and  at  the  corner  by  the  tower  24  feet  high  ;  it  is  not  quite  in  a  straight 
line.  Mr.  Maudslay's  work  terminates  at  a  wall  built  at  right  angles  to 
the  scarp,  and  beyond  this  nothing  is  visible,  a  high  mound  of  shingle 
covering  every  vestige  of  rock.  A  curious  buttress  of  rock  is  observable 
about  four  feet  broad  and  eight  feet  long,  as  shown  on  the  plan.  At  this 
point  there  is  a  great  quantity  of  Mosaic  pavement,  rather  rough,  with 
good  mortar,  apparently  fallen  from  above.  A  rubble  wall  has  been 
built  on  the  top  of  the  rock,  but  at  what  date  it  is  impossible  to 
say ;  I  should  not,  however,  be  disposed  to  consider  it  very  ancient. 

Close  to  the  school-house  wall  a  cistern  is  cut  in  the  top  of  the  scarp, 
bee-hived  in  shape,  with  a  square  mouth.  This  is  no  doubt  very  ancient. 
The  square  mouth  is  rare  in  the  north  of  Palestine,  though  very  common 
round  Hebron.  This  cistern  is  12  feet  deep,  and  is  now  entirely  cleaned 
out  and  in  good  repair. 

The  ground  in  front  of  the  scarp  is  here  occupied  as  a  cemetery  by  the 
Greek  Catholics,  and  could  not  therefore  be  lowered  to  show  the  whole 
scarp.  Mr.  Maudslay  has,  therefore,  built  a  wall  at  right  angles  to  one 
scarp,  leaving  a  narrow  passage  by  which  the  rock  may  be  reached  and 
seen  to  great  advantage.  The  wall  consists  entirely  of  fine  stones  from 
three  to  four  feet  long,  having  a  deep  marginal  draft.  To  me,  after  com- 
paring them  with  other  work  I  have  seen  in  Palestine,  they  appear  to 
be  Eoman,  though  of  what  date  it  is  of  course  difficult  to  say.  Their 
size  is  not  great,  but  we  have  no  reason  to  suppose  the  masonry  of  the 
old  wall  to  have  been  of  any  gi-eat  size,  as  Josephus  only  speaks  of  the 
wall  of  Agrippa  and  the  royal  towers  as  containing  extraordinary  ashlar. 
The  stones  of  which  I  speak  were  all  found  during  the  excavations, 
and  evidently  had  fallen  from  above,  most  being  discovered  with  the 


THE  ROCK  SCARP  OF  ZION. 


83 


drafted  side  downwards,  as  though  pushed  over  from  within.  One  of  tho 
stones  has  a  curious  loophole  in  it.  Evidently  the  greater  part  was  cut 
through  the  next  stone  below,  and  in  this  only  the  circular  head  of 
the  loophole  is  visible,  the  draft  on  the  stone  following  the  circle. . 
The  loophole  is  about  six  inches  diameter  without  and  a  foot  or  more  at 
the  back.  I  am  particular  in  mentioning  this  wall,  for  one  traveller 
has  already  taken  it  as  conclusive  proof  that  the  line  of  the  ancient  wall 
ran  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  that  which  it  actually  took,  and  in  a 
few  years  it  ii  possible  that  theories  may  be  founded  on  a  wall  built 
in  1874  of  old  material  from  various  places.  We  have,  therefore,  been 
careful  to  note  its  character  on  the  plan. 

We  now  arrive  at  the  first  tower  or  buttress  of  rock  upon  the  top  of 
which  the  dining-room  of  the  school-house  is  placed.  This  square  foun- 
dation of  rock  is  about  45  feet  either  way,  and  its  general  level  is 
20  feet  above  an  outer  ledge  of  rock  which  surrounds  it.  The  ledge  is, 
roughly  speaking,  20  feet  broad,  and  beyond  another  scarp  appears  to 
exist,  for  the  shafts  sunk  to  find  the  rock  were  continued  to  a  depth  of 
from  12  to  20  feet  in  the  spots  indicated  on  the  plan  by  the  numbers 
(19,  16,  and  12),  being  th«5  height  of  the  rock  above  the  zero  level,  which 
will  be  mentioned  immediately.  The  section  and  plan  will  best  explain 
how  these  various  levels  occur.  The  general  result  is  that  a  tower  pro- 
jected 46  feet  from  the  scarp  at  this  point,  having  its  top  level  with  tho 
crest  of  the  scarp,  and  that  it  stood  upon  a  broad  ledge,  also  scarped, 
which  probably  had  steps  leading  down  from  it,  although  from  the  im- 
possibility of  tracing  the  whole  line,  they  have  not  been  discovered.  In 
the  passage  leading  to  the  upper  story  of  the  school-house,  the  south 
face  of  this  tower  is  exposed,  forming  one  wall  of  the  passage,  and  the 
steps  which  led  up  from  the  outer  ledge  or  platform  are  seen  in  profile 
as  they  run  parallel  to  the  south  face.  Their  width  cannot  be  ascer- 
tained, as  the  school  dining-room  wall  is  built  upon  them,  and  unfortu- 
nately no  record  seems  to  have  been  preserved  of  the  appearance  of  the 
rock  before  the  school  was  built. 

Mr.  Maudslay  has  also  made  it  clear  that  a  cistern  once  occupied  nearly 
all  the  top  of  the  tower  scarp,  which  in  turn  supplied  the  other  cisterns 
cut  in  the  main  scarp  from  which  the  tower  projects  ;  of  these  there  were 
four,  but  three  have  been  lately  blown  into  one  by  Mr.  Maudslay,  and 
extend  as  shown  on  the  plan. 

The  cistern  with  an  oval  hole  to  the  south  of  the  three  blown  into 
one  is  of  great  interest,  for  it  was  found  to  have  been  entirely  and  pur- 
posely filled,  probably  at  an  early  period,  with  masonry  set  in  mortar 
even  harder  than  the  stone  itself.  The  wall  of  the  tower,  as  found 
under  an  archway  in  the  bakehouse,  would  ajjpear  to  have  been  of 
similar  character. 

Behind  the  school  dining-room  is  a  passage  the  floor  of  which  is  just 
above  the  rock  level,  and  on  the  other  side  of  it  are  offices — kitchen,  bake- 
house, and  word  store.  Here  Mr.  Maudslay  discovered  two  other  large 
cisterns,  cut  in  rock  and  roofed  with  masonry,  as  shown  in  the  plan.   He 


84  THE  ROCK  SCARP  OF  ZION. 

also  found  that  the  scarp  has  an  inner  as  well  as  an  outer  face,  and  that 
the  rock  slopes  away  so  much  that  when  the  walls  of  the  offices,  on  the 
side  farthest  from  the  passage,  were  built,  they  had  to  sink  eight  or  ten 
feet  before  reaching  a  foundation.  Farther  east,  in  a  carpenter's  shop, 
at  a  point  marked  32  feet,  the  level  of  the  rock  sinks,  at  the  back,  to 
that  of  the  outer  platform  of  the  tower. 

This  proves,  then,  that  for  at  least  a  third  of  its  length,  and  presumably 
throughout  the  whole  extent,  the  great  scarp  is  a  parapet  of  rock 
presenting  a  vertical  wall,  in  places  forty  feet  high  on  the  oxitside  and 
at  least  fourteen  feet  within.  This  discovery  has  a  certain  bearing  on 
the  interesting  question  of  the  scarp  in  the  Via  Dolorosa,  and  shows 
that  it  may  possibly  be  the  interior  face  of  a  similar  rock  parapet  upon 
which  the  wall  was  built,  and  not,  as  has  been  supposed,  the  counter- 
scarp of  a  ditch  beyond  the  wall.  | 

The  scarp,  after  passing  fifty  feet  east  of  the  first  tower,  turns 
through  an  angle  of  some  forty  degrees,  and  runs  in  this  direction, 
about  100  yards,  to  the  outer  or  eastern  wall  of  the  Protestant  cemetery. 
Immediately  beyond  the  turn  a  curious  detail  was  discovered  in  con- 
sequence of  exploration  undertaken  by  Mr.  Maudslay  at  Mr.  Drake's 
request.  There  is  here  a  laundry  room,  the  floor  of  which  is  on  a 
rock  ledge  raised  five  feet  above  the  level  of  the  outer  platform,  on 
which,  as  has  been  explained,  the  tower  stands.  The  north  wall  of  the 
laundry  is  the  face  of  the  main  scarp,  and  in  this  a  large  square  trough, 
with  a  recessed  arch  above,  resembling  the  loculus  of  a  tomb  of  the 
later  period  in  Palestine,  was  found  behind  the  plaster,  and  a  little 
farther  west  two  mangers  cut  in  the  rock,  similar  to  those  planned  by 
us  in  the  rock-cut  stables  of  Khii-bet  Dustrei  (Petra  Incisa)  at  'Athlit. 
It  appears,  then,  that  a  small  stable,  having,  no  doubt,  an  entrance 
from  the  tower  platform,  was  here  built  on  the  very  edge  of  the  scarp, 
and  probably  outside  the  fortification  wall.  Its  outer  wall  must  have 
been  of  masonry,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  a  small  force  of  cavalry 
may  here  have  been  held  in  readiness  for  a  sudden  sally,  more  rapid 
and  unexpected  tha^i  any  issuing  from  the  body  of  the  place  could  be. 

Continuing  our  course  east  along  the  plan,  we  arrive  next  at  a 
buttress  of  rock  fifteen  feet  high  and  about  five  feet  square.  At  its 
foot  is  a  trough,  rock- cut,  and  within  at  the  back  is  another  fine  rock- 
cut  cistern.  The  level  of  the  scarp  here  rises  suddenly  five  feet  by  a 
sheer  wall,  irregularly  dressed,  which  runs  in  at  right  angles  to  the 
general  direction,  and  forms,  as  shown,  the  east  wall  of  a  carpenter's 
shop.  There  is  a  good  deal  that  points  to  there  having  been  an  inter- 
mediate tower  at  this  spot,  probably  with  a  shallow  ditch,  the  line  of 
the  counter-scarp  being  traceable  for  a  short  distance.  As  I  have  pre- 
viously explained,  two  large  cisterns  were  at  one  time  built  up  against 
the  exterior  face  of  the  scarp  at  this  point,  lined  with  a  hard,  red  cement, 
and  with  outer  walls  of  masonry.  I  am,  however,  inclined  to  consider 
these  cisterns  as  later  Saracenic  work,  from  the  character  and  appear- 
ance of  the  cement,  which  is  extremely  hard  and  full  of  pottery,  re- 
sembling that  used  in  the  scarp  at  Caesarea  and  in  other  places. 


TUB   ROCK   SCAUP   OF   ZIOX.  85 

In  the  excavations  at  this  point,  whence  a  great  number  of  the  stones 
were  obtained,  large  voussoirs,  belonging  to  semi-circular  arches,  were 
found,  with  bases  of  pillars,  some  eighteen  inches'  diameter  of  shaft, 
and  corbels  as  if  to  support  a  floor,  roof,  or  projecting  turret.  The 
most  interesting  find  was,  however,  the  tombstone  of  a  Crusader,  with 
the  inscription  in  Gothic  characters,  Hie  requiescit  Johs  de  Valencinis. 
It  has  no  date.  * 

A  little  farther  on  there  are  interesting  remains  of  a  quarry,  whence 
stones  of  size  similar  to  those  discovered  in  the  debris  were  hewn,  the 
process  at  the  same  time  making  the  scarp  higher  and  more  formidable. 
Four  of  these  stones  remain  in  their  places,  having  been  cut  out  on 
every  side,  but  requiring  to  be  prized  out  beneath.  A  series  of  steps 
wei-e  left  in  the  quarry,  by  which,  as  Mr.  Maudslay  pointed  out  to  me, 
the  stones  could  gradually  be  raised  from  the  lowest  bed  to  the  very  top 
of  the  scarp. 

It  will  be  seen  by  the  plan  that  a  portion  of  the  scarp  here  projects 
to  form  an  intermediate  tower,  twelve  feet  broad  as  measured  from  the 
scarp.     It  is,  however,  at  a  considerably  lower  level,  being  eight  feet 
below  the  level  of  the  platform  upon  which  the  first  or  great  corner 
tower  is  based. 

Mr.  Maudslay  kindly  excavated  this  at  my  request,  and  traced  the 
face  of  the  projection  some  twelve  feet.  The  buttress  already  mentioned 
has  some  connection  with  the  structure  of  this  tower,  which,  like  the 
former,  seems  to  have  had  a  great  cistern  above  its  base. 

The  scarp  continues  eastwards  without  any  rema,rkable  details.  The 
rock  is  rough  and  irregular  at  the  top,  but  the  general  level  is  about 
forty  feet  of  height.  The  amount  of  labour  expended  on  this  magnificent 
woi-k  can  be  well  appreciated  by  any  one  standing  at  its  foot,  in  the 
passage  cut  by  Mr.  Maudslay,  and  when  some  forty  or  fifty  feet  of 
strongly  built  wall  stood  above  the  rock,  tlie  result  must  have  been  a 
splendid  and  impregnable  fortification  which  might  well  defy  any 
attempt  to  take  Jerusalem  from  the  south. 

"We  now  reach  the  flight  of  steps  first  explored  by .  Captain  Warren, 
who  at  this  point  reached  the  bottom  of  the  scarp.  The  natural  lie 
of  the  rock  according  to  the  stratification  gives  a  dip  of  perhaps  five 
degrees  towards  the  east,  and  it  is  therefore  possible  that  the  levels 
19,  16,  12,  outside  the  tower  outer  platform,  already  described,  with  the 
levels  17,  15,  13,  at  the  bottom  of  these  eastern  steps,  and  west  of  them, 
and  the  zero  level  farther  east,  represent  the  surface  of  a  path  or  ledge 
running  along  the  foot  of  the  scarp,  and  gradually  ascending  westwards; 
perhaps  forming  a  narrow  path  from  the  valley,  leading  up  to  that  gate 
called  the  Valley  Gate,  which  it  is  supposed  lay  somewhere  in  this 
neighbourhood. 

From  the  sudden  rise  of  thirteen  feet  between  the  point  where  the 
zero  level  is  found,  and  the  bottom  of  the  steps  to  the  third  tower,  it 

*  A  facsimile  of  this  inscription  has  been  forwarded  by  M.  C.  Ganneau. 


86  THE    ROCK    SCARP    OF    ZION. 

seems  probable  that  the  steps  return,  and  that  a  second  flight,  contain- 
ing probably  twelve  or  fourteen  steps,  could  be  found  beneath  the  ledge 
which  here  occurs  at  the  foot  of  the  scarp  and  leading  from  it  to  the 
zero  level. 

At  the  top  of  the  thirty-six  steps  (see  *'  Recovery  of  Jeriisalem,"  p. 
280)  the  arch  of  a  small  cistern  iised  to  be  visible.  This  and  another 
also  is  now  cleared  out  and  holds  water.  They  are  cut  in  rock,  with 
broad  steps,  giving  six  feet  of  water  at  the  back  of  each.  The  first  is 
roofed  with  beautiful  masonry  in  a  round  or  barrel  vault.  This  work 
resembles  exactly  the  arching  of  the  reservoirs  at  the  Convent  of  Zion, 
and  those  in  the  Haram  (Nos.  1  and  3  O.  Purvey),  which  I  wrote  about 
lately.  The  keystone  is  nai-row,  and  the  width  of  the  voussoirs  gradu- 
ally increases  towards  the  haunches.  The  workmanship  is  excellent  and 
appears  to  be  Roman. 

It  will  be  observed  at  this  point  on  the  plan,  that  a  semicircular 
wall  is  shown,  and  the  number  Oft.  shown  within;  this  is  the  zero  point, 
or  lowest  level  of  the  rock.  The  excavation  was  35  ft.  beneath  the  soil, 
and  the  grand  scarp  was  here  45  ft.  high.  Another  tower  evidently 
existed  here,  to  which  the  flight  of  steps  led  up.  This  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  the  scarp  runs  perpendicularly  to  its  general  direction,  which 
forms  the  foundation  of  the  cemetery  wall.  A  very  little  excavation 
would  probably  result  in  laying  bare  the  whole  tower,  but  the  property 
here  belongs  to  the  Mosque  of  David,  and  special  negotiations  with  the 
proprietors  are  requisite. 

The  rest  of  the  scarp  remains  as  when  first  I  described  it,  and  is  of  the 
highest  interest.  A  broad  trench  here  exists,  and  forms  in  all  probability 
an  approach  to  a  gateway.  Two  caverns  are  found  in  the  face  of  the 
scarp  somewhat  resembling  those  in  the  Yia  Dolorosa,  and  on  the  o*her 
side  is  a  square  rock  platform,  with  a  cistern  9  ft.  deep,  and  some  flat 
steps.  The  rubbish  on  every  side  is  flush  with  the  surface  of  the  rock; 
but  a  straight  line  of  rock  is  visible  on  the  eastern  side,  and  I  am 
sanguine  of  the  success  which  would  attend  excavation  at  this  point. 
I  have  previously  noticed  and  sent  home  plans  of  the  caverns,  of 
which  I  have  no  copy,  and  as  they  were  closed  at  our  recent  visit,  the 
entrances  only  are  shown  on  the  plan. 

Such  being  the  present  state  of  this  interesting  exploration,  I 
f*hould  wish  to  call  attention  to  its  archaeological  value,  and  to  the 
light  which  it  throws  on  the  accounts  of  the  fortifications  of  Jerusalem 
given  by  Josephus  and  Tacitus. 

Josephus  thus  describes  the  fortifications  of  the  ancient  wall  of 
Jerusalem,  and  that  of  Agrippa  especially  : — ■ 

"  Now  the  towers  that  were  on  it  were  twenty  cubits  in  breadth  and 
twenty  cubits  in  height.  They  were  square  and  solid  as  was  the  wall 
itself.  .  .  .  Above  this  solid  altitude  of  the  towers,  which  was 
twenty  cubits,  there  were  rooms  of  great  magnificence,  and  over  them 
_  upper  rooms  and  cisterns  to  receive  rainwater.  They  were  many  in 
number,  and  the  steps  by  which  you  ascended  to  them  were  every  one 


THE    ROCK    SCARP    OF    ZION.  87 

"broad.  Of  these  towers,  the  thu-d  wall  had  ninety,  and  the  spaces 
between  them  were  each  200  cubits,  but  in  the  middle  wall  were  furty 
towers,  and  the  old  wall  was  parted  into  sixty  ;  whilst  the  whole  com- 
pass of  the  city  was  thirty-thrca  furlongs  "  (B.  J.,  v.  4,  §  3). 

The  dimension  of  200. cubits  here  given  is  evidently  a  mistake  or 
corruption,  as  the  length  thus  given  to  the  wall  is  at  least  double  what 
it  could  possibly  have  been,  and  even  (as  is  the  plain  meaning  of  the 
sentence)  if  the  measure  refers  only  to  the  latest  wall— that  of  Agrippa 
— it  is  still  impossible  ;  whilst,  if  it  refers  to  the  old  wall  as  well,  there 
is  a  manifest  error,  as  the  total  circumference  of  the  city  in  that  case 
would  be  about  sixty  furlongs.  If,  then,  we  can  rely  upon  the  numbers 
of  the  towers  (although  a  difficulty  occurs  in  the  text  as  to  the  forty 
of  the  second  wall),  it  becomes  interesting  to  see  what  the  distance 
apart  of  Mr.  Maudslay's  three  towers  is,  and  how  they  tally  with  the 
generally  accepted  course  of  the  old  wall. 

The  distance  between  the  inner  sides  of  the  two  eastern  towers  is 
162  ft.  or  108  cubits  of  eighteen  inches  (the  medium  cubit  used 
ordinarily  in  the  dimensions  of  buildings).  The  distance  to  the  east 
wall  of  the  great  corner  tower  from  the  east  wall  of  the  intermediate 
tower  is  200  ft.  Subtracting  40  ft,,  which  makes  the  breadth  of  the 
intermediate  tower  come  to  the  place  where  a  buttress  projects,  and 
where  the  scarp  rises,  which  would  seem  most  probably  the  line  of  the 
western  wall  of  this  intermediate  tower,  we  obtain  160  ft.  or  106  cubits. 
"We  may  say  roughly,  then,  that  the  towers  are  100  cubits  apart,  though 
doubtless  not  quite  regular,  and  placed  in  suitable  positions  where  the 
rock  projected  or  the  scarp  was  low.  The  result,  if  a  line  be  taken 
from  the  Citadel  to  Wilson's  Arch,  and  from  the  Ophel  wall  round  by 
the  contours  to  the  cemetery  and  school-house,  and  so  to  the  Citadel  (a 
rough  mean  of  the  extreme  lines  given  by  different  authorities),  gives, 
by  measurement  of  it  on  the  Ordnance  Survey,  just  sixty  towers,  the 
proper  number  for  the  old  wall. 

As  regards  the  towers  themselves,  they  answer  well,  as  will  be  seen, 
to  the  general  description  of  Josephus.  The  mean  height  of  the  scarp 
being  thirty  feet  is  the  twenty  cubits  of  the  description.  The  projec- 
tions of  the  towers  seem  to  be  about  thirty  cubits  broad,  but  the 
building  above  would  be  set  back,  and  thus,  in  all  probability,  twenty 
cubits  square.  The  steps  and  cisterns  belonging  to  each  tower  have 
been  already  described. 

It  will  appear  from  the  plan  that  noless  than  eighteen  cisterns  sup- 
plied the  three  towers  with  water. 

It  is  interesting  here  to  notice  that  the  bases  of  the  towers  of  the 
modern  wall,  at  its  north-east  corner,  are  rock-cut,  and  similar  to 
those  just  described.  The  foundation  of  the  Burj  Luglug  is  a  little 
over  twenty  cubits  either  way ;  the  tower  south  of  it  is  close  upon  200 
cubits  from  it,  and  the  two  west  of  it  are  ninety  cubits  apart.  This 
may,  perhaps,  when  coupled  with  the  new  discoveries,  point  to  their 
being  on  the  line  of  the  old  wall  also,  and  show  that  the  distances  were 
not  uniform,  but  differed  according  to  circumstances. 


88  THE   ROCK   SCARP   OF   ZlON. 

We  may  further  inquire  wlietlier  this  scarp,  wliich  forms  so  marked 
a  feature  when  exposed,  was  not  of  sufficient  importance  to  be  noticed 
in  the  very  exact  accounts  which  we  possess  of  the  fortifications  of 
Jerusalem. 

It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  it  continued  on  every  side,  for  the  slope 
of  the  rock  and  character  of  the  ground  would,  in  places,  preclude  the 
possibility  of  this,  and  although  nothing  conclusive  can  as  yet  be  said  on 
the  subject,  I  may  here  note  that  the  Broad  Wall  of  Nehemiah,  accord- 
ing to  some  restorations,  would  come  close  to  this  part  of  the  enceinte. 

Josephus,  describing  the  course  of  the  old  wall,  says  : — "  It  began  at 
the  same  place  (Hippicus),  and  extended  through  a  place  called  Bethso 
to  the  gate  of  (the  Essenes,  and  after  that  it  went  southward  "  (  facing 
6outh,  according  to  the  best  authorities,  B.  J.,v.4,  §  2).  Hence  we  see  that 
the  "  place  called  Bethso,"  and  the  Gate  of  the  Essenes,  were  towards 
the  south-west  corner  of  the  city,  which  renders  it  possible  that  for 
Bethso  we  should  read  Bethsur,  "  the  house  of  the  scarp,"  and  that  by 
excavating  the  supposed  approach  to  a  gate,  mentioned  above  as  east 
of  Mr.  Maudslay's  work,  we  should  recover  the  gate  of  the  Essenes. 

I  have,  I  think,  said  enough  to  show  how  valuable  Mr.  Maudslay's 
work  has  been,  and  how  desii*able  it  is  to  continue  it  from  either  end. 
The  discovery  of  a  second  tower,  north  of  the  corner  tower,  under  the 
school-house,  would  make  the  question  of  the  intervals  much  clearer; 
and  if  a  gate  were  found,  as  seems  probable,  it  would  be  a  valuable 
discovery.  Eastward,  also,  I  contend  that  a  little  further  exploration 
might  set  at  rest  the  question  as  to  where  the  old  wall  crossed  (as  it 
undoubtedly  did)  the  Tyropceon  valley. 

But  the  discovery  that  a  basis  of  rock,  and  not  a  mere  solid  mass  of 
masonry,  formed  the  foundation  of  wall  and  tower,  has  an  even  more 
interesting  bearing,  as  it  shows  that  there  is  a  well-grounded  expecta- 
tion that  we  may  yet  recover  the  Royal  Towers,  on  the  position  of 
which  so  much  depends  in  Jerusalem  Archaeology. 

Tacitus  (Hist.  v.  11)  explains — "  The  extreme  parts  of  the  rock  were 
craggy,  and  the  towers,  when  they  had  the  advantage  of  the  ground, 
were  sixty  feet  high  ;  when  they  were  built  on  plain  ground  they  were 
one  hundred  and  twenty  feet.  ...  To  those  who  looked  at  them 
at  a  great  distance  they  appeared  equal."  Thus  we  may  suppose  that 
the  three  royal  towers,  which  diflPered  considerably  in  height,  were  built 
up  to  the  same  level  at  the  top,  and  that  the  difference  was  in  the  solid 
base  according  to  the  dip  of  the  ground.  This  is  unquestionably  the 
case  with  Hippicus  and  Phasaelus,  each  of  which  was  fifty  cubits  high, 
though  the  totals  were  eighty  and  ninety,  because  the  solid  bases  were 
respectively  thirty  and  forty  cubits  high.  (In  the  case  of  Hippicus 
the  base  was  in  part  at  least  artificial.)  Mariamne  also,  if  it  was 
seventy  cubits  high,  had  the  difi'erence  made  up  by  the  higher  ground 
on  which  it  stood,  its  solid  base  being  only  twenty  cubits.  This 
is  to  a  certain  extent  an  indication  of  the  position  of  the  royal 
towers,  and   it   is   quite  possible  that   the   sloping  scarp   of  David's 


MEDIEVAL    TOPOGRAPHY   OF    PALESTINE.  89 

Tower  covers  the  solid  base  of  one  of  them  (most  probably  Phasaelus), 
as  it  is  popnlnrly  supposed  to  be  solid  within,  and  as  we  have  many 
instances  in  Palestine  of  sloping  scarps  being  added  in  the  middle  ages 
to  ancient  sheer  walla.  The  shoi-test  and  surest  way  to  solve  these 
questions,  which  are  amongst  the  most  important  of  those  connected 
with  Jerusalem  Archa3ology,  is  to  follow  along  the  line  of  Mr.  Maudslay's 
excavations,  which  are  very  valuable  as  showing  that,  however  the 
masonry  may  have  been  destroyed  and  lost,  we  may  yet  hope  to  find 
indications  of  the  ancient  enceinte  in  the  rock  scarps,  which  are 
imperishable. 

Claude  R  Conder,  Lieut.  E.E. 


XXXI. 

Medieval  ToroGRAPHY  of  Palestine. 

29th  January,  18 To. 

The  early  Christian  and  Crusading  sites  of  Palestine,  furnishing  as 
they  do  many  of  the  principal  ruins  of  the  country — churches,  castles, 
hospices,  and  walled  towns,  of  an  architecture  far  exceeding  in  strength 
and  beauty  the  majority  of  earlier  work,  are  in  themselves  of  consider- 
able interest ;  and  occasionally  we  are  able,  by  means  of  the  traditions 
they  preserve,  to  fix  upon  the  true  locality  of  a  place  of  Scriptural  im- 
portance. 

The  majority  of  such  sites  are  well  known,  and  recur  in  the  accounts 
of  the  various  pilgrimages,  but  I  propose  here  to  give  an  account  of 
some  of  the  more  obscure  names,  which  I  select  from  a  list  of  about 
150.  And,  first,  to  consider  the  topography  of  the  famous  march 
made  by  the  English  under  King  Eichard  Lion  Heart  from  Haifa  to 
Jaffa.     (Itin.  of  Rich.  I.,  Book  IV.,  chap.  12.) 

King  Richard's  March. — The  army  having  reached  Cayphas,  the 
modern  Haifa,  so  called,  we  are  informed,  by  Sir  John  Maundeville, 
A.D.  1822  (who,  however,  confused  it  with  'Athlit),  because  Caiphas 
was  lord  of  it,  encamped  at  the  foot  of  Carmel,  between  the  town  and 
the  sea;  that  is,  on  the  plain  near  the  Kishon,  in  all  probability,  as  water 
was  the  first  necessary;  and  a  river,  as  will  be  seen  subsequently,  gene- 
rally chosen.  No  description  of  the  town  at  this  period  exists,  and 
Benjamin  of  Tudela,  who  visited  it  thirty  years  before  the  arrival 
of  King  Eichard,  mentions  only  the  Jewish  tombs  which,  with  the 
candlestick  rudely  carved  upon  them,  still  form  an  important  feature 
on  either  side  of  the  town.     (See  the  specimen  Map  of  Carmel.) 

The  baggage  was  here  lightened,  and  the  march  commenced  on  a 
Wednesday,  towards  the  end  of  September  in  the  year  A.D.  1191. 

The  first  day's  march  was  a  long  one,  "  impeded  by  the  thickets  and 
the  tall  and  luxuriant  herbage,"  proving  that  the  amount  of  wood  has 
sensibly  decreased  since  that  date,  for  now  only  occasional  bushes 
are  found,  and  most  of  the   land   is   under  cultivation,  except  where 


90  MEDIAEVAL   TOPOGRAPHY   OF    PALESTINE. 

the  sand  has  encroached.  Arrived  at  Capernaum,  "which  the  Sara- 
cens had  razed  to  the  ground,"  the  king  rested,  but  the  oamp  was 
fixed  for  the  night  at  the  house  called  "  Of  the  Narrow  Ways." 

One  would  naturally  expect  that  'Athlit  was  the  first  stoppage,  especi- 
ally as  it  is  about  half  way  to  the  next  camping-ground,  and  yet  further 
because  the  old  name  for  Khirbet  Dustrey,  the  outlying  fort  of  'Athlit, 
is  Petra  Tucisa — the  scarped  rock — a  title  due  to  the  fort  itself,  with  its 
stables,  being  principally  rock-cut,  or  perhaps  from  the  rock-cut  passage 
through  the  bar  of  rock  separating  the  narrow  plain  from  the  sea-shore 
by  which  the  main  road,  with  the  marks  of  wheeled  vehicles  (chariots  or 
Crusading  carts)  still  visible  upon  its  surface,  reaches  the  fortress  of 
'Athlit,  or  Castel  Pelegrino.  We  have,  however,  an  identification  of  this 
Capernaum  by  the  venerable  Eabbi  Benjamin,  which  makes  it  most 
probably  the  same  as  Tantura. 

"  It  is  four  parasangs  hence"  (from  Cayphas),  he  says,  "  to  Khephar 
Thancum  (probably  the  Kefr  Tanchumin  of  Jerome  and  of  the  Talmud), 

which  is  Capernaum   identical   with   Meon Six  parasangs 

brings  us  to  Csesarea,  the  Oath  of  the  Philistines  "  ("  Early  Travels  in 
Palestine,"  p.  81).  The  proportional  distances  are  about  those  of  Tan- 
tui-a,  which  is  eighteen  miles  from  Haifa  and  eight  from  C«3sarea.  The 
identification  of  Scriptural  sites  had  got  into  considerable  confusion  at 
this  time,  but  where  so  definite  an  account  is  given  by  a  writer  gene- 
rally pretty  correct,  we  can  have  little  hesitation  in  fixing  Capernaum  at 
Tantura,  where  a  supply  of  water  could  easily  be  obtained.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  a  considerable  Crusading  place  was  once  standing  at  the  ruins 
of  El  Burj,  close  to  the  modern  village.  A  tower  stands  conspicuously 
on  a  little  headland,  once  forming  one  corner  of  a  square  fort.  The 
remains  of  a  harbour  and  landing-place,  with  a  colonnaded  building  of 
early  Christian  date,  are  noted  in  former  reports.  The  harbour  is  neces- 
sary for  the  identification,  as  we  find  that  the  army  "  remained  two 
days  in  the  above-mentioned  station,  where  there  was  plenty  of  room  for 
their  camp,  and  waited  there  until  the  ships  arrived."  The  country  is 
open  and  level  near  Tantura,  and  besides  the  rock-cut  passage  described 
above,  four  others  were  found,  and  are  described  in  our  notes,  having 
guard-houses  cut  in  the  rock  on  either  side,  and  completely  barring  com- 
munication between  the  shore  and  the  interior.  Two  are  between  'Athlit 
and  Tantura,  one  opposite  the  latter  town,  and  the  last  some  little  way 
south  of  it,  probably  the  one  here  meant,  as  the  principal  road  passes 
through  it. 

The  distance  thus  traversed  was  nearly  twenty  miles,  which  in  the 
hot  September  days  on  foot,  or  heavily  laden  with  armour,  must  have 
been  a  raarch  of  extraordinary  length,  no  doubt  rendered  necess.i,ry  by 
the  absence  of  water  in  sufficient  supply  for  an  army  of  about  100,000. 
Two  days'  rest  were  required  to  recover  from  its  effects,  and  on  a  Satur- 
day the  king  arrived  at  the  E.iver  of  Crocodiles,  passing  by  a  town 
named  Merla,  a  march  of  five  miles.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  river 
is  the  Zerka,  the  only   river  in  Palestine  where  crocodiles  now  exist 


MEDIAEVAL   TOPOGRAPHY   OF    PAl-ESTINE.  91 

according  to  native  evidence,*  but  tlie  name  Merla  seenas  probably  a 
corruption,  and  may  possibly  apply  to  El  Mozra'a,  where  a  strong 
Crusading  tower  still  remains  in  ruins  beside  the  main  road  here 
traversed. 

The  route  taken  by  King  Eichard  is,  I  may  observe  in  passing,  the 
same  which  we  followed  in  oui*  journey  from  Beirut  to  Jaffa,  but  being 
unmolested  by  Saracens,  and  not  encumbered  with  armour,  we  accom- 
plished a  distance  of  44  miles  in  one  day,  where  the  Crusaders  took  in  all 
ten  days. 

At  the  Zerka  the  Crusaders  rested  for  Sunday,  and  on  the  Monday 
they  advanced  by  Ctesarea,  which  was  ruined  by  the  Saracens,  but  which 
the  chronicler  admires  considerably.  "  The  circuit  of  the  City  of  Csesarea 
is  very  great  (alluding,  no  doubt,  to  the  Roman  town),  and  the  buildings 
are  of  wonderful  workmanship."  Here  also  the  fleet  communicated 
with  the  land  force,  and  by  night  the  camp  was  fixed  at  the  Dead  Eiver, 
five  miles  from  the  Zerka. 

It  will  be  found  that  in  all,  five  rivers  are  mentioned  (including  the 
Crocodile  River)  between  Capernaum  and  Joppa,  and  as  there  are  five 
streams  of  considerable  breadth,  and  of  perennial  supply,  we  cannot 
hesitate  in  identifying  these  with  the  rivers  of  the  narrative  in  the  order 
in  which  they  occur.  The  Dead  River,  therefore,  is  the  Nahr  el  Mifjir, 
as  it  is  generally  called,  although  it  has  four  other  names  in  various  parts 
of  its  course.  The  remains  of  a  bridge,  with  15  ft.  width  of  causeway, 
here  occur  at  a  part  where  the  river  is  60  to  70  ft.  broad,  and  by  this  no 
doubt  the  main  part  of  the  army  crossed,  though  the  baggage  train, 
which,  for  protection,  followed  close  to  the  sea- shore,  would  have  forded 
this  and  the  others,  as  we  were  obliged  to  do,  close  to  the  mouth. 

On  Tuesday,  apparently  another  short  march  of  five  miles  brought 
the  army  from  the  Dead  River  (so  called,  no  doubt,  from  its  sluggish 
character)  to  the  Salt  River,  being  harassed  all  day  by  the  flying  clouds  of 
Turks  and  Bedouin.  It  is  remarkable  that  one  of  the  names  of  the 
Nahr  el  Mifjir,  near  its  head  in  the  hills,  is  "Wady  Maleh  (salt),  but, 
nevertheless,  we  must  identify  this  river  with  the  Nahr  Skanderuneh,  a 
very  broad  and  marshy  stream,  which  flows  through  the  midst  of  "  a 
country  of  most  desolate  character  and  destitute  of  everything."  The 
chronicler  adds  :  "  For  they  were  compelled  to  march  through  a  moun- 
tainous country  because  they  were  unable  to  go  by  the  sea-side,  which 
was  choked  by  the  luxuriant  gi'owth  of  the  grass." 
<  "We  must,  I  think,  understand  from  this  that  the  way  lay  over  the 
rolling  sand  hills,  which  extend  along  the  coast  in  this  part,  and  that  the 
object  was  to  avoid  the  difficult  and  intricate  rushy  and  marshy  ground 
which  is  impassable  to  those  not  well  acquainted  with  its  windings,  and 
unfitted  for  the  advance  of  a  large  body  of  men. 

The  next  was  the  longest  march  undertaken,  with  the  exception  of  the 
eighteen  miles  to  Tantura,  and  was  again  necessitated  by  the  absence  of 
water.     The  army  had  rested  by  the  Salt  River  two  days,  and  proceeded 


Mr.  MacGregor  asserts  that  crocodiles  exist  in  the  Kishon. 


H 


92  MEDIJSVAL   TOPOGRAPHY    OP    PALESTINE. 

on  Friday  through  the  forest  of  Assiir,  or  Arsur,  to  the  river  "  commonly 
called  EochetaQle."  In  this  forest  we  recognise  the  long  extent  of  park- 
like scenery  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mukhalid,  where  groups  of  Sindian, 
the  ordinary  oak  of  Palestine  {Q.  Infedoria),  are  dotted  over  the  rolling 
plateau  of  red  semi-consolidated  sand,  covered  with  thin  grass  and 
carpeted  in  spring  with  flowers.  But  very  little  brushwood  exists,  a  few 
low  bushes  of  the  Abhar  (mock  orange)  and  other  shrubs  are  seen  in 
places,  but  the  accidents  of  the  ground  would  have  furnished  abundant 
cover  of  that  kind  which  the  Bedouin  prefer,  and  it  was  accordingly 
here  that  an  ambush  was  fully  expected.  The  River  Eochetaille  we  at 
once  see  to  be  the  Nahr  Falik,  a  considerable  stream,  now  almost  dry  in 
autumn,  where  the  papyrus  grows  even  moro  luxuriantly  than  in  the 
Zerka  River.  The  reason  of  the  name  is  found  in  the  long  narrow  rock 
channel,  cut  artificially  at  some  former  period  through  the  inland  cliffs, 
by  which  the  river  finds  a  channel  to  the  sea-shore  as  marked  on  the 
CiBsarea  sheet  of  our  map. 

The  distance  from  the  Nahr  Skanderimeh  is  nine  and  a-half  miles, 
the  way  being  through  the  greater  part  over  forest,  or  rather  open  park- 
like scenery, 

' '  On  the  Saturday,  the  eve  of  the  Nativity  of  the  blessed  Virgin 
Mary,"  the  great  conflict  with  the  enemy  took  place.  The  Saracens, 
emboldened  by  the  apparent  impunity  with  which  they  attacked  the 
heavy  advancing  columns,  became  so  insolent  that  a  conflict  was  un- 
avoidable, and  the  vivid  description  of  the  great  battle  on  the  moors 
round  Arsur,  or  Arsuf,  occupies  six  long  chapters  of  this  interesting 
chronicle.  Sunday  was  spent  on  the  field  in  masses  for  the  dead,  and  on 
Monday  the  army  arrived  at  the  River  of  Arsur,  and  immediately  after 
passing  this  (evidently  the  Aujeh)  they  reached  Joppa,  where  they 
"  refreshed  themselves  with  the  abundance  of  fruits." 

The  account  of  this  famous  journey  occurs  in  the  Itinerary  of  Eichard  I., 
by  Geoffry  de  Vinsauf,  B.  iv.  chap.  12  to  25. 

The  enumeration  of  the  castles  destroyed  by  Saladin,  which  follows, 
is  of  great  interest.  Some  such,  as  Mirabel  (Eas  el  'Ain),  Ramula 
(Eamleh),  Blanchward  (Tell  es  Safi),  and  St.  George  (Lydda),  are  well 
known.  Others,  such  as  Galatia,  Belmont,  Toron,  Ernuald,  Beauverie, 
in  the  south,  still  require  identification.  Two  others,  Maen  and  the 
Castle  of  Plans,  I  propose  to  notice  further. 

After  the  requisite  rest  at  Jafi'a,  Eichard  set  out  to  rebuild  Maen  and 
Plans,  and  encamped  (the  chi'onicle  says  "after  a  short  march") 
between  the  two.  The  Templars,  whilst  engaged  on  the  latter, 
received  an  attack  from  "  Bombrac,"  and  Richard  sent  reinforcements 
to  them,  apparently  from  Maen,  though  whether  in  return  for  a 
message  is  not  clear.  I  am  ignorant  whether  these  castles  are  mentioned 
in  any  other  chronicle,  but  Benjamin  of  Tudela  evidently  identifies 
Maen,  or  Maon,  as  we  have  already  seen,  with  Tantura,  which,  as  men- 
tioned above,  was  in  ruins.  Bombrac  is,  no  doubt,  the  modern  Ibn 
Ibrak,  and  this  would  point  to  Plans  as  being  in  an  intermediate  position 


MEDIAEVAL    TOrOGRAPIIY    OF    PALESTINE.  93 

on  tho  plain.  I  should  propose,  thoreforc,  to  identify  the  Castle  of  Plans 
with  Kalensawieh,  an  important  Crusading  site,  which  I  have  described 
in  a  former  report.  It  is  a  about  twenty  miles  from  Ibn  Ibrak,  and  tho 
samo  distance  from  Tantura.  IIow  the  name  came  to  bo  so  elongated  or 
contracted  (as  the  case  may  be)  it  is  not  easy  to  imagine,  but  there  aro 
parallel  cases  in  the  Crusading  chronicles,  and  orthography  seems  to 
have  been  a  very  neglected  science  in  the  12th  century.  The  distance 
seems  rather  long,  but  we  see  that  ten  miles  was  not  an  extraordinary 
march,  and,  indeed,  much  longer  ones  -were  frequently  made  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  campaign.  Prom  the  camp,  at  some  station  half- 
way to  Tantura,  the  Castle  of  Plans  would  not  be  over  this  distance. 

Kalensawieh  stands  on  thc'edge  of  the  woodlands  of  Mukhalid,  not  far 
from  the  foot  of  the  hills,  and  is  a  miserable  mud  village,  in  the  centre  of 
which  is  a  strong  Crusading  tower.  Beside  this  grows  the  only  palm 
which  (as  far  as  I  am  aware)  exists  between  Haifa  and  Jaffa,  and  east  of 
the  tower  is  a  hall  of  beautiful  masonry,  with  vaulted  stables  beneath, 
of  which  a  plan  and  description  wUl  be  found  in  our  notes. 

From  these  notes  on  the  identification  of  the  eight  opposite  sites  of 
Capernaum,  the  House  of  Narrow  Ways,  the  Salt,  Dead,  and  BochetailU 
Rivers,  Merla,  Flans,  and  Maen,  I  now  turn  to  one  or  two  interesting 
sites  mentioned  in  yet  earlier  accounts. 

The  Toiver  of  Ader.  This  site  is  first  mentioned  in  Genesis  xxxv.  21, 
as  the  residence  of  Jacob,  and  is  stated  in  the  Onomasticon  to  be  1,000 
paces  from  Bethlehem.  Arculphus  (a.d.  700)  and  St.  Bernard  the  Wise 
(a.d.  867)  notice  it,  the  fii-st  as  "  containing  the  monuments  of  the  three 
shepherds  to  whom,  on  the  spot,  the  angel  announced  the  birth  of  our 
Lord,"  the  latter  as  the  "  Monastery  of  the  Holy  Shepherds,"  one  mile 
from  Bethlehem. 

The  Mediceval  site  is  recognisable  in  the  Keniset  el  Ra'wat,  a  small 
chapel,  with  pillars  and  other  traces  of  a  larger  former  building,  which 
is  to  be  seen  still  in  use,  although  the  door  is  generally  locked,  on  the 
outskirts  of  the  Shepherd's  Plain  east  of  Bethlehem,  and  close  to  Beit 
Sahur  el  '  Atika.  From  the  context  we  find  that  the  original  place  of  the 
"Tower  of  the  Flock,"  as  Edar  is  properly  translated,  was  between 
Rachel's  Tomb  and  Mamre.  In  Micah  (iv.  8),  "  The  Tower  of  the  Flock" 
is  mentioned  as  "  the  stronghold  of  the  Daughter  of  Zion,"  seeming  to 
connect  it  with  Jerusalem ;  but  the  identity  with  the  site  now  discussed 
is  doubtful,  and  it  seems  to  me  not  at  aU  improbable  that  the  true  site 
of  Jacob's  Camp  is  preserved  under  the  tradition  of  the  Shepherd's  Plain, 
for  considering  the  extremely  rugged  and  difficult  character  of  the 
coiintry  round  Bethlehem,  there  is  no  spot  so  well  fitted  for  an  encamp- 
ment as  is  this,  especially  when  we  remember  that  it  was  occupied 
apparently  for  a  considerable  period. 

St.  Eustodiium.  The  number  of  monasteries  upon  the  plains  o 
Jericho  was  very  great,  and  yet  more  names  are  known,  but  not  identified. 
Amongst  these  is  St.  Eustochium,  which  was  placed,  according  to  St, 
Willibald,  "  in  the  middle  of  the  plain  between  Jericho  and  Jerusalem." 


di  NOTE   ON   LIEUT.    CONDER's    IDENTIFICATION    OF   NOB. 

The  only  site  which  at  all  fulfils  this  definition  is  that  of  Tell  Moghyfer 
(at  one  time  identified  with  Gilgal),  where  are  remains  of  a  considerable 
convent  of  early  period,  fed  by  aqueducts  which  come  down  from  Elisha's 
fountain. 

The  same  writer,  who  was  more  enterprising  than  most  of  the  early 
travellers,  mentions  Thectia  as  the  site  of  the  murder  of  many  children 
by  Herod,  and  a  Saint  Zacharias,  which  is  evidently  Khirhet  Beit  SJcaria 
— the  ancient  Beth  Zacharias.  This  brings  back  the  date  of  the  Church 
at  Teku'a  (of  which  only  a  few  pillars  and  a  magnificent  octagonal  font 
remain)  to  the  eighth  century,  to  which  also,  from  the  style  of  architec- 
ture, we  should  be  inclined  to  attribute  the  remains  of  a  church  at  Beit 
Skaria,  now  much  destroyed,  but  showing  capitals  of  early  Byzantine 
character. 

The  Pillar  of  Salt.  The  traditional  site  of  Lot's  wife  appears  to  have 
been  entirely  lost  to  modern  writers.  Benjamin  of  Tudela  thus  describes 
it: — "Two  parasangs  from  the  sea  (about  eight  miles)  stands  the  salt 
pillar  into  which  Lot's  wife  was  metamorphosed,  and  although  the  sheep 
continually  lick  it,  the  pillar  grows  again,  and  retains  its  original  shape." 
It  appears  that  the  traveller  did  not  visit  it. 

Sir  John  Maundeville  (1322)  speaks  of  the  same  site: — "At  the 
right  side  of  the  Dead  Sea  the  wife  of  Lot  still  stands  in  likeness  of  a 
salt  stone,  because  she  looked  behind  her  when  the  cities  sunk  into 
hell." 

Mandi-ell,  in  1697,  says: — "On  the  west  side  of  the  sea  is  a  small 
promontory,  near  which  .  .  .  stood  the  monument  of  Lot's  metamor- 
phosed wife,  part  of  which  (if  they  may  be  credited)  is  visible  at  this 
day."     He  was  not,  however,  tempted  to  visit  the  spot. 

These  descriptions  seem  all  to  refer  to  the  same  j^lace  on  the  west 
shore  of  the  sea,  and  I  would  suggest  that  they  refer  to  the  unique 'and 
extraordinary  crag  which  M.  Ganneau  describes  on  the  western  shore 
near  to  the  Hajr  el  Sulah.  This  curious  pinnacle  of  rock,  standing  out 
from  the  cliflf,  and  rudely  resembling  a  shrouded  figui-e,  is  called  by  the 
Arabs,  Kurn  Sahsi'd  Hemeid,  a  name  for  which  I  am  unable  to  give  any 
interpretation.  It  seems  well  fitted  for  the  legend  attached  to  it,  and  no 
other  monument  to  which  it  could  have  been  applied  is  to  be  found  on 
the  north-western  shores  of  the  sea. 

Claude  E.  Condee,  Lieut.  E.E., 

In  Gommand  Survey  of  Palestine. 


NOTE  ON  LIEUT.  CONDEE'S  IDENTIFICATION  OF  NOB. 

It  seems  to  me  that  in  seeking  to  identify  Nob  with  Neby  Samwil, 
Lieut.  Conder  has  completely  misunderstood  the  force  and  meaning  of 
one  of  the  most  graphic  and  picturesque  passages  in  the  Bible,  that  of 


NOTE   ON   LIEUT.    CONDER's    IDENTIFICATION   OF   NOB,  05 

Isaiah  x.  28-32,  wliicli  I  give  in  full,  as  detaclied  sentences  are  often 
misleading : — 

He  comes  to  Ai,  passes  through  Migron, 

At  Michmash  deposits  his  baggage  ; 

They  cross  the  pass,  Geba  is  our  night  station  ; 

Terriiied  is  Raiiiah,  Gibeah  of  Saul  flees. 

Shriek  with  thy  voice,  daughter  of  Gallim  ; 

Listen,  0  Laish  !    Ah  !  poor  Anathoth ! 

Madmenah  escapes,  dwellers  in  Gebim  take  flight. 

Yet  this  day  he  halts  at  Nob  : 

He  shakes  his  hand  against  the  mount,  daughter  of  Sion, 

The  hill  of  Jerusalem.     (See  Dictionary  of  Bible,  art.  Nob.) 

In  this  passage,  if  it  has  a  meaning— and  I  cannot'suppose  that  it  has 
not— the  prophet  describes,  in  such  detail  that  it  is  difficult  to  believe  he 
is  not  describing  an  actual  event,  the  march  of  an  Assyrian  army  upon 
Jerusalem ;  and  we  may  be  quite  certain  that,  with  his  knowledge  of  the 
country,  and  writing  as  he  did  for  those  who  were  equally  well  acquainted 
with  it,  he  would  describe  a  line  of  march  which,  under  certain  condi- 
tions, an  army  would  naturally  follow  if  its  special  object  were 
the  capture  of  Jerusalem.  The  conditions  to  which  I  allude  are  the 
passage  of  the  great  ravine  at  Michmash  {Mukhvias),  and  encampment 
for  the  night  at  Geba  [Jeha) ;  why  this  route  was  selected  in  preference 
to  the  easier  road  along  the  line  of  water-parting  we  have  no  means  of 
ascertaining,  and  it  does  not  affect  the  question. 

Of  the  places  mentioned  by  Isaiah,  we  know  with  a  considerable 
degree  of  certainty  the  positions  of  Michmash,  Geba,  Eamah,  Gibeah, 
and  Anathoth  ;  of  the  others  nothing  is  known.  From  Geba  to  Nob 
was  evidently  a  day's  march  in  the  progress  of  the  army,  and  the  order 
in  which  the  villages  are  mentioned  leads  us  in  the  direction  of  Jerusa- 
lem, and  not  of  Neby  Samwil.  If  we  are  to  suppose  that  the  King  of 
Assyria  went  to  Nob  simply  for  the  purpose  of  shaking  his  hand  against 
Jerusalem,  the  lofty  summit  of  Neby  Samwil  would  answer  ad- 
mirably; but  if,  as  I  believe,  the  passage  means  that  the  fierce 
Assyrian  warrior  was  leading  an  army  from  Geba  against  Jerusalem, 
and  that  his  progress  was  suddenly  arrested  at  Nob  on  the  way  thither, 
we  must  seek  a  site  for  Nob  on  the  road  between  those  two  places ;  and  I 
cannot  imagine  a  more  natural  one  than  some  place  in  the  vicinity  of 
that  Scopus  whence,  in  later  years,  Titus  and  his  legions  looked 
down  upon  the  Holy  City.  Certainly  no  general  advancing  with  an 
army  from  Geba  against  Jerusalem  would  lead  it  to  Neby  Samwil,  a 
high  peak  four  and  a  half  miles  from  the  city,  and  separated  from  it  by 
an  intricate  country  and  the  deep  ravine  of  Wady  Beit  Hanina. 

The  only  other  passage  in  the  Bible  which  gives  any  clue  to  the 
position  of  Nob,  and  that  a  very  slight  one,  is  the  account  of  David's 
flight  from  Eamah  to  Gath  by  way  of  Nob  ;  it  is  of  course  possible  that 
David  may  have  reached  the  Philistine  plain  by  way  of  Gibeon  {El  Jib), 
but  it  is  equally  possible,  and  in  my  opinion  more  probable,  that  he  took 


96  NOTE  ON  THE  SOUTERRAINS,  JERUSALEM. 

the  road  passing  by  Jerusalem  and  BotMelieni,  liis  native  place,  whicL. 
was  quite  as  short  and  convenient,  if  Gatli  were,  as  there  are  some  reasons 
for  believing,  at  Tell  es  Safieh. 

The  fanciful  derivation  of  the  Neby  of  Neby  Samwil  from  Nob  will 
not  bear  a  moment's  scrutiny ;  there  is  no  reason  why  this  particular 
Neby  should  be  derived  from  Nob  more  than  any  one  of  the  hundred 
other  Nebys  in  Palestine,  and  the  Arabic  Neby  is  hardly  an  exact  repro- 
duction of  the  Hebrew  Nob.  It  may  also  be  remarked  that  the  tradition 
respecting  Neby  Samwil  is  antecedent  to  the  Moslem  conquest ;  in  the 
time  of  Procopius  there  was  a  convent  of  St.  Samuel  on  the  summit,  and 
it  is  only  a  natural  transition  from  the  Christian  tomb  and  convent  of 
St.  Samuel  to  the  Moslem  tomb  of  the  prophet  {Nely)  Samwil. 

In  his  attempt  to  identify  Nob  with  Neby  Samwil,  Lieut.  Conder 
identifies  it  also  with  the  "  high  place  "  of  Gibeon,  the  site  of  the  taber- 
nacle during  the  early  part  of  Solomon's  reign ;  this,  however,  is 
unsupported  by  any  passage  in  the  Bible,  and  the  quotations  from  the 
Talmud  given  in  Lieut.  Conder's  paper  seem  to  me  to  prove  conclu- 
sively that  Nob  and  the  high  place  of  Gibeon  were  distinct  places.  It 
is  also  reasonable  to  suppose  that  after  the  massacre  of  the  priests  at 
Nob  the  tabernacle  would  be  removed  from  the  scene  of  so  much  blood- 
shed ;  we  do  not  know  when  it  was  erected  at  Gibeon,  but  there  are 
some  grounds  for  supposing  that  it  was  with  Saul  on  Mount  Gilboa.  Dean 
Stanley  has  proposed  to  identify  the  high  place  of  Gibeon  with  Neby 
Samwil,  but  he  is  careful  to  state  that  there  are  no  grounds  for  the 
supposition  except  the  apparent  suitability  of  the  place  for  the  magni- 
ficent ceremonial  on  the  occasion  of  Solomon's  visit ;  on  the  other 
hand,  it  shoiild  be  remembered  that  Neby  Samwil  is  one  and  a  quarter 
miles  from  El  Jib  (Gibeon),  a  distance  so  great  that  it  would  lead  us  to 
expect  the  place  to  have  its  own  distinctive  name  rather  than  one  derived 
from  Gibeon.  "We  may  also  observe  that  Gilgal  and  Shiloh,  where  the 
tabernacle  rested  for  many  years,  were  not  prominent  places ;  the  Temple 
at  Jerusalem  was  on  the  lower  hill  of  the  two ;  and  even  the  temples  of 
Jeroboam,  at  Dan  and  Bethel,  were  not  on  prominent  sites  such  as  Neby 
Samwil  and  many  other  peaks  in  Palestine.  It  would  almost  seem  as  if 
these  positions  were  selected  as  a  sort  of  protest  against  the  general 
custom  of  worship  on  the  high  places,  and  there  is  certainly  no  indication 
that  prominence  was  an  object  in  selecting  a  resting-place  for  the  taber- 
nacle. C.  W.  Wilson. 


NOTE  ON  THE  SOUTEEEAINS  IN  THE  NOBLE 
SANCTUAEY,  JEEUSALEM. 

A  CONSTANT  feature  of  the  rock-cut  tanlis  of  Palestine  is  the  rock-cut 
staircase  running  round  the  walls  from  top  to  bottom  ;  the  small  bottle- 
shaped  tanks  of  tAvelve  to  fifteen  feet  diameter  being  an  exception  to 
the  general  rule. 


THE   TEMPLE   OP    HEROD.  97 

These  staircases  may  be  seen  in  the  tanks  at  Beit  Jebrin,  Deir  Dubban, 
Maresa,  and  at  Nos.  V.,  VIII.,  XI.,  and  XXII.  in  the  Noble  Sanctuary. 

"We  may  therefore  look  for  traces  of  these  staircases  in  Souterrains 
Nos.  I.,  III.,  and  XXIX. ;  and  not  finding  them,  may  we  not  fairly 
draw  the  inference — 

1.  That  these  souterrains  are  not  tanks,  but  are  ancient  passages, 
which  must  have  entrances  and  exits  not  now  apparent  ? 

2.  That  if  they  are  tanks,  either  {a)  the' steps  have  been  cut  away ;  or 
(h)  they  still  remain  in  the  tanks  blocked  up  -with  masom-y  ? 

As  it  is  very  improbable  that  rock-cut  staircases  would  bo  cut  away 
without  any  apparent  object  for  so  doing,  we  may,  from  the  absence  of 
these  staircases,  have  much  reason  for  supposing  (whether  they  be  tanks 
or  no)  that  these  souterrains  are  of  greater  extent  than  the  plastered 
walls  would  at  present  indicate.  It  is  very  desirable  that  all  informa- 
tion on  the  subject  should  be  collected  together,  as  the  matter  has  an 
important  bearing  on  the  question  of  the  site  of  the  Temple.  Lieut. 
Condor's  recent  researches  cause  renewed  interest  in  the  matter. 

Jan.  4,  187*5.  Chakles  Wabeen. 


THE  TEMPLE  OF  HEEOD. 

[This  article  and  the  following  note  on  the  tomb  of  David  are  reprinted 
from  the  Athcnceum  of  Feb.  20th  and  Feb.  Gth  respectively,  by  kind  per- 
mission of  the  proprietors.] 

The  measurements  of  the  Temple  given  in  the  Mischna  are  rendered 
with  great  precision,  and  are  so  perfectly  intelligible  that  they  have  the 
appearance  of  having  been  taken  on  the  spot  or  from  a  correct  plan  of 
the  buildings.  In  the  works  of  Josephus,  on  the  other  hand,  however 
correct  may  be  his  descriptions,  some  of  his  measurements  are  given 
with  a  certain  vagueness  and  want  of  method,  rendering  it  very  difficult 
to  realise  the  form  of  the  buildings  he  describes,  and  rather  inducing 
the  supposition  that  he  spoke  to  some  extent  from  recollection,  and 
was  often  in  want  of  memoranda  or  notes  for  the  purpose  of  refreshing 
his  memory. 

For  example,  he  tells  us  that  the  old  cloisters  of  King  Solomon  (Ant. 
XX.  ix.  7)  were  400  cubits  in  length ;  that  Herod,  in  rebuilding  the 
Temple,  encompassed  a  piece  of  ground  twice  as  large  (Bel.  I.  xxi.  1)  as 
that  before  enclosed,  and  yet  that  the  courts  of  Herod  measured  only  a 
stadium  or  600  feet  a  side  (Ant.  XV.  xi.  3).  It  is  not  in  these  passages 
alone  that  Josephus  appears  to  contradict  himself,  for,  on  the  several 
occasions  when  he  mentions  the  size  of  the  Temple  courts,  there  is  an 
ambiguity  presenting  great  difficulties. 

I  offer  a  solution  to  the  problem  by  assuming  that  the  600  with  regard 
to  Herod's  outer  courts  should  be  applied  to  cubits  instead  of  feet ;  that 
Josephus' s  I  memory  recalled  the  600  feet,  which  is  the  measure  (by  my 
construction  from  the  Talmud)  of  the  length  of  the  Inner  Court,  and  ap- 


98  THE   TEMPLE   OP    IIEROD. 

plied  it  ill  en-or  to  the  600  cubits  of  the  outer  coui-t.  This  solution  wUl 
clear  up  the  anomalies  in  Josephus's  own  text,  and  will  allow  it  to  agree 
with  the  Talmudic  measurements. 

From  this  standpoint  let  us  reconstruct  the  outer  courts  of  Herod, 
represented  on  the  exterior  by  the  east,  west,  and  south  walls  of  the 
present  Noble  Sanctuary,  and  by  a  line  defining  the  exterior  of  north  wall 
drawn  parallel  to  northern  edge  of  raised  platform,  8  cubits  north  of 
the  Golden  Gate.  These  walls,  measuring  respectively  1,090,  1,138,  922, 
and  997  feet,  give  an  average  of  593  cubits,  a  very  close  approximation 
to  the  600  cubits  I  have  imputed  to  Josephus.  If  we  now  allow  8  cubits 
(Bel.  VI.  V.  1)  for  the  wall  all  round,  30  cubits  (Bel.  V.  v.  2)  for  width  of 
cloisters  on  north,  east,  and  west  sides,  and  105  feet  (Ant.  XV.  xi.  5)  for 
that  of  the  Southern  Cloister,  we  obtain  an  average  length  of  505  cubits 
for  inner  sides  of  these  cloisters,  th'e  Talmudic  measurement  being  500 
cubits,  this  again  being  a  close  approximation.  "We  thus  obtain  coin- 
cidence between  the  external  measurements  of  the  Mischna  and  of 
Josephus.  Within  the  area  thus  obtained  let  us  re-construct  the  plan  of 
Temple  and  courts  according  to  the  above  authorities,  and  observe  what 
buildings,  souterrains,  and  cisterns  now  in  situ  can  be  identified  with 
portions  of  the  Temple  of  Herod. 

The  Golden  Gate  (the  old  foxmdations  of  which  are  still  in  situ)  will 
now  be  found  to  form  a  continuation  of  the  double  wall  of  the  Northern 
Cloisters  to  the  east,  just  as  the  Arch  of  Eobinson  led  from  the  Southern 
Cloisters  to  the  west.  The  Golden  Gate  is  thus  that  on  which  "was 
portrayed  the  city  Shushan.  Through  it  one  could  see  the  High  Priest, 
who  burnt  the  heifer,  and  his  assistants  going  out  to  the  Mount  of 
Olives."  There  appear  to  have  been  steps  on  arches  leading  down  from 
this  gate  into  the  Cedron  towards  the  east,  and  leading  up  again  past 
the  southern  end  of  present  Garden  of  Gethsemane  :  even  now  (see 
Ordnance  Survey  'toooo)  there  are  stone  walls  in  the  valley  which  per- 
haps may  indicate  the  line  of  these  steps  ;  they  appear  to  have  ascended 
again  to  east,  and,  reaching  the  present  road  to  Bethany,  to  have  con- 
tinued south-east  on  to  a  spot  on  level  2,460  feet  just  below  some  exist- 
ing ruins  shown  on  the  Survey  plan. 

From  this  spot  a  view  could  have  been  obtained  direct  over  the  east 
wall,  through  the  Gate  Nicanor,  over  the  altar  into  the  Sanctuary.  The 
production  of  this  visual  line  to  east  passes  through  the  centre  of  the 
present  open  court  of  the  Ascension  on  summit  of  Olivet. 

On  this  east  wall,  in  which  the  Golden  Gate  is  built,  are,  at  the  south- 
east angle,  the  Phoenician  characters  in  red  paint,  establishing  the 
great  antiquity  of  this  wall,  and  on  which,  until  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem,  stood  the  Porch  or  Cloister  erected  by  King  Solomom  (Ant. 
XX.  ix.  7). 

The  Temple  lies  square  to  the  west  wall  of  the  outer  court,  its  western 
end  coincident  with  the  western  side  of  raised  platform,  and  its  southern 
side  eleven  feet  south  of  southern  end  of  said  platform. 

This  position  is  governed  in  some  measure  by  the  following  passages 


THE   TEMPLE    OP    HEROD. 


99 


in  Joscphus  : — Ant.  XV.  xi.  o,  Ant.  XX.  viii.  11,  Bel.  II.  xvi,  3,  where  it 
is  stated  that  King  Agrippa  built  himself  a  dining-room  (overlooking 
the  Inner  Courts  of  the  Temple)  in  the  palace  of  the  Asamoneans,  which 
was  situated  at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  Upper  City  overlooking 
the  Xystus,  where  the  Bridge  (Wdson's  Ai-ch)  joined  the  Temple  to  the 


Xystus.  It  can  be  seen  on  plan  that  in  order  to  see  into  the  Inner  Court 
it  would  be  necessary  to  be  in  a  line  parallel  to  the  side  of  the  court, 
and  thus  the  position  can  bo  fixed  to  within  a  few  feet  either  from  the 
northern  or  the  southern  portion  of   the  Inner  Court.      Taking  other 


100  THE  TEMPLE  OP  HEROD. 

matters  into  consideration,  it  is  apparent  that  it  was  the  southern  portion 
which  King  Agrippa  buUt  his  dining-room  to  overlook. 

The  Altar,  as  suggested  in  "Eecoveryof  Jerusalem,"  p.  207,  stands 
over  the  western  end  of  Souterrain  No.  V.,  a  remarkable  underground 
passage,  which  may  well  have  served  as  a  communication  under  the 
courts  of  the  Temple  in  connection  with  the  great  water  system  neces- 
sary for  keeping  in  order  the  Temple  courts  ;  whether  it  may  have  led 
from  the  altar  to  the  Blood-passage,  which  apjaears  to  have  been  dis- 
covered   at  the  south-east  angle  of   Noble    Sanctuary,  or  whether  it 
connected  the  Gates    Mokhad    and    Nitsots  with  the  waterworks,    or 
whether  it  was  the  underground  communication  to  Gate  Nicanor  (Ant. 
XV.  xi.  6),  under  which  it  runs,  is  not  yet  certain  ;  possibly  it  may  have 
served  for  all  these  purposes,  but  in  either  case  it  would  have  been  a 
passage  of  some  imj)ortance.     There  is  a  legend  in  Mejir  ed  Din  that 
one  of  the  ancient  kings  threw  a  roll  from  Olivet,  which  fell  near  the 
portion  of  raised  platform  where  No.  V.  is  situated  :  it  is  possible  that 
this  may  have  some  reference  to  the  concealment  of  the  volume  of  the 
Sacred  Law  in  this  souterrain.     The  plan  of  Temple  and  Courts  is  con- 
structed entu-ely  from  the  Talmud ;  the  chambers  of  the  court  can  only 
be  obtained  from  the  descriptions  in  the  absence  of  any  measurements. 
The  three  gates  to  Inner  Court,  both  on  north  and  south,  are  placed  at 
equal  intervals  from  each  other,  and  from  the  corners  of  the  courts. 
The  Gate  Nitsots  falls  in  such  a  manner  that  the  Sakhra  Cave  entrance 
opens  into  it:  this  cave  would  appear  to  be  continued  through  into 
Souterrain  No.  1,  forming  a   passage  to  the   Gate    Tadj.     This    may 
be   the   passage   into  the  chU  mentioned    in   the    Talmud  as  leading 
from   Nitsots,    and,    if     in     connection  with   No.    V.    Souterrain,    it 
would  have  been  also  the   occult  leading  from  Antonia    to  the  Gate 
Nicanor,  made  for  King  Herod  (Ant.   XV.  xi.  6).     Between  this  and 
the  Gate  Corban  lies  the  rock  over  which  the  present  dome  is  buUt. 
On  this  fall  the  chambers  of  the  washers  and  of  Parva.     The  drain  dis- 
covered on  the  top  of  the  rock  may  be  the  passage  by  which  the  refuse 
from  the  "  inwards  "  was  carried  off. 

The  room  Parva  lies  directly  over  the  Sakhra  Cave,  and  the  notes  in 
the  Talmud  (see  "  Prospect  of  the  Temple,"  p.  377)  are  sufficiently 
curious,  and  appear  to  prove  a  complete  identification.  "  Parvah  is  the 
name  of  a  man  who  was  a  magician,  and  there  are  some  of  the  wise 
men  that  say  that  he  digged  a  vault  underground  till  he  could  come  to 
see  what  the  high  priest  did  on  the  day  of  expiation." 

The  gates,  according  to  the  Talmud  ("  Prospect,"  p.  326),  were  46f 
cubits  from  centre  to  centre,  and,  if  we  produce  the  Souterrain  No.  III. 
upon  the  line  of  the  Inner  Court,  we  find  it  falls  upon  the  Gate  Mokhad. 
The  position  of  this  Souterrain  and  the  chambers  in  it  apjaear  to  coin- 
cide very  closely  to  the  chambers  spoken  of  as  leading  from  Mokhad. 
It  passes  obliquely  towards  where  Souterrain  No.  I.  is  supposed  to  run 
out  at  the  gate  Tadi,  on  northern  edge  of  raised  platform.  The  Mischna 
tells  U8,  "  in  the  gallery  that  went  under  the  chel  he  passed  out  through 


THE   TEMPLE    OP    HEROD,  101 

Tadi."  Again  wc  read,  "tlie  priest  gets  out  and  goes  along  in  tlie 
gallery  that  goetli  under  the  Temple,  and  candles  flare  on  every  side, 
tiU  he  Cometh  to  the  bath-place ;  "  and,  again,  "he  gocth  down  a  turn- 
ing staircase  that  went  under  the  Temple."  Dr.  Lightfoot  says  that  it 
was  some  vault  undergroimd  through  which  they  passed  from  the  north- 
west room  of  Mokhad,  and  thence  to  Gate  Tadi.  The  position  and  shape 
of  Souterrain  No.  III.,  vnth  its  chamber  adjoining,  appear  to  exactly 
fulfil  the  requirements  of  the  case. 

In  the  southern  side  of  the  Inner  Court  the  chamber  of  the  draw-well 
lies  just  north  of  Cistern  No.  VI.,  and  not  far  from  No.  XXXVI., 
which  two  cisterns  are  in  communication  with  the  large  tanks  of  the 
southern  portion  of  the  Noble  Sanctuary,  and  with  the  water  supply 
from  Solomon's  Pools  and  Wady  Biyar.  Dr.  Lightfoot  (p.  351)  supposes 
the  house  of  Abtinas  to  have  been  over  the  chamber  of  the  draw-well, 
and  the  Mischna  tells  us  that  the  priests  guarded  the  Sanctuary  in  three 
places :  in  house  of  Abtinas,  in  the  house  Nitsots,  and  in  the  house 
Mokhad. 

We  thus  find  the   priests    guarding    the    Inner   Court   at  the  three 

points  where  there  were  subterranean  communications  with  the  exterior. 

The  Huldah  Gates  are  represented  by  the  double    and  triple  gates 

on  south  side,  the  latter   of   which  was    also    formerly  a  double  gate, 

its  old  foundations  being  still  visible. 

The  western  gates  are  stiU  in  situ,  that  leading  from  Souterrain 
No.  XXX.,  south  of  Bab  al  Mathera,;is  the  gate  (Ant.  XV.  xi.  5)  leading 
to  the  other  city,  or  Acra,  by  a  great  number  of  steps  down  into  the 
valley,  and  thence  up  again  by  the  ascent.  This  may  be  the  Gate 
Kipunus  spoken  of  in  the  Mischna,  the  meaning  of  which  word  is 
"hole"  or  "through  passage"  ("Prospect,"  p.  226),  giving  a  correct 
description  of  this  vaulted  descent. 

South  of  this  is  the  bridge  or  causeway  leading  over  the  valley  north 
of  the  Xystus  to  the  Upper  City,  along  the  first  wall,  at  Bab  as  Silsile. 
This  causeway  is  stUl  in  situ,  except  at  Wilson's  Arch,  where  a  more 
modern  construction  has  replaced  the  ancient  bridge. 

Further  south  are  the  two  suburban  gates  (Ant.  XV.  xi.  5)  at  Bab  al 
Magharibe  and  Eobrnson's  Arch. 

In  the  absence  of  fm-ther  information,  the  shape  and  position  of  the 
Castle  Antonia  must  remain  highly  conjectural ;  probably  it  stood  on 
site  of  the  modern  Military  Serai,  comiected  with  the  Outer  Court  of 
Temple  by  two  passages  or  cloisters. 

The  plan  now  put  forward  is  thus  shown  to  suit  the  features  of  the 
ground  in  a  remarkable  degree,  and  to  coincide  with  existing  ancient 
remains. 
Throughout  this  article  the  cubit  is  assumed  to  be  21  inches. 

C.  Waeeen. 


102  THE   TOMB   OF   DAVID. 

THE    TOMB   OF   DAVID. 

January  21th,  1875. 

We  leaiTi  (Joseplius,  Bel.  V.,  iii.  2)  that  Titus,  wlien  besieging  Jeru- 
salem, wished  to  pitch  his  camp  nearer  the  city,  and  for  this  purpose 
made  all  the  place  level  from  Scopus  to  Herod's  Monument. 

Again  we  read  (Bel.  V.,  vii.  3)  that  Titus,  on  getting  within  the  city, 
took  up  his  position  at  the  place  called  "  The  Camp  of  the  Assyrians," 
and  that  Herod's  Monimient  (Bel.  V.,  xiii.  3)  was  near  to  the  camj)  on 
north-east  of  Jerusalem. 

We  know  (from  Ant.  XV.,  ix.  4  ;  Bel.  I.,  xxxiii.  2,  and  other  pas- 
sages) that  Herod  was  buried  in  the  fortress  Herodium,  which  he  had 
built  for  himself,  eight  miles  south  of  Jerusalem,  and  we  have  no  account 
of  any  of  Herod's  family  having  been  biu-ied  at  Jerusalem. 

Whence  then  arises  the  term  "  Herod's  Monument"  {iJ.yriiJ.e7oi'),  applied 
to  the  erection  on  north-east  of  Jerusalem  ? 

The  answer  appears  to  be  supplied  by  Ant.  XVI.  vii.  1,  where  it  is 
related  that  Herod,  having  met  with  some  strange  obstacles  in  his 
attempt  to  plunder  David's  Tomb,  built  a  propitiatory  monument 
[ixyrj/xa.)  in  white  stone  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sepulchre. 

From  this  it  follows  that  the  entrance  to  David's  sepulchre  was 
situate  outside  the  north  wall  of  Jerusalem  to  the  east. 

On  turning  to  the  account  of  the  city  wall  (Bel.  V.,  iv.  2),  we  read 
that  the  north  wall,  after  passing  by  the  royal  caverns  (translated  by 
Whiston,  "  sepulchral  cavern  of  the  kings  "),  bent  again  at  the  tower  of 
the  corner. 

The  propitiatory  monument  would  thus  have  stood  near  the  royal 
caverns,  which  may  have  contained  the  sepulchi-es  of  the  kings. 

If  we  now  examine  the  ground  itself,  regarding  the  present  north 
wall  as  on  the  site  of  the  old  outer  wall,  we  find  the  extensive  caverns, 
or  subterranean  quarries,  called  the  Cotton  Grotto,  to  be  situated  on 
the  spot  where  we  would  expect  to  find  the  royal  caverns. 

These  quarries  were  apparently  used  in  getting  out  the  stone  for  the 
ancient  buildings  of  Jerusalem,  and  it  has  been  surmised  (by  Major 
Wilson,  I  think)  that  the  blocks  were  brought  down  on  an  incHne  to 
the  Temple  platform  through  an  opening  to  the  south  now  lost  to 
view. 

May  we  suppose  that  David,  having  hewn  the  stones  from  these 
quarries  ready  for  the  building  of  the  Temple,  took  advantage  of  the 
subterranean  recesses  thus  afforded  for  the  formation  of  his  sepulchre  ? 

Portions  of  the  roof  of  these  quarries  have  fallen  in,  which  may  pre- 
vent effectual  search,  but  it  is  possible  that  further  examination  may 
result  in  the  discovery  of  the  continuation  of  the  cavern  to  the  south,  and 
advance  us  a  further  step  in  our  knowledge  of  the  Holy  City. 

Major  WUson  (p.  50,  Vol.  II.,  "Palestine  Exploration  Fund,"  1872) 
proposes  to  identify  the  aqueduct  which  runs  over  the  Cotton  Grotto  to 
Convent  of  Sisters  of  Sion,  -with  the  conduit  of  the  upper  pool  in  the 


GREEK    INSCRIPTION.  103 

highway  of  the  fuller,  by  which  Eabshakch  stood  when  he  addressed 
the  Jews  on  the  walls  of  the  city  (2  Kings  xvii.  17).  In  this  he  appears 
to  be  borne  out  by  the  account  of  Josephus,  who  places  (Bel.  V.,  iv.  2) 
the  royal  caverns  (Cotton  Grotto)  near  the  Fuller's  Monument.  Major 
Wilson  also  suggests  that  this  conduit  was  cut  across  near  the  grotto  in 
the  time  of  Herod,  and  this  appears  to  strengthen  my  proposal  as 
regards  the  Tomb  of  David,  and  accounts  for  its  entrance  being  found  on 
north  side  of  the  city. 

I  suppose  that  on  first  cutting  into  the  quarries  of  the  Eoyal  Cavern 
the  entrance  was  to  the  south,  opposite  the  Temple,  the  entrance  to 
the  royal  tombs  also  being  in  same  place,  that  this  continued  until 
after  time  of  Xehemiah  (Neh.  iii.  16).  On  the  re-building  of  the 
Temple  by  Herod,  the  ditch  was  cut  to  north  of  present  wall,  exposing 
to  view  the  northern  end  of  the  cavern ;  and  this  new  entrance  being 
well  outside  the  city  was  used  in  preference  to  the  old  southern  entrance, 
which  may  possibly  have  been  filled  in  for  defensive  reasons.  The 
conduit  of  the  upper  pool  (2  Kings  xvii.  17)  is  so  often  supposed  by  the 
best  authorities  to  be  identical  with  the  upper  water-course  of  Gihon 
(2  Chron.  xx.  30)  that  I  should  mention  that  I  consider  them  to  be 
quite  distinct ;  the  former  entering  the  city  (as  suggested  by  Major 
Wilson)  over  the  Cotton  Grotto,  the  latter  entering  at  the  Tower  of 
Hippicus  (Bel.  V.,  vii.  3),  near  the  present  Jaffa  Gate,  and  rimning 
straight  down  to  the  west  side  of  the  City  of  David  (2  Chron.  xxii.  30) 
into  the  pool  of  the  Bath,  otherwise  called  Hezekiah's  Pool,  which  I 
suppose  to  be  Gihon  in  the  Valley  (2  Chron.  xxxiii.  14). 

Charles  Warren. 


GEEEK  INSCRIPTION. 
In  the  Quarterly  Statement  received  this  morning  I  observe,  at  page  19, 
an  imperfect  inscription,  of  which  Lieutenant  Conder  remarks  it  "  seems 
to  have  been  only  a  text  or  religious  sentence."  No  doubt  many  others 
will  find  no  difficulty  in  completing  the  text,  but  in  case  it  should  not 
have  been  so  obvious  as  it  seems  to  me,  I  beg  to  send  you  the  solution. 

E.  B.  FiNLAY. 
'     Folkestone,  January  16,  1875. 

Psalm  cxviii.  20  (Septungint,  Psalm  cxvii.). — Auttj  rj  ttwAtj  tov  Kvpiov  Si/caioj 
fltT€\(V(rovTai  eV  aurjj. 

AYTHHn(T) 

(A)HTOTKT(P) 

lOTAIKAIO 

IEIC(E)AET(;(0NT) 

AIENAT(,THI) 


104  INSCRIPTION   AT   EL   GEBAL. 

INSCRIPTION  AT  EL  GEBAL. 

M  DE  Vogue,  French  Ambassador  at  Constantinople,  lias  recently 
made  a  communication  to  the  Academic  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles 
Lettres,  of  wlucli  lie  is  himself  a  member,  on  a  Phoenician  inscription 
found  at  Byblos,  the  Biblical  Gebal.  It  contains  fifteen  lines,  the  sixth 
and  the  seventh  of  which  are  much  damaged  on  the  right-hand  side,  and 
many  letters  in  other  parts  of  the  inscription  are  scarcely  to  be  recog- 
nised. We  are  informed  by  M.  J.  Derenboiu-g  that  the  bas-relief 
represents  the  goddess  Baaltis,  in  the  shape  and  -with  the  emblems  of 
the  Egyptian  Isis,  the  king  Yehumeleldi  in  a  Persian  costume  facing 
her,  and  offering  her  a  cup  which  he  holds  in  his  hand.  Since  we  know 
that  the  kings  of  Gebal  are  represented  in  Greek  costume  on  other  bas- 
rehefs,  we  may  date  the  present  inscrij)tion  from  the  Persian  time.  As 
far  as  we  are  informed,  the  inscription  does  not  contain  historical  facts, 
but  important  contributions  to  Phoenician  grammar  and  lexicography, 
which  we  shall  enumerate,  partly  according  to  the  kind  communication 
of  M.  Derenbourg.  1.  The  pronoun  XT  and  ]T  in  the  inscription,  such 
being  a  composition  of  the  Hebrew  T  of  HT  and  the  A-amaic  K  and  I  of 
Xn  and  p.  2.  The  i  occurring  for  the  first  time  in  Phoenician  inscriptions 
as  the  possessive  pronoun  of  the  third  person.  3.  mn,  "to  live,"  for 
n^n,  root  which  we  find  in  the  name  of  Hava  (Eve),  and  probably  in  the 
avo  in  the  Foenulus  of  Plautus.  4.  The  root  yin,  in  the  sense  of  carving, 
and  pj3  Avith  the  meaning  of  "  grandson." — Academy,  Feb.  o,  1875. 


Quarterly  Statement,  July,  1875.] 


THE 


PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND. 


PREFACE. 

The  followiug  jiages  contain  the  linal  reports  on  tlie  survey  of 
the  south  of  Palestine,  with  accounts  of  ]\Iasada,  Gaza,  Gerar,  the 
Shefalah,  Gath,  Adullam,  Keilah,  Ascalon,  Ashdod,  the  Crusading 
sites,  the  caves,  and  Roman  camps.  Tlie  papers  written  by  Lieu- 
tenant Conder  and  M.  Clermont-Ganneau,  separately,  on  the  site 
of  AduDam,  will  be  found,  between  them,  to  give  everything  that 
can  be  urged  in  favour  of  a  site  whose  identification,  if  it  be 
accepted,  will  remove  many  difiiculties. 

The  survey  of  Avestern  Palestine,  which  lias  occupied  the  Com- 
mittee for  four  years  and  a  half,  noAv  approaches  completion.  It 
is  calculated  that  another  year's  work  iu  the  country  will  finish 
it  completely.  The  work  of  the  Americans  Avill  be  fitted  in  to 
our  own,  and  the  whole  may  be  expected  to  be  published  in  the 
course  of  the  next  three  years.  As  yet  nothing  has  been  decided 
as  to  the  manner  of  publication. 

In  April  last  the  Committee  asked  for  j£3,50O  before  the  end 
of  the  year.     One-third    of  thjs    sum    has    already   been    received 

I 


106  KOTES. 

since  tliat  date.  Perliaps  subscribers  will  remember  tbat  tlie 
summer  montlis  are  comparatively  barren,  and  tliat  those  who  for- 
ward their  subscriptions  at  once  are  helping  the  Committee  to 
tide  over  the  dead  season.  A  great  part  of  the  debt  has  already 
been  cleared,  and  the  Committee  look  confidently  to  work  it  oft" 
cc>mpletely  before  the  end  of  the  year. 


NOTES. 

While  desiring  to  give  every  publicity  to  proposed  identifications  by  ofRcers 
of  tbe  Fund,  the  Committee  beg  it  to  be  distinctly  understood  that  tliey  leave 
such  proposals  to  be  discussed  on  their  own  merits,  and  that  by  publishing  them 
in  the  Quarterly  Statement  the  Committee  do  not  sanction  or  adopt  them. 


Annual  subscribers  are  earnestly  requested  to  forward  their  subscriptions  for 
the  current  year  at  their  earliest  convenience  and  without  waiting  for  apphcation. 
It  is  best  to  cross  all  cheques  to  Coutts  and  Co.,  and  if  so  crossed  they  may  be 
safely  left  payable  to  bearer. 


The  Committee  are  always  grateful  for  the  return  of  old  numbers  of  the 
Quarte7-Iy  Statement,  especially  those  which  are  advertised  as  out  of  print. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  General  Committee  held  on  June  22ud,  1875,  Mr.  WiUiani 
Longman  in  the  chair,  the  following  were  added  to  the  General  Committee  : — 
Tlie  President  of  the  American  Association. 
Eev.  Dr.  Joseph  Barclay. 
Mr,  John  Cunliffe. 
Rev.  F.  W.  Farrar,  D.D. 
M.  Clermont-Ganneau. 
Mr.  Holman  Hunt. 
General  Sir  Henry  Jamesg 
Mr.  F.  Leighton,  R.A. 


107 

Mr.  Henry  Maudslay. 
Sir  Charles  Nicholson. 
Herr  retermann. 
Viscount  Sandon, 
Dr.  Sandreczk}^ 

It  was  also  resolved  that  the  Executive  Committee  should  in  future  all  resign 
at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  General  Committee  in  June. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  then  elected  from  the  General  Committee,  to 
serve  as  an  Executive  Committee  for  1875-76  ; — 
Mr.  S.  Birch,  LL.D. 
Mr.  J.  D.  Grace. 
Mr.  W.  Hepworth  Dixon, 
Professor  Donaldson. 
Mr.  F.  A.  Eaton. 
Jlr.  Glaisher, 
Mr.  "William  Longman. 
Mt.  Henry  Maudslay. 
Eev.  Canon  Tristram. 
Mr.  AY.  S.  W.  Vaux,  F.R.S. 
Capt.  Warren,  R.E. 
Major  Wilson,  R.E. 
The  honorary  ofticers  were  re-elected. 


The  amount  received  from  all  sources  from  March  22nd  to  Juno  30th  was 
£950  5s.  7d.     The  balance  of  current  account  at  the  latter  date  was  £320  10s. 

In  the  last  Quarterly  Statement,  page  61,  it  was  stated  that  the  amount 
received  from  June  1st  to  Alarch  22nd  was  £1,439  14s.  5d. ;  it  should  have  been 
from  January  1st. 


M.  Ganneau's  paper  has  been   unavoidably   delayed   in   publication.     It   is 
expected  to  appear  in  the  August  number  of  3[acmillans  Marjazinc. 


The  second  American  expedition  is  now  (July  7th)  in  London  on  its  way  to 
Syria.  It  is  commanded  by  Colonel  S.  Lane,  who  has  with  him  the  Rev. 
Selah  Merrill,  Mr.  Treat,  and  Mr.  Rudolph  Meyer. 


108  NOTES. 

At  Beyroiit  his  party  will  be  increased  by  the  accession  of  a  photographer. 
The  graduated  students  of  the  Syrian  Protestant  College  will  act  as  his  Arabic 
interpreters.  The  tract  of  country  which  Colonel  Lane  proposes  to  triangulate 
jcaches  from  the  soiith  of  the  Dead  Sea  to  Damascus,  and  has  an  average  widtli 
of  forty  miles.  He  considers  that  two  years  will  suffice  for  the  completion  of 
liis  survey. 


Ladies   desirous   of  joining  the   Ladies'    Association  are  requested  to   com- 
samiicate  with  3Irs.   Finn,  Tlie  Elms,  Brook  Green,  London,  W. 


ANNUAL    GENERxVL    MEETING    OF    THE    PALESTINE 

EXPLORATION  FUND. 

HELD  AT  THE  ROYAL   INSTITUTION,   lOrii  JUNE,  1875. 

His  Ghace  the  AiicnBisHOP  of  York  in  the  Chair. 

The  Chaieman  :  I  call  upon  Mr.  George  Grove  to  read  the  Eeport, 

Mr.  Grove  read  the  Eeport  as  follows  : — 

"  The  Committee  rejoice  in  being  enabled  to  report  a  year  of  nnia- 
terrupted  progress  and  thoroughly  sound  work. 

"  The  archcGological  mission  of  M.  Clermont-Ganneau,  for  which  his 
services  had  been  granted  for  one  year  by  the  French  Foreign  Office, 
terminated  in  November  last,  when  he  returned  to  Europe. 

"Reports  of  his  labours  were  published  as  they  arrived  in  the  Quarterly 
Statements  of  the  Fund ;  these  will  now  be  re-written  and  published  in  a 
single  volume,  which  the  Committee  hope  to  issue  in  the  autumn  of  the 
present  year,  when  the  importance  of  his  discoveries  will  be  folly 
recognised. 

"  The  present  work  of  the  Committee  consists  wholly  of  the  survey. 

"A  heavy  loss  was  siistained  last  year  in  the  lamentable  death  of 
Mr.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,  which  took  place  on  the  very  day  of  the  Annual 
Meeting.  His  place  has  been  taken  by  Lieut.  H.  H.  Kitchener,  of  the 
Eoyal  Engineers. 

"The  party  now  consists  of  Lieuts.  Conder  and  Kitchener,  Corporals 
Armstrong,  Brophy,  and  Junor,  with  a  Syrian  scribe. 

"  Field  work  was  resumed  in  October  in  the  hill  country  south  of 
Judah,  a  little  known  and  most  important  part  of  Palestine.  It  was 
interrupted  for  a  short  time .  by  the  extremely  severe  weather  of 
January,  but,  by  the  last  account  received  a  few  days  ago,  the  Com- 
mittee are  enabled  to  report  that  in  spite  of  this  drawback  the  whole 
of  the  south  country,  including  Philistia,  with  the  exception  of  a  very- 
small  area,  is  now  completely  triangulated.  Fifteen  hundred  square 
miles  have  been  added  to  the  map  since  the  last  meeting.  The  survey 
has  not  been  confined  to  map-making  alone.  Among  the  more  impor- 
tant identifications  proposed  or  confirmed  by  Lieut.  Conder  are  those 
of  the  Hill  of  Hachilah,  the  Rock  of  Maon,  Zanoah,  Arab,  Maarath, 
Chozeba,  Beth  Zetho,  the  Levitical  City  of  Debir,  the  Cave  of  Adullam, 
the  Tower  of  Ader,  the  Forest  of  Hareth,  the  Wood  of  Ziph,  the  Altar 
of  Ed,  the  Ford  of  Bethabara,  and  many  others.  Some  idea  of  the  work 
done  by  the  surveying  party  may  be  gathered  from  the  facts  that  during 
the  spring  campaign  alone  1,000  square  miles  have  been  surveyed,  and 
1,067  names,  a  very  large  number  of  which  were  previously  unknown, 
have  been  collected. 


110  THE    ANNUAL    MEETING. 

"  Further,  Lievit.  Conder  reports  in  his  last  letter  thirty  new  identifi- 
cations, the  details  of  which  he  reserves  until  he  has  been  able  to  consult 
books.  It  will  be  understood  that  such  archa3ological  results  as  are 
obtained  in  the  course  of  exhausting  labours  in  triangulation  must  not 
be  taken  as  part  of  the  duty  which  the  oflQ.cerB  are  sent  out  to  execute,  so 
much  as  additional  proofs,  if  any  were  needed,  of  their  zeal  and  ability. 
The  real  work  for  which  Lieuts.  Conder  and  Kitchener  are  responsible  is 
the  great  map  of  Palestine. 

"  Two  of  the  most  valuable  discoveries  of  the  year  are  due  to 
M.  Clermont-Granneau.  The  first  of  these  is  that  of  the  boundary  of 
Gezer.  He  has  found  in  situ,  and  absolutely  for  the  first  time,  the  actual 
inscriptions  marking  the  limits  of  a  Levitical  city.  There  are  two  of 
these,  carved  on  the  rock,  in  Greek  and  square  Hebrew,  and  pointing 
probably  to  a  Maccabean  date,  which  contain  the  word  Gezer  precisely  as 
it  is  written  in  the  Bible.  Casts  of  the  inscrijotions  have  been  sent  to 
England,  and  a  full  account  of  this  precious  contribution  to  Biblical 
research  will  be  found  in  M.  Ganneau's  new  volume.  This  discovery  is 
the  more  interesting  as  it  confu-ms  the  theory  which  M.  Ganueau  had 
already  advanced  on  the  site  of  Gezer.  The  fact,  also,  that  the  name  of 
the  place  is  still  Tell  Jezer,  furnishes  another  illustration  of  the  vitality 
of  Bible  names.  The  second  discovery  is  that  of  the  city  of  Adullam. 
The  name  had  been  found  and  the  place  visited  by  M.  Ganneau  in  1871, 
and  again  in  1874.  It  was  first  mentioned  in  Captain  Burton's  "  Un- 
explored Syria "  (1873).  Lieut.  Conder  has  now,  acting  on  M.  Ganneau's 
information,  visited  and  examined  the  site  in  the  course  of  the  sui'vey. 

"  The  identification  of  the  Altar  of  Ed  must  not  be  passed  over.  This 
most  striking  recovery  of  a  site  mentioned  only  once  in  the  Bible,  and 
belonging  almost  to  the  earliest  history  of  the  Hebrew  race,  is  entirely 
due  to  Lieut.  Conder.     Full  particulars  have  already  been  published. 

"  The  total  area  surveyed  up  to  this  time  reaches  the  amount  of  4,430 
square  miles,  leaving  some  1,500  miles  still  to  be  filled  in.     To  this  must 
•  be  added  the  reconnaisance  of  the  Negeb  or  south  country,  on  the  com- 
pletion of  which  the  survey  of  "Western  Palestine  will  be  finished.     The 
Committee  can  now  with  reasonable  confidence  promise  that  a  complete 
and  exhaustive  map  of  the  whole  of  Western  Palestine — including,  that 
is,  nine-tenths  of  the  scenes  of  the  Bible  narrative — will  be  brought  to 
England  in  the  autumn  of  1876  and  given  to  the  world  about  a  year  later. 
"  This  invaluable  and  enduring  work  will  be  the  result  of  the  subscrip- 
tions of  private  individuals  united  by  the  one  common  bond  of  being 
students  of  the  Bibie;  it  will  be  completed  without  State  aid,  and  once 
finished  will  be  a  work  for  all  time  absolutely  indispensable  to  every 
future  student  of  the  Bible.     As  the  survey  approaches  completion  the 
Committee  feel  more  deeply  thankful,  not  only  that  the  necessary  funds 
have  been  subscribed  by  their  friends,  but  also  that  it  has  been  carried 
on  without  hindrance  or  opposition,  and  up  to  the  present  time  without 
any  serious  check. 

"The  Committee  of  the  American  Association  are  now  sending  out 


THE    ANNUAL   MEETING.  Ill 

their  second  expedition.  It  ■will  be  commanded  by  Colonel  Lane,  who 
"will  have  under  his  orders  Herr  Rudolph  Meyer,  of  Hamburg,  as 
•assistant  surveyor,  and  the  liov.  Selah  Merrill  as  archajologist.  The 
New  York  Committee  have  sot  aside  the  sum  of  £6,000  to  meet  the 
expenses  for  the  two  years  which,  it  is  believed,  the  survey  of  Moab 
and  the  country  east  of  Jordan  will  require.  It  is  worthy  of  remark 
that  whereas  most  of  our  income  is  derived  from  one-guinea  subscribers, 
the  larger  part  of  the  money  raised  by  the  American  Society  has  been 
subscribed  by  leading  New  York  merchants. 

' '  The  Committee  have  to  report  that  a  special  cflfort  has  been  made  in 
Manchester  to  raise  the  sum  of  £i300,  more  than  half  of  which,  by  the 
liberality  of  the  residents  in  that  city,  has  been  already  forwarded  to 
the  London  office.  The  expenses  of  one  man.  Corporal  Junor,  will  be 
wholly  defrayed  by  the  Manchester  subscribers. 

"  The  income  of  the  Fund  since  the  last  annual  meeting  has  been  up 
to  this  morning,  from  all  sources,  £4,179  I83.  lid.,  and  the  amount 
received  since  the  1st  of  January  is  £2,103  4s.  od.,  being  £550  more 
than  that  subscribed  up  to  the  same  date  of  last  year.  The  cost  of  the 
expeditions  in  Palestine  has  been  £3,500. 

"The  Committee  have  realised  during  the  year,  by  the  sale  of  their 
books  and  publications,  the  sum  of  £160.  They  have  just  published  the 
eighth  edition  of  their  small  popular  book  callel'OurWork  in  Palestine.' 

"  The  present  year  was  commenced  under  a  heavy  load  of  debt  but  a 
diminished  expenditure.  About  half  of  the  liabilities  have  been  already 
•cleai-ed  off. 

"  Among  the  donations  received  within  the  last  twelve  months  must 
be  specially  mentioned  those  of  the  British  Association,  the  Syrian 
Improvement  Committee,  Mr.  Charles  Morrison,  the  Grocers'  Company, 
and  an  anonymous  donor  whose  initals  are  "  G.  M.  E."  These  have 
each  given  £100  to  the  Fund.  Dr.  Peter  Wood,  Miss  Chafyn  Grove, 
•and  the  Mercers'  Company,  have  also  given  £50  and  50  guineas 
respectively. 

"  The  Edinburgh  Local  Association  has  sent  £100,  Leeds  £65,  and 
Newark  (an  association  of  ladies)  £77,  and  smaller  sums  have  been 
received  from  other  Local  Associations. ' 

"To  these  donors,  to  the  city  companies,  to  the  hon.  secretaries  who 
have  given  their  personal  exertions  to  the  cause,  and  to  all  their  friends 
and  subscribers,  the  Committee  desire  to  express  their  most  sincere 
thanks." 

The  Chairman:  My  Lords,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen, — It  is  not  my 
fault  that  I  occupy  this  chair  again  this  year.  It  would  have  been  much 
more  in  accordance  with  my  feelings  if  I  could  have  made  way  for  some 
worthier  person  instead  of  occupying  this  responsible  post.  I  have  no 
pretension  to  be  connected  with  the  inner  working  of  this  Society,  for  I 
feel  myself  rather  in  this  position  to  represent  the  figure-head  of  the 
ship,  while  Mr.  Grove  maybe  likened  to  the  engine  that  gives  it  its 
I'apidity  and  successful  motion.      At  the   same  time,  in  zeal  for  the 


112  THE    ANNUAL    MEETING. 

objects  of  this  Fund,  I  yield  to  none.  No  member  of  this  Association 
watches  its  proceedings  with  a  greater  wish  for  its  success  than  I  do 
myself.  I  am  obliged  to  repeat  what  I  have  said  in  former  years,  be- 
cause it  is  necessary  for  the  chairman  to  say  something  of  the  general 
purposes  of  the  Association.  I  have,  however,  first  to  mention  that  I 
have  received  a  letter  from  that  venerable  man,  Sir  Moses  Montefiore, 
who  regrets  his  inability  to  attend  the  meeting,  and  I  have  also  a  letter 
from  the  Eev.  William  "Wright,  who  was  advertised  to  speak  at  this 
meeting,  but  who  finds  he  cannot  attend.  I  shall  presently  give  way  to 
the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  and  no  one  is  more  fully  entitled  to  speak  to  a 
meeting  of  this  kind  than  the  President  of  the  Bible  Society,  because 
we  are  in  our  way  a  kind  of  Bible  Society.  We  have  also  to-day  to 
welcome  the  Rev.  Dr.  Barclay,  who  for  many  years  lived  at  Jerusalem, 
and  who  there  welcomed  and  assisted  our  explorers  to  the  utmost  of  his 
power.  We  have  also  the  presence  of  Captain  Burton,  who  has  been  our 
Consul  at  Damascus,  a  gentleman  whom  it  would  bo  impertinent  in  me 
to  praise,  whose  reputation  is  of  European  growth,  and  who,  I  am  sure, 
does  not  requii-e  a  word  of  mine  to  introduce  to  you.  We  have,  more- 
over, to  welcome  the  Eev.  Horrocks  Cocks,  who  has  paid  great  attention 
to  this  subject.  I  will  now  proceed  to  discharge  my  duty  in  the  best 
way  in  my  power.  This  Society  was  instituted  some  years  ago  for 
the  purpose  of  increasing  our  knowledge  of  the  Holy  Land,  and  at 
our  first  meeting  it  was  surprising  to  listen  to  the  testimony  of  people 
representing  almost  every  field  of  human  knowledge  to  the  effect  that 
we  knew  very  little  about  tho  Holy  Land.  Many  had  visited  it,  and  a 
great  deal  of  excellent  and  accurate  work  had  been  done,  and  if  I  were 
permitted  to  lift  my  hand  I  could  point  out  some  of  the  principal  explorers 
in  that  sacred  country.  But  they  found  that  they  could  do  but  little. 
The  work  of  exploration  in  Palestine  is  attended  with  great  expense, 
great  risk  to  health  and  life,  if  continued  month  after  month  and  year 
after  year  ;  and  it  was  found  that  there  must  be  some  organisation  with 
a  good  long  purse  in  the  background,  so  that  when  one  investigator  is 
weary  another  might  be  found  to  take  his  place.  I  am  obliged  to  say  it 
is  not  merely  that  weariness  may  overtake  them,  but  sometimes  they  sink 
under  their  exertions.  Only  a  year  ago  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,  as  you  know, 
lost  his  life  in  our  cause.  The  Society  whose  claims  we  are  now  consider- 
ing takes  its  origin  from  the  meeting  I  refer  to,  and  there  is  no  cause,  on 
the  whole,  to  say  that  we  have  been  unsuccessful  in  the  high  task  we  then 
proposed  to  ourselves.  It  is  very  true  that  persons  who  do  not  accurately 
attend  to  the  subject  might  have  expected  greater  and  more  sudden 
results;  not  those  who  did  give  attention  to  it,  and  who  knew  the  country, 
because  they  knew  that  the  Avork  would  necessarily  lie  underground,  and 
that  work  of  this  kind  is  necessarily  slow  and  difficult ;  and  as  Sir 
Henry  Eawlinson  said  at  one  of  our  meetings,  our  explorers  are  not 
always  very  welcome  to  householders  in  that  country.  I  am  sure  we 
can  well  understand  that,  for  if  I  knew  that  a  gentleman  was  burrowing 
100  feet  under  York  Minster,  it  is  very  probable  that  I  should  wish  to 


THE    ANXUAL    MEETING.  113 

go  down  myself  and  put  a  stop  to  his  operations ;  and  we  find  that 
persons  in  Jerusalem  take  the  same  line  of  action.  Wo  have  done  a  good 
deal  of  exploration  in  Jerusalem  itself.  Those  among  you  who  have 
looked  at  our  Quarterly  Statements  and  the  Reports  of  Major  Wilson 
and  Captain  Warren,  and  particularly  the  book  called  "  The  Eecovery  of 
Jerusalem,"  must  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  a  great  deal  has  been 
done  by  this  Society  in  the  way  of  actual  exploration.  But  we  have  for  the 
last  three  years  turned  our  attention  in  another  direction — namely,  to  the 
survey  of  the  country  of  Palestine.  We  depart  somewhat  from  our  origi- 
nal undertaking  about  the  poetry  and  romance  of  exploration,  in  com- 
parison with  which  a  survey  of  the  land  is  a  most  prosaic  thing.  The 
signification  of  the  names  of  places,  and  putting  them  upon  the  map, 
would  appear  to  be  no  better  or  worse  than  going  on  our  own  hill-tops  and 
making  an  ordnance  survey  of  England.  Nevertheless,  I  may  appeal  to 
every  geographer  and  man  of  science  whether  we  have  not  taken  the  right 
line  in  endeavouring  to  get  a  great  work  completed  upon  which  many 
future  discoveries  might  be  hung.  And  here,  to  our  general  astonish- 
ment, we  find  that  we  had  a  great  deal  to  do.  The  outer  black  line  shown 
upon  that  map  on  the  wall  marks  out  what  has  been  already  triangulated. 
There  is  a  little  j^ortion  at  the  bottom  which  has  not  yet  been  done,  but  all 
the  rest  is  as  correctly  laid  down  as  our  own  ordnance  survey  of  England. 
Now,  I  do  say  this  is  the  very  work  for  the  people  of  England  to  under- 
take. The  people  of  England  have  done  more  for  the  Bible  than  any  other 
people  in  the  world.  They  have  circulated  more  copies  over  the  face 
of  the  earth,  and  I  believe  they  have  read  it  more  than  any  other 
people ;  and,  if  so,  oui-  going  on  to  pay  attention  to  the  scene  or  stage 
upon  which  the  great  events  recorded  in  the  Bible  transpired  was  a 
natural  and  logical  proceeding  on  our  part.  Wo  pride  ourselves  on  being 
a  logical  people,  and  on  a  belief  that  no  obstacles  can  daunt  us.  If  there  is 
a  mountain  higher  than  the  rest  in  all  the  world,  half  a  dozen  Englishmen 
wUl  be  sure  to  be  climbing  up  it.  If  there  is  ever  an  expedition  involv- 
ing some  kind  of  danger  in  it,  an  Englishman  is  sure  to  volunteer  to  go 
upon  it.  It  was  said  that  people  could  not  be  found  to  go  in  the  Arctic 
Expedition  which  has  recently  left  our  shores,  but  it  was  soon  found  that 
there  were  not  only  plentj^  of  volunteers  well  qualified  for  the  work,  but 
others  who  it  was  thought  would  not  be  able  to  survive  the  rigors  of 
the  climate,  and  who  were  rejected  on  that  account.  And  in  like  manner 
we  have  gone  in  for  this  Survey  of  Palestine.  I  will  admit  that  it  has 
cost  a  great  deal  of  money,  and  people  may  say,  "  Oh,  your  box  of  oint- 
ment might  have  been  sold  for  a  great  deal  and  given  to  the  poor,  and 
there  are  many  things  that  you  might  have  given  your  money  for  which 
wou.ld  have  been  better  than  that."  But  I  do  not  admit  that  argument. 
It  is  always  used  in  the  wrong  place,  and  by  the  wrong  people.  It  is 
used  by  those  who  wish  to  give  to  the  poor,  but  it  is  not  as  if  there  was 
only  one  purse.  The  wealth  of  the  earth  is  great,  and  the  wealth  of  the 
people  of  England  is  enormous,  and  the  wealth  we  have  drawn  fi-om  it 
is  not  worth  mentioning.     What  is  the  money  spent  for  a  purpose  like 


114  THE    ANKUAL    MEETING. 

tills  to  the  honour  and  glory  of  the  people  of  England.  What  is  it  to  the 
130  millions  of  money  which  they  spend  for  their  drink  every  year  ?  But 
I  approach  the  subject  from  a  totally  different  side.  So  far  from  taking 
money  from  higher  and  better  objects,  if  higher  and  better  there  be,  it  is 
taken  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  our  interest  in  that  religion  which 
we  profess,  and  to  which  we  belong,  and  to  give  a  higher  aim  and  open 
fresh  sources  to  our  benevolence,  so  that  the  poor  will  still  take  the  benefit 
of  our  exertions,  and  a  purer  tone  of  thought  will  be  created  about  these 
things.  Therefore  on  that  score  I  have  not  the  slightest  sympathy  with 
the  objectors  to  our  proceedings.  We  are  striving  to  get  a  rich  nation, 
which  is  spending  thousands  and  thousands  on  its  amusements,  to  spend 
a  little  in  order  to  put  on  record  an  object  worthy  of  the  nation.  But  we 
are  no  monopolists.  Every  man,  whatever  his  profession  or  religion  may 
be,  or  whatever  country  he  belongs  to,  may  co-operate  with  us.  It  is 
true  that  an  archbishop  of  the  English  Church  occupies  the  chair  of 
your  Committee,  but  on  that  Committee  are  members  of  the  most  various 
denominations,  and  there  is  only  one  qualification  for  a  supporter  of  this 
Fund,  that  he  shall  feel  an  interest  in  the  land  of  the  Bible,  and  a  desire 
to  promote  a  knowledge  of  that  land.  With  regard  to  other  nations,  I  may 
remind  you  that  while  we  are  exploring  Palestine  on  one  side  of  Jordan, 
the  Americans  are  exploring  it  on  the  other  side.  And  we  have  here  a 
proof  of  what  I  wish  to  draw  your  attention  to,  and  that  is  the  power  we 
have  to  raise  up  an  interest  in  the  subject  in  others  who  have  not  yet 
taken  an  interest  in  it.  Here  are  two  great  peoples  busy  in  exploring 
Palestine.  America  is  a  younger  sister  of  England,  and,  I  say  it 
with  great  respect,  perhaps  a  little  emulous  of  her  elder  sister ;  but 
she  does  not  sit  down  and  grumble  at  what  we  are  doing,  she  wishes 
to  take  a  share  in  our  work,  and,  iu  fact,  we  are  working  in  entire 
harmony ;  and  when  the  question  was  asked  about  the  copyright  of  the 
map  which  we  shall  produce  together,  it  was  answei-ed  immediately  that 
there  is  not  the  slightest  reason  to  suppose  that  our  American  brethren 
will  offer  any  difficulty  in  that  respect.  That  is,  of  course,  very 
delightful,  and  it  will  do  a  great  deal  of  good  in  eveiy  way.  I  have  a 
little  sheet  here,  issued  by  Mr.  Henry  Maudslay,  who  has  been  explor- 
ing at  his  own  expense,  which  is  most  valuable  and  important ;  and 
I  dare  say  Mr.  Maudslay  would  admit  that  the  fact  of  our  having 
paid  attention  to  the  subject  turned  his  own  attention  to  it :  eo  that,  besides 
the  work  we  do  ourselves,  we  stimulate  enterprise  and  interest  in  this 
direction,  and  I  have  no  doubt  we  shall  in  time  have  a  great  many  explo- 
rations going  on  besides  our  own.  With  regard  to  this  Survey  of  Pales- 
tine, it  may  be  supposed  after  all  that  there  is  very  little  to  do  beyond 
the  triangulation  of  well-known  sites.  I  do  not  pretend  to  give  an 
explanation  of  the  operations  of  surveying,  but  I  know  it  is  a  great 
organised  system  of  research,  and  that  it  requires  the  very  closest  re- 
search. It  is  all  very  well  for  a  policeman  to  walk  up  and  down  Regent 
Street,  but  that  is  a  very  different  thing  from  a  house-to-house  visitation 
and  exploration  of  the  lanes  and  alleys  adjoining  it.     We  have  to  search 


THE    ANNUAL    MEETING,  115 

in  every  hole  and  corner  of  the  country  and  see  what  is  there,  and 
classify  everything  iu  proper  form.  We  know  that  in  the  best  maps  of 
Palestine  eight  fords  of  the  Jordan  are  marked,  but  we  have  ascertained 
that  there  are  about  fifty  across  the  river.  What  is  topography  if  it 
does  not  give  the  roads  and  passages  across  the  country  ?  Upon  the 
whole,  not  to  detain  you  longer,  our  object  is  to  know  Palestine  through 
and  through,  to  work  with  every  one  who  will  assist  us ;  and  oftr  reason  for 
turning  to  Palestine  is  that  Palestine  is  our  country.  I  have  used  that 
expression  before,  and  I  refuse  to  adopt  any  other.  That  is  my  country, 
which  has  given  me  the  laws  by  which  I  try  to  live — which  has  given  me 
the  best  knowledge  I  possess — that  is  my  country,  to  which  I  look  for 
rules  in  the  conduct  of  my  life — in  which  has  dwelt  my  King  and  my 
Lord.  England  is  my  country,  I  know  it  and  feel  it,  but  Palestine  also 
is  my  country.  I  am  sure  you  all  know  and  feel  as  I  do,  and  that  is  the 
reason  you  take  such  an  interest  in  the  quiet  work  of  this  excellent 
Society.  (Cheers.)  I  have  now  great  pleasure  in  calling  upon  the  Earl 
of  Shaftesbury  to  move  the  first  resolution.     (Cheers.) 

The  Eight  Hon.  the  Eakl  of  Shaftesbury,  K.G.  : — May  it  please  your 
Grace,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen, — It  has  always  appeared  to  me  a  matter 
of  great  wonder  in  past  times  that  men  did  not  rush  by  common  con- 
sent into  the  exploration  of  the  Holy  Land ;  but  since  the  discoveries 
which  have  been  made,  and  the  certainty  of  greater  treasures  which  are 
yet  to  be  developed,  I  am  joerfectly  astonished  that  our  Report  should 
only  represent  an  income  of  about  £4,000  a  year — and  as  to  those 
antagonists  of  this  Society  who  complain  of  the  waste  of  money  which  we 
expend  on  foreign  objects,  I  repudiate  it  altogether.  Gentlemen  of  that 
kind  might  well  be  informed  of  the  advice  which  Bishop  Stanley,  of 
Norwich,  gave  me  many  years  ago.  He  was  often  pestered  by  similar 
remarks,  but  he  said,  "  Whenever  I  give  a  guinea  to  go  across  the  water, 
I  give  a  guinea  to  be  spent  on  this  side  of  it."  These  are  convenient 
arguments  which  cover  parsimony  under  a  pretext  of  discrimination.  I 
have  not  in  this  matter  any  great  geographical  or  antiquarian  knowledge ; 
though  I  have  a  strong  antiquarian  feeling  on  the  subject.  I  have 
always  considered  this  question  upon  a  broader  basis,  and  therefore  this 
resolution  is  one  of  the  most  satisfactory  I  ever  moved  in  my  life, 
although  the  words  in  which  it  is  expressed  are  somewhat  too  weak  to 
express  my  feelings  : — It  is  "  That  this  meeting  cordially  approves  of  the 
action  of  the  Committee,  and  pledges  itself  to  use  every  eif  ort  to  carry 
the  suiwey  to  a  successful  termination."  Now,  approval  is  much  too  weak 
a  word ;  we  ought  to  have  one  far  more  powerful  to  express  what  we  feel. 
And  then,  as  to  the  successful  termination  of  our  work,  we  must  use  a 
stronger  expression  than  that  we  pi^edge  ourselves  to  bring  this  about.  Let 
us  not  delay  to  instruct  our  friend  the  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  Grove,  to  send 
out  the  best  agents  he  has  in  his  power  to  search  the  length  and  breadth 
of  Palestine,  to  survey  the  land  ;  and  if  possible  to  go  over  every  corner 
of  it,  drain  it,  measure  it,  and,  if  you  will,  prepare  it  for  the  return  of 
its  ancient  possessors,  for  I  must  believe  that  the  time  cannot  be  far  off 


IIG  THE    ANNUAL    MEETING. 

before  that  great  event  will  come  to  pass.    We  have  there  a  land  teeming 
with  fertility  and  rich  in  history,  but  almost  without  an  inhabitant — a 
country  without  a  people,  and  look  !  scattered  over  the  world,  a  people 
without  a  country.     I  recollect  speaking  to  Lord  Aberdeen,  when  he  was 
Prime  Minister,  on  the  subject  of  the  Holy  Land ;  and  he  said  to  me, 
"  If  the  Holy  Land  should  pass  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Turks,  into  whose 
hands  should  it  fall  ?  "     Why,  the  reply  was  ready,  "  Not  into  the  hands 
of  other  powers,  but  let  it    return  into  the  hands  of  the  Israelites," 
and  surely  there  are  signs  to  show  that  the  time  is  near  at  hand  when 
the  Lord  will  have  mercy  upon  Zion,     I  had  once  a  conversation  with 
that   grand  old  Hebrew,  Sir  Moses  Montenore,  now  in  his  ninety-first 
year,  but  yet  on  the  point  of  starting  again  on  a  pilgrimage  of  mercy.    I 
had  a  conversation  with  him  a  few  years  ago,  and  we  entered  upon  the 
whole  subject  of  the  Jewish  question.     A  more  liberal-hearted  man  does 
not  exist  on  the  face  of  the  earth.     I  see  in  him  a  concentration  of  the 
spirit  of  the  Maccabees.       "The  future  of  the  Holy  Land,"  he  said, 
"  is  this  :    Give  us  security  for  life  and   property,   and  the  Jews  wUl 
return  and  take  possession  of  their  ancient  territory."   I  have  had  letters 
to  a  similar  purport  from  the  Bishop  of  Jerusalem,  who  will  no  doubt 
confirm  what  I  say.     The  number  of  Jews  who  have  already  returned  to 
their  land  is  considerable.    Yiilas  are  growing  up  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Jerusalem,  they  are  occupied  by  Jews,  and  I  hear  that  there  is  mani- 
fested a  great  inclination  among  the  Jews  in  all  parts  of  the  South  and  the 
East  for  their  return  to  the  Holy  Land,  whenever  they  are  assured  that  the 
Turkish  Government  will  be  not  only  able  but  willing  to  carry  into  effect 
the  measures  which  have  been  ratified  in  their  behalf.     I  do  not  wish, 
far  from  it,  to  disparage  the  labours  of  those  men  who  hitherto  have 
been  engaged  in  the  exploration  of  Palestine.     On  the  contrary,  I  am 
astonished    at  the    skill,   diligence,  and  ability  they  have   manifested, 
and  I  feel  that  everything  they  have  added  to  our  knowledge  of  the 
country  is  so  much  added  to  oui-  knowledge  of  revealed  truth,  and,  there- 
fore, their  exertions  are  to  be  spoken  of  with  the  highest  gratitude  and 
esteem.     But  I  cannot  help  saying  that  we  want  to  go  much  farther  than 
the  point  they  have  reached.    We  may  be  told  that  we  are  impatient,  and 
that  we  are  not  prosaic  enough.    I  admit  all  that,  and    yet  I  cannot  re- 
strain myself,  when  I  have  such  an  object  before  me,  from  a  desire  to  go 
into  the  matter  deeper  and  deeper,  so  that  not  the  coasts  only,  but  the 
very  bed  of  the  Eiver  Jordan,  should  be  explored  ;  but,  more  than  all,  do 
I  want  to  get,  where  we  shall  get  at  last,  into  the  Mosque  of  Omar 
itself,  and  dive  down  into  the  cellars  and  recesses  which  are  excavated  in 
that  limestone  rock.     I  have  heard  from  Jews,  living  on  tradition  as 
they  do — and  some  of  their  traditions  are  well-founded — that  the  Ark  of 
the  Covenant  is  yet  to  be  found  there.    They  know  that  it  was  never  taken 
away — there  is,  at  least,  no  record  of  it — either  in  the  time  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar or  of   Titus.     Then,  how  could  it  disappear  ?     The  prieata 
regarded  it  as  the  holiest  of  all  their  treasures ;   they  bid  it  in  some 
hour  of  peril  in  the  vaults  of  the  rock  on  which  the  Temple  was  built. 


THE   ANNUAL   MEETING.  117 

The  priests  wHo  did  it,  so  runs  the  telief,  -vvero  f^lain  in  the  siege,  aud 
the  secret  perished  with  them.     At  any  rate,  it  is  well  worth  our  looldng 
for ;  and  if  it  could  be  brought  to  light — that  grand  old  Ark   of  the 
Covenant — good  heavens  I    what  a  discovery  it   would  be  !      What  an 
evidence  in  a  day  of  trouble,  of  rebuke,  and  of  blasphemy  1     This  is  par- 
ticularly an  age  in  which  all  our  thoughts,  and  the  whole  of  our  hearts, 
are  given  to  the  present,  indifferent  to  the  past,  and  regardless  of  the 
future  ;  but  if  we  can  bring  men's  minds  to  look  back  with  reverence  to 
days  gone  by,  we  shall,  as  Dr.  Johnson  eays,  have  advanced  somewhat  iu 
the  dignity  of  thinking  beings ;  and  it  might  create  in  the  minds  of  many 
people  that  strong  desire  expressei  in  the  happy  and  burning  words  of 
old  Moses,  "  Lord,  I  pray  thee  let  me  pass  over  and  see  that  good  land," 
that  goodly  mountain,  and  Lebanon.     I  can  only  say  that  such  feelings 
have  passed  through  my  own  heart  thousands  and  thousands  of  times. 
My  old  age  is  on  this  point  not  much  tamer  than  my  earlj'  life,  nor  am  I 
singular,  for  I  believe  you  will  find,  among  the  great  mass  of  our  people, 
thousands  who  read  and  love  their  Bibles,  and  who  have  aburning  affection 
for  that  land,  over  whose  "  acres  walked  those  blessed  feet  which  eighteen 
hundred  years  ago  were  nailed,  for  our  advantage,  to  the  bitter  Cross." 
It  is  somewhat  remarkable  the  passion  which  people  in  my  own  county 
of  Dorsetshire  have  for  Hebrew  names,  so  delighted  are  they  to  be  con- 
nected with  the  Old  Testament.    Thus,  in  my  little  churchyard,  there  is  a 
tombstone,  which  I  have  often  shown  to  strangers,  with  this  inscription  : 
"To  the  memory  of  Methuselah  Coney,  who  died  at  the  ago  of  twelve 
months."     The  love  they  have  of  Bible  names  neglects  all  consistency. 
Who  would  speak  in  disparagement  of    the   antiquities  of  Mexico,   of 
Greece,  or  Eome  ?  but  nono  of  these  can  lead  us  to  the  sentiment  which 
must  be  derived  from   the   antiquities   of   Palestine,  to  the  sanctifying 
effect  of  such  researches,  and  which  must  excite  solemn  and  reverential 
feelings  in  the  heart  of  man.      I  may  be  speaking  only  my  own  senti- 
ments, you  may  perhaps  not  all  sympathise  with  me,   but  if  so,  I  can 
only  apologise  for  warmth  of  expressions  which  come  from  the  depths  of 
my  own  heart ;  and  I  cannot  stand  forward  to  move  a  resolution  of  this 
sort  without  saying  thus  much.     Aud  here,  to  conclude,  I  wear  upon 
my  finger  something  which  hourly  reminds  me  of  these  truths.      When 
Dr.  Alexander,  the  first  bishop  of  Jerusalem,  himself  a  Hebrew,  went  to 
the  Holy  City,  he  found  one  man,  and  one  man  only,  who  was  cunning 
to  engrave.     That  one  man  presented  to  him  a  small  square  bloodstone, 
which  you  see  here  on  my  finger,  very  rudely  carved.    Knowing  the  zeal 
I  felt  in  the  welfare  of  Israel,  he  sent  it  to  me  in  a  letter,  aud  I  have 
had  it  set,  and  wear  it  in  a  ring,  which  I  hope  to  transmit  to  my  posterity. 
On  that  stone  is  engraven — and  I  may  point  it  out  as   a   ground  of 
union  between  us  and  the  poorest  Hebrews,  though  they  believe  but 
one  half  of  the  Bible — you  will  concur  with  me  in  the  prayer  which  is 
engraved  upon  it — it  will,  I  trust,  be  the  prayer  of  all  this  assembly — 
"  Oh,  pray  for  the  peace  of  Jerusalem ;  they  shall  prosper  that  love  thee." 
(Cheers.) 


118  THE    ANNUAL    MEETING. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Barclay: — My  Lord  Archbishop,  Ladies,  and  Gentle- 
men,— When  the  Committee  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Pund  did  me 
the  honour  of  inviting  me  to  second  this  resolution,  I  naturally  turned 
over  in  my  mind  what  I  ought  to  say,  and  a  story  flashed  across  my 
memory,  which  was  once  told  me  by  a  clerical  friend  of  mine.     Many 
years  since,    some  friends  of  his  were  travelling  in  Palestine,   and  he 
directed  a  letter  to  one  of  them  in  Jerusalem.      Two  months  elapsed, 
but  he  received  no  answer.     Another  month  passed  by,  and  there  was 
still  no  answer.     He  then  went  to  the  village  post-office,  and  asked  the 
post-mistress  if  she  had  seen  such  a  letter.     After  thinking  the  matter 
over,  she  said,  "  Oh  yes,  that  is  the  letter  I  have  upon  the  shelf.     I  have 
not  posted  it,  because  I  knew  Jerusalem  was  a  place  in  the  Bible,  but  I 
did  not  think  it  was  a  place  on  earth."     The  schoolmaster  has  been  abroad 
since  then,  but  people  are    not    altogether  so  wise  as  they  should  be 
now.      Five  years  ago  I  was  living  with  my  family  in  Jerusalem,  in 
which  holy  city    some    of   my  children  were  born ;    and  there  were 
people  who  saw  them    afterwards,    not    perhaps    with  disappointment, 
but    with    surprise    that    they    were     not     born     black.      Now,    the 
Americans  have  done  much  to  spread  the  Bible  abroad,  and  we  cannot 
know  too  much  about  its  history  and  geography.     When  an  American 
minister  proves  to  be  a  useful  man  to  his  congregation,  they  put  apart 
a  certain  sum  of  money  to  send  him  to  Palestine,  on  the  condition  of  his 
writing    to    them  a   series   of   letters   describing   what    he    sees :    and 
they     consider    that    money    has    been    well    invested,    for   they    feel 
that  a  religious    teacher    ought    to    be    stored  with  information.     But 
the  majority  of  book  writers  cannot  speak  the  language  of  the  country 
when  they  get  to  Palestine,  and    they  are    therefore  cut  off  from  in- 
formation, and  are  obliged  to  rely  upon  their  dragomen.    These  men  are 
very  polite,  and  give  them  every  information  they  think  they  desire, 
but  the  Arabs  sum  up  their  position  by  saying  that  ' '  unless  a  man 
speaks  the  language  of  the  country  he  is  in  danger  of  dying  of  starva- 
tion."    All  the  information  we  have  got  respecting  Palestine  does  not 
satisfy  the  increased  desire  for  further  enlightenment  on  this  important 
subject ;  and  we  especially  want  an  accurate  Ordnance  map  and  sui-vey 
of  the  whole  country.     Some  people  have  an  imaginary  Palestine  of  their 
own,  and  do  not  want  to  go  too  much  into  detail  about  it.     I  have  met 
with  clergymen  who  have  declined  to  visit  Palestine  because  their  minds 
are  so  made  up  about  its  geography  that  they  do  not  wish  to  be  dis- 
turbed in  their  ideas.     Such  persons  have  a  paradise  of  their  own,  in 
which    they    live,    but    we    want    men    who    are  competent  to  seek 
after   truth,    and    they    cannot    seek    after    truth    in    a    better  land 
than    Palestine.      It    is    the    whole    earth    in    miniature,    for    while 
you  have    perpetual    snow    on    the  summit  of   Lebanon,    you    have, 
perhaps,  the  hottest  spot  on  earth  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Dead  Sea. 
In  the  mountains  and  valleys,  also,  we  have  a  variety  of  climates,  which 
are  not  met  with  anywhere  else.     All  animals  can  live  there ;  all  plants 
can  gi-ow  there ;  and  a  ride  of  a  few  miles  will  take  you  to  another  atmo- 


THE   ANNUAL    MEETING.  119 

sphere.     Besides,  Palestine  is  a  special  object  of  interest  to  the  devout 
mind.     When  you  turn  to  the  Bible  you  find  it  said,  "  It  is  a  laud  the 
Lord  thy  God  careth  for ;  the  eyes  of  the  Lord  thy  God  are  always 
upou  it  from  the  beginning  of  the  year  even  unto  the  end  of  the  year." 
"  Careth  for,"  in  this  passage  means  "  seeketh  after,"  and  consequently 
it  ought  to  be  an  object  of  interest  to  us.     I  am  sure  that  underlying 
this  movement  there  is  a  desire  to  know  more  and  more  of  Palestine, 
and  it  is  with  this  object  that  different  explorations  have  been  made  in 
different  parts  of  the  country.     I  remember,  by  the  kind  permission  of 
Captain  Warren,  going  down  the  shafts  which  were  sunk  under  Jerusa- 
lem,   and  particularly   under  the   south-eastern    wall   of    the    Haram 
enclosure,  and  I  shall  never  forget  the  wonderful  feeling  I  experienced 
in  seeing    the    red-paint   marks   upon   the   stones,  as   fresh  as    if  the 
workmen  had  just  left  them.     I  felt  as  if   Hiram    and   Solomon  were 
quite   close   to  me.      When   we    investigated    the    fallen    arch   in   the 
Tyropoeon  valley,  we  searched  the  court  pavement  for  the  ruts  of  the 
carriage  wheels  of  ancient  times,  and  it  brought  before  us  vividly  the 
scene  when  the  Temple  was  in  flames,  and  Titus  was  standing  in  the 
outer    court    expostulating   with    the   Jews    and    entreating    them    to 
spare  the  upper  town.     In  exploring  Jerusalem,  my  Lord  Shaftesbury 
has  touched  upon  one  important  point.     We  have  still  to  get  under  the 
Mosque  of  Omar.     I  do  not  think  the  arguments  I  have  heard,  and 
which  his  Grace  has   alluded   to,  are  valid  ones.     There  is  under  the 
"Dom.e   of  the   Eock  "  a  place  with  a   slab   laid  over  the  entrance, 
and  if  we  could   lift    that   up  and  let    a    man  down,  we  might  make 
important  discoveries.      I   have   often  remonstrated  with  the  keepers 
of  the  mosque,  and    tried    from    time    to  time  to  induce  them  to  let 
me  go  down,  but  the  answer  was,    "My  beloved,   we    love    you  too 
much  to  let  you  do  that ;  we  do  not  know  what  might  occur  to  you. 
There    was   once   a   sultan   from  Egyi)t  who  went    into    the   Cave   of 
Machpelah,  and  there  he  saw  Sarah  sitting  up  combing  her  haii-,  and 
she  struck  him  blind."     "  Well,"  I  replied,  "  you  have  more  concern 
for  me  than  I  have  for  myself."     "Even  so,    my   beloved,"  was  the 
reply.     There  is,  however,  still  another  work  to  be  done  in  Jerusalem, 
and  that  is  the   exploration  of  the  second  wall.     Captain  Warren  made 
some   excavations  in  this  direction,  but   he  could  not  find  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  wall.     But,  twelve  years  ago,  I  was  commissioned  to 
build  a  house  in  Jerusalem,  and  the  plans  were  sent  out  to  me  from 
England.     It  was  to  be  built    on    the  northern  slope  of  Mount  Zion. 
We  excavated  to  the  depth  of  39  feet,  and  could  not  find  a  foundation ;  but 
after  a  time  we  came  upon  the  remains  of    an  old  tower,  in  what  we 
thought  was  the  wall.    I  had  neither  the  means  nor  the  time  to  en- 
gage further    in    the    exploration,  but  we  made  it  into  a  cistern  to 
contain  rain-water.     But,  even  supposing  that  to  be  the  second  wall,  it 
would  only  obviate    one    objection  to  the  Holy   Sepulchre,  it  would 
not  prove  the  genuineness  of  the  present  site.     Time  would  fail  me 
to  allude  further  to  these  excavations ;  but  it  is  most  interesting  to 


120  THE   ANNUAL    MEETING. 

think  of  any  spot  on  wliicli  our  Lord  stood.  The  question  is  often 
asked,  "  Can  you  show  us,  amid  all  these  traditions,  any  place 
where  our  Lord  stood?"  Now,  as  you  go  out  to  Bethany  there 
is  a  road  on  the  hill-side,  cut  in  the  solid  rock;  an  old  Roman 
pavement  remains  there  now,  and  a  gentleman  of  eminence 
and  knowledge  of  this  question  rode  out  with  me  upon  this  road,  and 
when  we  came  to  the  spot  where  our  Lord  must  have  jjassed,  he  said, 
"I  cannot  ride  over  that  place:  will  you  hold  my  horse?"  and  he 
walked  over  it.  I  hope,  by  the  exertions  of  this  Society,  we  shall  arrive 
at  a  true  solution  of  the  dimensions  of  the  Jewish  cubit.  With  regard 
to  the  other  discoveries  which  have  been  made  there  is  sjiecially  that 
one  of  the  Moabite  stone,  which  I  look  upon  as  a  page  from  Josephus 
himself.  And,  with  regard  to  Josephus,  I  may  say  that  I  went  to 
Palestine  with  a  prejudice  against  that  author,  but  I  have  tested 
him,  so  far  as  his  topography  is  concerned,  and  have  found  it  correct, 
and  therefore  my  estimate  of  his  accuracy  has  been  increased  a 
hundredfold.  The  more  we  investigate  these  things  the  more  we  shall 
be  able  to  realise  the  facts  of  our  religion,  for  it  is  a  system  of 
facts.  Before  I  sit  down  I  will  venture  to  express  what  I  think  is  the 
feeling  of  all  Bible  scholars,  that  we  owe  the  greatest  gratitude  to  Sir 
Henry  James  and  his  officers  for  the  work  they  have  done  in  Sinai.  We 
have  now  established  without  doubt  the  site  of  the  giving  of  the  Law. 
What  we  wish  done  for  Palestine  is  the  same  that  was  done  for 
Mount  Sinai ;  but  we  must  not  forget  that  this  is  expensive  work, 
and  that  we  want  money.  There  is  not  only  the  cost  in  money,  but 
the  wear  and  tear  of  human  life.  Some  of  our  explorers  have  given 
their  lives  to  this  work  and  are  now  sleejoing  their  last  sleep  there  till 
the  roll-call  of  the  Great  Captain ;  and  others  may  have  to  suffer  in 
the  work.  It  is  a  very  difficult  thing  to  make  explorations  amongst  old 
ruins,  but  the  men  selected  to  do  the  work  of  this  Society  have  been 
the  right  men  in  the  right  place.  They  have  felt  their  responsibility, 
and  they  have  done  their  duty.  Everywhere  throughout  the  world 
people  are  now  waiting  for  the  result  of  this  Survey,  and  I  have  no  doubt 
the  speech  of  the  noble  Earl  this  day  will  find  a  response,  for  it  is  v/ritten, 
"Thy  servants  take  pleasure  in  her  stones,  and  favour-  the  dust  thereof." 
(Cheers.)     I  have  great  pleasure  in  seconding  the  resolution. 

The  resolution  was  carried  unanimously. 

Capt.  R.  BuKTON :  Your  Grace,  Ladies,  and  Gentlemen, — Almost  at 
the  last  moment  your  excellent  Secretary,  my  good  friend  Mr.  Walter 
Besant,  sent  me  an  "  immediate"  inviting  me  to  speak  about  the  trans- 
Jordanic  region,  and  gave  me  the  following  resolution   : 

"  That  this  meeting  has  heard  with  great  satisfaction  of  the  despatch 
of  a  second  expedition  by  the  American  Association  for  the  exploration 
of  the  Holy  Land,  and  heartily  wishes  it  every  possible  success." 

As  this  meeting  well  knows,  that  part  of  Syria  has  been  the  happy 
hunting  ground  of  your  Anglo-Amei'ican  colleagues,  who  propose  con- 
tinuing their  researches.     They  will  doubtless  prove  formidable  rivals 


THE    ANNUAL    MEETING.  12i 

in  the  extent  and  value  of  their  discoveries.     The  invitation  so  kindly 
conveyed  orders  me  to  renew  a  great  sorrow.     I  had,  as  early  as  1870, 
proposed  to  myself  two  trans- Jordanic  trips.     The  first  was  to  the  great 
plateau  of  central  Arabia,  known  as  El  Nejd,  on  a  line  a  little  north  of 
that  taken  by  Mr.  GifFord  Palgrave,  whose  charming  book  is  in  the  hands 
of  every  one.     But  his  geography  is  perhaps  the  loosest  on  record;  he 
gives  us  no  intelligible  account  of  the  mysterious  region  El  Jauf,  or  the 
"hollow,"anexceptionalfeature  which,  from  the  reports  of  theBedawin, 
I  am  disposed  to  consider  a  great  meridional  depression  corresponding  in 
lay  and  length  with  the  Jordan  Yalley,  but  wanting  the  river.     To  this 
feature  especially  I  would  draw  the  attention  of  our  future  travellers. 
The  picturesque  pages  of  Mr.  Palgrave  give  no  notice  of  the  Roman,  or 
rather  the  classical  ruins  which  are  said  to  extend  from  the  Hauran  to 
the  highlands  of  El  Nejd.     I  have  often  been  assured  of  their  existence 
by  the  Bedawin,  who  compared  them  with  the  Kasr  el  Hayr,  the  ruia 
near  Karyatayn,  on  the  way  to  Palmyra,  and  for  a  description  of  the 
latter  I  venture  to   refer  you  to  Mrs.  Burton's  book,  "  Inner  Life  ia 
Syria."     The  walls  are  reported  to  be  "mukattab,"  that  is,  covered 
with  inscriptions.     The  second  excursion  which  I  had  kept  for  myself, 
and  which  I  now  recommend  to  others,  is  a  visit  to  El  Hijr,  the  district 
lying  south-west  of  the  Dead  Sea,  on  the  road   to  El  Medinah.     It  is 
annually  traversed  by  the  great  pilgrimage  caravan  which  travels  from 
Damascus  to  Meccah,  and  I  had  made  all  my  arrangements  to  ti'avel 
with  the  Arab  chief  who  escorts  the    Tayyareh  or  flying  caravan  sent 
to  relieve  the  returning  pilgrims  with  provisions  and  medical  comforts. 
The  strangest  tales  are  told  concerning  EI  Hijr,  and  yet,  though  many 
have  proposed  visiting  it,  the  tract  remains  unexplored.     Thirty  years 
ago  the  Eitter  von  Kremer,  at  the  recommendation  of  that  most  dis- 
tinguished Orientalist,  Baron  von  Hug  el,  went  to  Damascus  for  the 
purpose,  and  was  deterred  by  the   large   sums  demanded  from  him. 
Lately  at  Bern,  in  Switzerland,  I  passed    a  couple  of  days  with  my 
kind  friend  Professor  Aloys  Sprenger,  and  we  discussed  at  full  lengtk 
the   wonders   of  El  Hijr.      I   only   hope  that    our  Anglo-American 
collaborateurs  will  not  neglect  to  borrow  some  of  his  local  knowledge. 
Finally  at  Basel  I  strongly  advised  my  young  friend  Prof.  Socin,  so  wel 
known  by  his  travels   from  Damascus  to   the  Euphrates,  to   attack 
El  Hijr.     He  is  one  of  the  best  men  for  explorations  amongst  Ai-abs, 
as  he  knows  them   thoroughly.      The  following  two  anecdotes   may 
prove  his  tact  and  savoir-faire.     On  one  occasion  when  a  revolver  was 
stolen  from  him  he  procured  its  restitution  by  threatening  the  Shaykk 
with  a  refei'ence  to  Constantinople,  and  he  punished  him  by  the  fine  of 
a  dollar  by  way  of  permit  to  his   servant.     They  who  know  what  the 
Bedawi  thinks  about  a  "  stone  dollar,"  as  he  calls  it,  will  appreciate  the 
just  severity  of  the  proceeding.     On  another  occasion  his  escort  at- 
tempted to  desert  him,  when  he  cocked  his  rifle  and  declared  he  would 
shoot  the  first  mare  that  moved.     Had  he  said  the  first  mxu,  all  would 
have  laughed  at  his  beard,  but  they  thought  much  more  seriously 


122  THE   ANNUAL   MEETING. 

about  tlie  murder  of  a  mare.  Mohammed,  as  many  of  you  know,  when 
passing  through  El  Hijr,  hooded  his  head,  veiled  his  face,  and  hurried 
at  fuU  speed  to  escape  from  the  phantoms  which  appal  the  sight,  and 
the  terrible  voices  which  shriek  in  the  wayfarer's  ear.  He  declared  it 
to  be  an  accursed  land,  and  every  caravan,  I  am  told,  still  follows  his 
example.  I  would  suggest  that  the  idea  arises  from  the  number  of 
statues  and  figures  carved  in  the  rocks.  The  peculiar  measure  of  con- 
verting Damascus,  the  metropolis  and  head-quarters  of  Syria,  from  a 
consulate  to  a  vice-consulate,  caused  my  recall  in  1872,  and  lost  for  me 
the  chance  of  visiting  the  Nejd  and  El  Hijr.  But  the  glory  of  a  dis- 
coverer is  not  the  small  addition  to  general  knowledge  which  his  in- 
dividual efforts  may  secure ;  his  aim  is  to  excite  emulation,  and  induce 
others  to  labour  in  the  field  which  he  has  opened  up.  A  certain  book 
called  "  Unexplored  Syria,"  has,  I  am  told,  had  this  effect,  and  has 
sent  to  Palmyra  many  students  who  before  never  thought  of  going 
there.  The  same,  I  hope,  will  be  the  result  of  a  translation  of  Dr. 
Wetzstein's  "  Reise"  to  Hauran  and  the  (two)  Trachones.  He  describes 
and  figures  a  world  of  ruins  which  is  now  passing  away ;  the  next 
generation  will  probably  see  nothing  of  these  weird  and  ghostly  basalt 
walls,  which,  deserted  a  thousand  years  ago  and  more,  look  as  if  the 
tenants  had  passed  from  them  yesterday.  These  wondrous  buildings, 
in  which  the  hardest  stone  was  worked  like  wood,  are  being  pulled  to 
pieces  by  the  Druzes,  and  other  races,  to  make  their  miserable  cots. 
I  will  not  call  them,  with  the  llev.  Dr.  Porter,  "the  giant  cities  of 
Bashan  " — in  fact  I  hold,  with  Mr.  Freshfield,  that  they  are  not  "  giant 
cities"  at  all.  But  I  strongly  recommend  them  to  Colonel  Lane. 
Another  book  is  about  to  appear,  and  you  will  hail  its  appearance. 
The  iiTeparable  loss  which  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  not  to 
mention  individuals,  has  sustained  in  the  death  of  my  lamented  friend, 
that  noble  worker,  Charles  F.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,  need  not  be  enlarged 
upon  in  your  presence,  especially  as  it  has  been  alluded  to  by  Mr. 
George  Grove.  His  widowed  mother  has  resolved,  you  will  be  glad  to 
hear,  to  publish  in  a  collected  form  all  those  letters  whose  arrival  iu 
England  used  to  be  anticipated  with  so  much  eager  curiosity,  and  read 
'with  so  much  pleasure  and  profit.  Non  omnis  moriar  will  thus  apply  to 
the  memory  of  that  good  and  gallant  English  gentleman. 

It  is  reported  that  the  United  States  expedition  has  been  amply  pro- 
vided with  funds,  the  sinews  of  travel  and  of  war,  and  we  may  believe 
the  report,  for  our  Anglo-American  cousins  never  "  do  things  by 
halves,"  as  the  phrase  is.  Their  liberality  contrasts  strongly  with  the 
feeble  support  which  the  general  j)ublic  of  England  has  bestowed  upon 
your  great  undertaking ;  and  this  lukewarmness  has  ever  been  a  marvel 
and  enigma  to  me.  We  should  of  course  have  expected  that  in  a  country 
in  which  the  Bible  is  the  book  most  read,  Bible  lands  would  have  been 
the  most  interesting  on  earth,  and  that  your  especial  object,  which  is  to 
illustrate  those  lands,  would  be  the  most  popular  of  objects.  Tou  are 
changing  careless  and  incorrect  for  highly  finished  maps  upon  a  large 


THE   ANNUAL    MEETING.  123 

scale ;  a  KT-fi/xa  is  oel — you  are  labouring  at  tlie  geology,  the  botany,  the 
arcbaeology,  and  the  omnis  res  scihills  of  Palestine.  "Sylvia's  Lovers,"  a 
clever  novel  by  Mrs.  Gaskell,  told  me  long  ago  that  amongst  the  lower, 
that  is,  the  uneducated  classes  of  England,  there  is  an  idea  that  Biblical 
sites  and  cities  like  Jerusalem  and  Nazareth  once  existed,  but  now  exist 
no  longer ;  and  did  this  idea  extend  to  cultivated  levels  it  would  explain 
the  curious  apathy  with  which  the  vast  additions  to  our  knowledge 
proposed  by  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund  have  been  received.  The 
same,  strange  to  say,  appears  to  be  the  case  with  the  Israelites 
dwelling  in  Europe ;  theoretically  they  take  an  immense  interest  in  the 
homes  of  their  forefathers — practically,  it  is  difficult,  I  am  assured,  to 
unloose  their  purse-strings  for  the  benefit  of  Judea.  I  have  trespassed 
long  upon  the  patience  and  courtesy  of  this  meeting;  but  when  wishing 
long  life  and  success  to  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  I  would  also 
express  a  hope  that  it  will  not  consider  its  mission  perfect  when  its 
map  is  published.  North,  south,  and  east  of  Palestine  proper,  there 
are  wide  regions  whose  inhabitants  were  and  are  still  connected  with 
it  by  ties  of  blood,  and  by  the  sympathisers  of  society.  The  country 
immediately  about  Damascus,  the  Leja,  the  'Alah,  the  Hauran,  and  many 
others,  still  await  serious  study,  and  this  will  be  the  work  of  long  and 
laborious  years.  I  will  conclude  with  proposing  the  resolution,  and 
with  requesting  this  influential  meeting  to  join  me  iu  off'ering  our  best 
wishes  for  the  safety  and  success  of  Colonel  Lane,  the  chief  of  the 
American  Expedition,  and  his  adventurous  companions. 

The  Eev.  Horrocks  Cocks,  of  Kensington,  on  rising  to  second  the 
resolution,  expressed  the  great  pleasiu-e  it  afforded  him  to  be  present  at 
this  annual  meeting.  He  said  he  presumed  that  one  of  the  reasons  why 
he  had  been  requested  to  speak  to  the  resolution  so  ably  moved  by  Cap- 
tain Bui'ton  was,  that  he  had  several  times  visited  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  though  he  thought  that  on  this  question  England  could  justly 
claim  the  co-operation  of  the  friends  of  Palestine  in  the  Dominion,  and 
he  had,  therefore,  endeavoured  to  awaken  an  interest  in  the  minds  of 
some  of  the  leading  men  of  Canada  in  the  important  investigations 
which  the  Committee  were  carrying  on  in  the  Holy  Land.  The  United 
States  had  no  hoary  past  to  glory  in,  no  great  international  questions 
to  discuss,  no  York  Minster,  no  Westminster  Abbey,  no  grand  old  build- 
ings nor  ruins  to  boast  of;  but  most  of  the  problems  the  Americans  had 
to  solve  were  territorial  and  material,  and  this  to  some  extent  explained  the 
characteristics  of  the  Transatlantic  press.  Still  a  section  of  the  American 
people  were  devoting  their  attention  to  Palestine,  and  as  this  Society 
was  rather  emuloiis  of  co-operation  than  jealous  of  competition,  the 
resolution  would  commend  itself  to  them  for  cordial  adoption.  Having 
in  a  very  humorous  manner  replied  to  the  objections  of  certain  would-be 
philanthropists  who  maintained  that  the  dens  of  London  needed  explora- 
tion more  than  the  sites  of  Palestine,  the  speaker  pointed  to  the  untiring 
labours  of  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury  iu  grappling  with  the  evils  of  our 
overcrowded  cities,  and  said  that  the  noble  Earl  was  quite  as  much 


124  THE   ANNUAL   MEETING. 

interested  iu  foreign  as  in  home  enterprises,  as  indeed  his  speech  that 
day  indicated.  The  speaker  said  that  his  mind  -was  first  awakened 
to  the  claims  of  Palestine  by  the  labours  of  Dr.  Traill  and  Isaac 
Taylor,  whose  joint  translation  of  Josephus  he  eulogised,  and  said  that 
some  of  the  plates  for  this  important  work  were  prepared  in  his  own 
residence,  though  he  regretted  that  Dr.  Traill  was  cut  off  so  sadly  and 
so  suddenly  by  disease.  He  felt  assured  that  in  ten  years  to  come 
where  ten  travellers  now  visited  the  Holy  Land  fifty  would  explore  the 
regions  east  and  west  of  the  Jordan,  and  the  important  work  projected 
and  accomplished  by  this  Societ}^  would  materially  assist  future  travellers 
and  explorers  in  the  Eastern  lands.  The  speaker  then  said  that  he  did 
not  think  it  necessary,  after  the  admirable  addresses  which  had  been 
delivered,  for  him  to  detain  the  meeting  by  any  speech,  though  if  there 
was  one  theme  which  fired  his  enthusiasm,  and  on  which  he  delighted 
to  dwell,  it  was  Palestine,  and  he  had  come  prepared  to  speak  for  an 
hour,  if  necessary,  upon  the  work  which  this  Society  had  accomplished. 
He  did  not  intend  to  dogmatise  on  questions  of  theology  or  prophecy, 
but  if  he  might  be  allowed  to  add  another  article  to  his  creed  it  would 
be — Judea  for  the  Jews.  Dwelling  on  this  topic  for  a  few  moments,  the 
speaker  concluded  by  stating  that  the  Palestine  Exploration  Society 
was  carrying  on  a  most  important  enterprise  which  challenged  the 
sympathy  and  support  of  all  Christian  people.  The  survey  which  they 
had  already  accomplished  was  of  great  importance,  and  he  predicted  for 
the  land  which  they  were  now  exploring  a  brilliant  industrial,  com- 
mercial, agricultural,  and  spiritual  future. 

Ml'.  Grove  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Chairman. 

Eev.  G.  Williams  :  I  have  great  pleasure  in  seconding  the  resolution, 
and  am  glad  to  avail  myself  of  the  occasion  of  doing  so  to  say  that 
lately  when  I  was  staying  at  Oxford  I  had  an  opportunity  of  talking 
over  this  map  of  Palestine  with  Dr.  Pusey,  and  I  promised  him  that 
if  I  had  the  opportunity  I  would  communicate  to  this  meeting  the  very 
great  value  he  attaches  to  the  work  which  is  being  done  in  Palestine 
by  this  Association.  No  person  can  better  appreciate  the  work  than 
Dr.  Pusey,  and  I  am  glad  to  say  that  it  has  his  most  entire  approval 
and  support;  and  I  may  perhaps  be  allowed  to  mention,  as  a  hint 
to  the  Executive  Committee,  that  many  of  us  would,  I  am  sure,  be 
very  glad  indeed  if  this  map  could  be  at  once  taken  in  hand  and  pub- 
lished in  parts  as  rapidly  as  those  parts  can  be  completed,  and  then  put  into 
a  complete  form  perhaps  two  or  three  years  hence.  In  the  meantime  many 
of  us  who  are  interested  in  the  geography  of  Palestine  are  exceedingly 
impatient  to  have  the  results  of  that  great  work  which  this  Society 
has  undertaken.  It  is  a  great  satisfaction  to  me,  my  Lord  Archbishop, 
to  second  the  vote  of  thanks  to  your  Grace,  who  has  watched  with 
such  interest  the  proceedings  of  this  Society,  and  whose  services  iu 
advocating  it  have  been  so  valuable.     (Cheers.) 


THE  SURVEY  OF  PALESTINE. 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDER'S  REPORTS. 

XXX IL 

Beit  JiBEm,  20th  Marcli,  1875. 
The  Stjevey  of  the  Dead  Sea  Desert,  axd  a  Yisit  to  Masada. 

The  wearisome  period  of  indoor  work  wliicli  we  are  yearly  compelled 
to  undergo  during  the  violent  cold  and  wet  winter  weather — a  time  when 
we  all  suffered  much  in  health,  and  which  is  never  looked  forward  to 
with  pleasure — is  at  length  over,  and  I  hope  that  only  one  more  winter 
in  Palestine  remains  to  be  gone  through. 

On  the  25th  February,  as  soon  as  a  storm  of  rain  and  wind  had  sub- 
sided, we  once  more  took  the  field.  The  expedition  was  cut  down  to  the 
utmost,  only  such  clothes  as  could  be  carried  in  the  beds  were  allowed. 
Books,  meteorological  instruments,  photographic  apparatus,  and  one 
tent  were  left  behind.  Lieut.  Kitchener  having  only  just  recovered 
from  a  sharp  attack  of  fever,  as  well  as  our  head  servant,  who  has  for 
some  time  past  suffered  very  much  from  the  effects  of  our  hard  campaign 
in  the  Jordan  valley,  remained  in  Jerusalem  in  order  to  comjilete  the 
selling  off  of  Fund  property  authorised  by  the  Committee,  and  thus  the 
party  being  reduced  considerably,  we  managed  to  place  our  whole 
equipment,  including  barley  for  three  days,  upon  twelve  pack  animals. 
The  reason  of  this  change  was  that  we  proposed,  by  forced  marches  and 
rapid  work,  to  fill  in  the  Judajan  Desert  from  the  line  of  Wady  el 
Taamireh  to  the  boundary  of  the  trigonometrical  survey  at  Wady 
Seiyal,  330  square  miles  in  all,  and  as  supplies  were  not  to  be  obtained, 
nor  camels  to  be  hired  in  this  wild  district,  we  had  to  carry  all  we  wanted 
with  us,  and  it  was  a  great  object  to  move  as  rapidly  as  possible. 

Our  success  was  greater  than  we  could  have  expected ;  we  were  not 
stopped  by  weather  until  quite  the  end  of  the  time.  In  twelve  days  we 
surveyed  the  whole  330  square  miles,  settled  over  200  names,  and  only 
paid  about  £7  in  backsheesh,  whereas  other  travellers  had  been  obliged  in 
fourteen  days  to  pay  as  much  as  £30.  We  made  a  correct  plan  of  the 
fortress  of  Masada  and  visited  'Ain  Jidy.  Thus,  in  spite  of  two  days 
during  which  we  were  detained  in  Hebron  by  a  violent  storm,  we  suc- 
ceeded in  reaching  our  present  camp  in  the  western  plain  on  the  11th 


126  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

March.     On  tlie  13th  Lieut.  Kitchener  re-joined,  and  the  ordinary  survey 
work  was  re-commenced. 

During  the  whole  of  this  period  not  one  of  the  natives  who  accom- 
panied us  was  able  to  speak  a  word  of  any  language  but  Arabic — a  fact 
which  is,  perhaps,  worth  mentioning,  as  showing  that  the  party  has 
become  pretty  independent  in  the  matter  of  language. 

The  main  points  of  Biblical  interest  in  this  area  were,  first,  the 
recovery  of  those  of  the  six  cities  in  the  Midhar  or  wilderness  which  are 
as  yet  unknown — namely,  Middin,  Sekakah,  the  City  of  Salt,  and  Nibshan, 
apparently  all  lying  between  Jericho  and  Engedi ;  and,  in  the  second 
place,  the  identification  of  the  famous  cave  "by  the  sheepcotes  (Gede- 
roth)  on  the  way"  from  Engedi  to  the  land  of  Benjamin,  where  Saul 
and  David  met  on  the  occasion  when  the  king  came  down  "to  seek 
David  and  his  men  upon  the  rocks  of  the  wild  goats"  (1  Sam.  xxiv.  2). 

As  regards  the  fij'st  our  success  has  been  indifferent ;  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Middin,  I  am  unable  to  propose  any  identifications.  We  found 
the  Arabs  very  willing  and  intelligent,  and  every  ruin  we  could  hear 
of  we  fixed  and  explored,  but  the  total  number  did  not  exceed  seven, 
and  of  these  only  one  (Khirbet  Umm  Haleseh)  seemed  undoubtedly  an  old 
site.  The  remainder  were  the  traces  of  small  convents,  hermit's  caves, 
and  other  indications  of  early  Christian  monkish  establishments,  pro- 
bably belonging  to  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries,  when  such  numbers  of 
saints  and  hermits  came  to  these  dreary  solitudes  to  spend  their  days  in 
retirement. 

There  is  no  want  of  care  or  thoroughness  in  the  work  which  can 
account  for  not  finding  the  ancient  sites  and  names  we  had  hoped  ta 
fix,  but  a  reason  which  seems  to  me  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  the 
preservation  of  the  names  exists  in  the  modern  and  descriptive  character 
of  the  nomenclature  throughout  the  district.  We  have  always  found  it  far 
easier  to  collect  names  among  the  Arabs  than  among  the  Fellahin  or 
villagers.  The  names  are  quite  as  numerous  and  better  known ;  the 
nomadic  tribes  far  more  intelligent  and  more  willing  to  give  the  names. 
At  fii-st  sight,  the  chance  of  identification  would  seem  greater  in 
the  wild  country  where  no  plough  has  passed  over  the  ground,  and  no 
village  has  been  built  from  the  dismembered  relics  of  ancient  structures, 
but'  experience  teaches  us  that  the  reverse  is  the  case.  The  settled 
population  have  j)reserved  the  ancient  names  under  forms  more  or 
less  modified,  the  wandering  Bedouin  have  replaced  them  by  descriptive 
titles  of  their  own,  and  thus  the  names  of  ruins  are  merely  "Mother 
of  Pillars,"  "Father  of  Oaves,"  "Pigeon's  Cliff,"  "  Yalley  of  Nests," 
"Valley  of  Wild  Goats,"  "The  Convent,"  "The  Steps,"  or  some 
similar  insignificant  but  well-known  appellation.  The  nomenclature 
ah-eady  obtained  before  the  survey  is  far  more  correct  here  than  in  other 
parts  of  Palestine ;  we  were  able  most  fully  to  confirm  the  results  of  Dr. 
Tristram's  work  along  the  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea,  as  well  as  to  admu-e 
the  energy  which  must  have  been  necessary  to  enable  him  to  push  for- 


LIEUT.  CLAUDK  T.  CONDER's  REPORTS.  127 

ward  in  places  where  I  should  have  thought  it  impossible  for  pack 
animals  to'pass.  The  labours  of  Eobinson  here,  as  everywhere,  are  mar- 
vellously accurate  and  satisfactory ;  and  of  the  forty  names  on  Murray's 
map  (one-fifth  of  the  number  we  obtained)  we  found  all  but  two  correct, 
although  the  positions  of  some  places  were  altered  as  much  as  four 
miles. 

It  was  extremely  fortunate  for  us  that  the  great  storm  which  caught 
us  at  Teku'a  last  December  and  drove  us  back  to  Jerusalem  forbade  our 
attempting  to  push  through  the  Desert  as  we  intended.  Even  in  the 
early  spring  we  had  considerable  difficulty  in  obtaining  water,  and  I 
think  that,  as  scarcely  any  rain  fell  in  this  desert,  we  should  have  found 
it  impossible  to  proceed  at  the  former  time,  even  if  there  had  been  no 
danger  of  fever,  as  we  were  warned  there  was;  and,  indeed,  considering 
the  pestilence  which  raged  over  the  j^lains  last  autumn  (reducing  the 
population  of  many  villages  one  half),  and  also  remembeing  the  unhealthy 
condition  of  Jericho,  even  as  late  as  Janxiary,  we  should  probably  have 
suffered  severely  in  the  lower  country  near  'Ain  Jidy. 

The  route  we  took  through  the  countiy  differs  from  that  of  both  Tristram 
and  Eobinson.  "We  camped  for  two  days  at  the  principal  well  iu 
Wady  Hasasah  (Bir  el  Sekeiriyeh).  Thence  we  removed  to  'Ain  Jidy, 
where  our  Arabs  were  anxious  for  us  to  camp  at  the  fountain.  Looking 
down,  however,  from  the  top  of  the  cliffs  at  the  narrow  serpent-like 
path  or  Nulch,  which  led  down  1,200  feet  to  the  spring,  I  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  it  would  be  impossible  for  heavily-laden  animals,  tired 
with  five  hours'  march,  to  get  down  in  safety,  so  we  camped  on  the  top 
of  the  cliff,  and  sent  all  the  beasts  down  unloaded  to  drink  and  to  bring 
up  water.  It  took  them  one  hour  to  get  down  and  one  hour  and  a 
quarter  to  get  up  again.  "We  afterwards  descended  to  the  Dead  Sea 
shore  for  survey,  and  were  of  opinion  we  should  have  lost  half  of  our 
beasts  if  we  had  followed  the  advice  of  the  Arabs  (who  have  no  idea 
what  a  horse  can  or  cannot  do).  One  false  step  and  an  animal  might 
roll  to  the  bottom  without  stopping,  as  we  afterwards  heard  had  hap- 
pened to  more  than  one  unlucky  camel  bringing  loads  of  salt  from  Jebel 
XJsdum.  We  afterwards  found  water  in  a  hollow  of  the  rocks,  and  on 
this  we  existed  for  two  days. 

From  'Ain  Jidy  we  removed  to  Bir  es  Sherky,  a  fine  rock-cut  reservoir, 
nearly  full  of  water,  and  containing  also  many  frogs  and  weeds.  The 
taste  was  unpleasant.  We  stayed  hero  one  day,  and  visited  Masada, 
nine  miles  distant.  Thence  we  removed  to  Wady  Seiyal  to  the  encamp- 
ment of  Abu  Dahi'ik  (son  of  the  famous  sheikh  of  that  name).  Here 
we  were  caught  in  the  most  tremendous  gale  which  we  have  yet  ex- 
perienced in  tents  ;  and  oiu"  next  march  of  nineteen  miles  in  a  perfect  hur- 
ricane of  bitter  wind,  with  showers  of  sleet  and  hail,  necessitated  by  the 
fact  that  all  our  barley  and  other  stores  wore  consumed,  was  the  hardest 
bit  of  experience  we  have  yet  encountered.  Our  dogs  and  two  muleteers 
were  unable  to  face  the  storm,  and  took  refuge  in  caves.     Old  Sheikh 


128  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

Hamzeh  (the  famous  guide,  of  wliotn  Dr.  Tristram,  Mr.  Palmer,  and 
others  have  written)  fell  off  his  pony  twice,  and  had  to  be  tied  on.  The 
braye  beasts  struggled  for  eleven  hours,  and  crossed  more  than  one 
torrent  of  cold  water  up  nearly  to  the  girths,  but  by  eight  at  night  they 
were  in  a  warm  stable,  and  we  had  found  refuge  in  Hebron  in  the  house 
of  a  German  Karaite  Jew,  whose  hospitality  was  as  great  as  his  sub- 
sequent charge  was  high.  We  passed  the  following  day  in  the  house, 
and  on  the  Wednesday  encamped  on  the  green  in  front  of  the  town. 
On  Thursday  we  again  packed  the  tents  wet,  and  descended  to  our 
present  camp  at  Beit  Jibrin,  where  a  day  was  devoted  to  getting  the 
camp  dry,  resembling  a  ship  after  a  storm,  with  every  sort  of  article, 
bedding,  clothing,  tents,  &c.,  exposed  to  the  sun  and  the  breeze.  The 
horses  showed  for  several  days  the  effects  of  the  two  nights'  exposure  to 
cold  and  wet  in  the  forms  of  rheumatism,  sore  bacli,  and  sore  heel,  but 
so  hardy  are  these  Syrian  horses  that  not  one  was  off  its  feet  through 
the  whole  of  the  time. 

To  return  to  the  results  obtained.  There  is  an  important  canon  of 
identification  which,  though  it  is  hinted  at  more  than  once  by  Mr. 
Grove,  has  been  entirely  ignored  by  many  of  the  later  writers  on  Biblical 
sites.  As  it  is  in  jjerfect  accordance  with  the  discoveries  made  during 
the  course  of  the  survey,  I  feel  no  hesitation  in  confirming  its  value, 
and  the  beauty  of  the  explanation  thus  given  to  what  has  often  been 
supposed  a  confused  and  fragmentary  inventory  of  towns  will  be  at  once 
recognised.  The  proposition  may  be  briefly  stated  as  follows: — ''The 
order  of  occurrence  of  the  names  in  any  of  the  (jroups  of  toiuns  mentioned  in 
the  hook  of  Joshua  is  invariahhj  an  indication  of  relative  situation."  The 
order  is,  in  fact,  the  natural  one  in  which  any  modern  inhabitant  of  the 
country  might  enumerate  the  sites,  whilst  the  different  groups  are  all 
natural  divisions  of  the  country  according  to  physical  characteristics. 
This  fact,  which  I  hope  to  prove  definitely  in  my  next  report,  is  the 
next  step  to  the  classification  in  groups  under  the  various  roj'al  cities 
which  I  pointed  out  as  being  the  first  step  in  systematic  distribution  of 
the  sites.  The  third  step  remains :  the  identification  of  each  site  in 
accordance  with  these  jiropositions,  towards  which  the  survey  will  have 
done  more  than  has  been  done  since  the  time  of  Robinson;  and  thus  I 
hope  that  one  and  not  the  least  valuable  of  its  results  will  be  the  vindi- 
cation of  the  systematic  and  contemporary  character  of  the  topographical 
passages  of  the  Book  of  Joshua. 

I  feel  that  this  subject  is  of  such  interest  that  it  cannot  be  too  strongly 
insisted  on.  In  the  papers  which  I  have  sent  to  the  Committee  on  the 
topography  I  have,  to  a  certain  extent,  followed  it  out.  In  the  tribe  of 
Judah  the  towns,  126  in  all,  are  divided  into  twelve  groups.  The  cities 
of  the  south  country  (the  first  group)  lie  beyond  the  Beersheba  limit  of 
our  work.  The  fourteen  towns  of  the  Shephalah,  the  sixteen  cities  of 
the  Plain,  the  nine  cities  of  the  lowlands  of  Libnah,  are  so  little  known 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's   REPORTS.  129 

that  I  liope  my  report  on  tlie  identifications  in  these  districts  will  quite 
revolutionise  some  of  the  theories  previously  put  forward.  The  three 
cities  of  Philistia  are  all  known,  but  the  Western  Negeb  (capital  Debir) 
and  the  group  between  this  and  the  Jeshimon  were  scarce  known  at  all 
till  last  autumn.  Last,  but  not  least,  is  the  group  of  nine,  of  which 
Hebron  is  the  capital,  and  of  which  we  have  newly  identified  three. 
The  remaining  groups  are  better  known,  being  those  in  the  hills  ;  six 
cities,  of  which  Gedor  was  the  capital ;  and  those  mentioned  by  the 
Septuagint  immediately  south  of  Jerusalem,  with  six  in  the  Midbar. 
In  every  one  of  these  groups  I  hope  to  be  able  to  show  that  the  canon 
of  identification  proposed  above  holds  good,  but  more  than  one  old 
identification  will  bo  found  to  fail  under  the  test  in  cases  where  a  simi- 
larity of  name  alone  has  been  thought  sufficient. 

Judging  by  this  indication  of  position  the  site  of  Middin  should  be  on 
the  northern  limit  of  the  Midbar  or  Desert.  The  position  of  Betharabah, 
first  in  the  list,  though  not  certainly  identified,  is  known  to  have  been 
near  to  W.  Kelt,  south  of  Jericho.  Middin  stands  next  to  it.  This 
consideration  leads  me  to  identify  it  with  Khirbet  Mird,  a  famous  site 
on  the  edge  of  the  Bukeia,  east  of  Mar  Saba.  It  is  noticed  by  M. 
Ganneau  and  Mr.  Drake  in  former  reports,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that 
it  was  an  ancient  site  of  considerable  importance.  It  stands  upon  a 
steep  cliff,  and  the  water  supply  is  derived  from  a  fine  aqueduct  leading 
to  rock-cut  reservoirs.  Other  caves  containing  water  are  hewn  at  the 
foot  of  the  bill.  Eui  ther  details  I  cannot  give  from  memory  alone,  and 
my  notes  and  plans  connected  with  the  site  are  now  in  London.  At  a 
later  period  the  site  was  known  as  Mons  Mardes,  but  if  it  be,  as  I 
believe,  an  acknowledged  law  that  E  and  D  are  often  interchanged,  then 
we  have  in  Mird  a  corruption  jiossibly  of  Midd,  and  the  name  is  the 
same  as  that  of  Middin,  the  loss  of  the  final  N  being  very  common  in  the 
Arabic  modification  of  Hebrew  names.  Were  it  not  for  the  position  of 
the  site  and  the  impossibility  of  identifying  it  with  any  town  except 
one  of  the  list  of  six  cities  in  the  Desert,  I  should  hesitate  to  put  forward 
this  suggestion,  but  taking  the  various  circumstances  in  favour  of  the 
identifications,  the  name  seems  to  me  to  be  sufficiently  near. 

It  is  not,  however,  possible  to  suppose  that  any  large  or  important 
places  ever  existed  in  the  dreary  wastes,  rocky  valleys,  conical  chalk 
mounds,  white  flint-bound  ridges,  or  in  the  winding  muddy  wadies, 
with  an  occasional  reservoir  hewn  in  the  harder  stratum  of  the  limestone 
to  supply  water  in  a  country  destitute  of  springs.  Except  at  'Ain  Jidy, 
the  Hazazon  Tamar,  or  Southern  City  of  Palms,  there  is  no  natural 
site  for  a  city  in  this  "  solitude,"  aptly  so  called  in  the  Bible  (Heb.  Ha- 
Jeshimon).  One  may  travel  all  day  and  see  only  the  desert  partridge, 
and  a  chance  fox  or  vulture.  Only  the  dry  and  fleshy  plants,  which 
require  no  water,  grow  on  the  hills,  and  in  the  valleys  the  most  luxuri- 
ant vegetation  consists  of  the  Eetem,  or  white  broom  bushes  which 
were  just  coming  into  bloom.    Wearisome  to  ride  over,  and  uninterest- 


130  LIEUT.   CLAUDE  R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

ing  to  sui'vey,  the  Jeshimon  is  in  parts  (as  below  ' Ain  Jidy )  deserted  even 
by  the  Arabs,  and  is  tbe  most  desolate  country  we  have  ever  come 
across.  I  am  sti-ongly  tempted  to  suppose  tliat  Sekakab,  Nibsban, 
and  the  City  of  Salt,  were  small  mud  villages  on  the  borders  of  the  Dead 
Sea,  in  the  vicinity  of  such  springs  as  'Ain  Terabeh  and  'Ain  el 
Ghuweir.  The  name  City  of  Salt  suggests  a  connection  with  the  Salt 
Sea,  unless,  indeed,  it  were  to  be  placed  at  Tell  el  Milh,  "  the  Hill  of 
Salt ;  "  but  here  the  question  of  relative  j)08ition  comes  in,  and  seems 
to  me  to  prevent  the  identification.  It  might  possibly  be  thought  that 
Sekakah  has  some  connection  with  Eas  el  Shugf,  but  the  suggestion  is 
scarce  worth  mentioning,  and  unless  some  future  careful  explorer  is 
more  fortunate  than  we  were,  I  fear  that  the  four  cities  of  the  desert 
have  shared  the  fate  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  and  have  left  no  trace 
behind. 

In  the  second  question,  that  of  the  cave  where  Saul  and  David  met, 
we  shall,  I  hope,  turn  out  to  be  more  fortunate.  In  the  lower  country 
the  ridges  above  the  Dead  Sea  caves  are  not  numerous,  and  all  my 
inquiries  failed  to  produce  one  sufficiently  large  for  the  requirements  of 
the  case.  A  few  small  Tors,  as  they  are  here  called,  exist,  but  in  none 
of  these  could  "David  and  his  men  "be  hidden  "in  the  sides  of  the 
cave,"  so  as  to  be  unseen  by  Saul  as  he  entered.  There  are,  however, 
caves  on  the  edge  of  the  higher  hills,  and  we  at  last  heard  of  a  cave, 
said  to  be  of  considerable  size,  at  Khirbet  Minieh,  on  the  direct  route 
from  Jerusalem  to  'Ain  Jidy.  I  was  not  able  at  the  time  to  visit  it,  but 
shall  make  a  point  of  doing  so  from  Jerusalem  in  May.  These  caves 
are  still  used  by  the  peasantry  from  the  hill  country  as  sheepcotes; 
and  if,  as  seems  likely,  this  cave  prove  to  be  of  unusual  extent,  upon 
the  direct  I'oute,  and  as  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  find  the  only  one 
upon  that  route,  there  will  be  at  least  a  considerable  probability  that  it 
is  the  site  in  question. 

The  difficulty  of  the  country,  especially  towai'ds  the  north  of  the 
district,  is  very  considerable.  On  our  first  day's  expedition  across 
country  it  took  las  over  four  hours  to  advance  five  miles,  owing  to  the 
great  depth  of  the  valleys,  and  at  length,  when  we  fancied  we  had 
arrived  at  our  point,  we  found  it  would  take  two  hours  more  at  least  to 
reach  it.  Fortunately  we  got  a  good  view  of  the  valley  at  our  feet,  and 
were  not  absolutely  obliged  to  revisit  the  point  in  question.  Farther 
south  the  country  is  absolutely  impassable,  as  huge  gorges  1,000  to 
1,500  feet  deep,  and  nearly  a  mile  wide  in  some  places,  are  broken  by 
the  great  torrents  flowing  in  winter  over  perpendicular  precipices  into 
the  sea.  We  descended  and  followed  the  shore  at  'Ain  Jidy  as  far  as 
the  sulphur  springs  discovered  by  Dr.  Tristram.  These  proved  to  be 
dry,  though  there  was  a  very  strong  and  local  smell  of  sulphur,  observ- 
able only  for  some  few  yards  near  the  shore.  The  season  was  much 
drier  than  that  when  Dr.  Tristram  visited  the  shore,  and  the  Seil,  or 
brook  in  Wady  Sideir,  which  he  saw,  and  of  which  our  Arabs  spoke, 
was  quite  dry,  as  well  as  that  in  Wady  el  Areijeh. 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   K.    CONDEr's    REPORTS.  131 

The  scenery  along  the  shore  is  so  magnificent  in  its  wild  and  desolate 
grandeur  that  it  was  worth  any  discomfort  or  weariness  to  see  it.  Below 
is  the  blue  oily  water,  the  white  capes,  and  little  mud  cones  of  a  soft 
deposit,  marking  a  former  geological  level;  above,  the  tall  crags  and 
castellated  precipices  of  the  great  wall,  which  runs  ever  higher  and 
steeper  to  near  Masada.  From  'Aia  Jidy  the  square  isolated  block  of 
Masada  was  visible,  and  the  low  mole-hill  of  Jebel  Usdum  ;  whilst  on 
the  east  above  the  deep  gorges  of  the  Arnon  and  lesser  streams  among 
the  Blue  Mountains,  "  scarred  with  an  hundred  wintry  water-courses," 
the  white  towers  of  Kerak  were  distinctly  visible,  standing  apparently 
imapproachable  upon  a  great  cliff.  The  ride  to  Masada  was  equally 
grand ;  and  the  appearance  of  this  wonderful  fortress,  as  it  stood  up 
black  against  the  morning  sun,  and  the  shining  level  of  the  Dead  Sea, 
while  below,  in  the  valley,  a  herd  of  leden  (the  Ibex,  or  wild  goat)  were 
hopping  from  boulder  to  boulder,  was  as  grand  and  picturesque  a  bit  of 
savage  scenery  as  a  painter  could  desire.  I  was  sorry  Lieut.  Kitchener 
was  unable  to  accompany  us  for  photography,  especially  as  I  had  no 
time  for  sketching.  Corporal  Armstrong  took  three  dry-plate  views, 
two  of  v^^hich  seem  satisfactory,  but  the  great  gale  at  Masada  made 
photography  almost  an  impossibility. 

The  Ta'amireh  Arabs,  amongst  whom  we  were  first,  have  a  very  bad 
name  in  Jerusalem,  but  we  found  them  civil  and  obliging,  and  very 
intelligent,  especially  Sheikh  Abel  el  Kader,  at  whose  camp— the  largest 
encampment  I  have  yet  seen,  twenty-eight  tents,  or  about  thirty  guns — 
we  first  pitched  in  Wady  Hasasah.  These  Ta'amirehs  are  not  true 
Arabs,  but  half  Fellahin.  They  are  fine-built  fellows,  of  a  browner 
colour  than  the  true  Bedawi,  and  wear  shoes  and  turbans,  instead  of 
the  kufeyeh  and  sandal.  They  are  also  so  degraded  as  to  cultivate 
the  ground,  and  grow  com,  which  they  store  in  Bethlehem,  and  sell  for 
very  high  prices. 

On  the  second  day,  when  out  alone  with  Abel  el  Kader,  I  met  some 
very  wild-looking  fellows  belonging  to  the  K'aabineh ;  they  were  true 
Bedouin,  with  the  peculiar  silvery  tint  which  overlies  the  brown  of  their 
complexion,  giving  them  a  dusky  appearance.  They  all  wore  sandals, 
and  a  single  shirt,  with  ram's  horn  for  powder,  and  a  very  long  gun 
slung  behind.  Though  at  first  they  ran  at  us  as  though  to  annihi- 
late us,  they  were  very  civil,  knowing  the  sheikh  well,  and  on  his 
explaining  that  I  was  one  of  a  party  of  Kanasil,  a  term  I  afterwards 
found  to  be  the  plural  of  consul,  a  European  dignitary  for  whom  the 
Bedawi  has  unlimited  respect.  I  hope  that  I  shall  be  pardoned  for  thus 
involuntarily  assuming  such  a  title,  but  it  appears  that  in  the  desert  it 
is  not  always  possible  or  wise  to  refuse  honours  when  "thrust  upon 
one." 

The  Bedouin  appear  to  look  forward  to  a  millenium,  when  the  Chris- 
tians will  turn  the  desert  into  a  Paradise  of  running  streams,  gardens, 
and  vineyards.  In  this,  it  seems  to  me,  we  have  a  tradition  of  Crusading 
times.     The  Crusaders  appear  to  have  turned  considerable  attention  to 


132  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER  S    REPORTS. 

tlie  cultivation  of  tlie  Jordan  valley  and  Dead  Sea  basin.  At  Beisan 
and  Jericho  we  found  traces  of  sugar  manufacture,  and  tlie  drystone 
walls  of  the  Crusading  vineyards  extend  over  all  the  Bukeia,  or  low 
plain  beneath  Mar  Saba.  Farther  south  we  found  the  lioman  camps 
were  called  by  our  guides  to  Masada,  Karum  Kharliui,  or  "ruined 
vineyards." 

The  great  luxury  coveted  by  the  Bedouin  is  tobacco,  and  we  soon 
found  that  the  present  of  a  pipeful  would  bring  the  whole  tribe  on  us 
in  a  swarm,  in  relation  to  which  the  Jehalin  pipes,  as  I  informed  Abii 
Dahuk,  hudifinjans,  or  coffee-cups,  by  mistake,  for  bowls,  being,  I  should 
fancy,  about  double  the  capacity  of  the  ordinary  native  pipe. 

From  'Ain  Jidy  southwards,  the  country  belongs  to  the  Jehalin,  who, 
as  far  as  our  experience  goes,  we  found  fully  worthy  of  Dr.  Eobinson's 
remark  that  they  are  the  filthiest  and  most  degraded  of  Arabs.  The 
former  tribes  have  no  horses,  but  the  Jehalin  have  some  strong  and  large 
mares — not,  however,  I  imagine,  very  well  bred.  The  young  Sheikh 
Abu  Dahuk  is  one  of  the  greatest  ruffians  I  have  ever  met,  and  I  have 
no  doubt  might  any  day  endeavour  to  emulate  the  prowess  of  his 
father. 

At  Wady  Hasasah  we  heard  great  accounts  of  a  raid  by  the  Dhullam 
Arabs,  and  that  the  Jehalin  had  been  driven  from  their  country,  but  I 
was  inclined  to  disbelieve  the  story  altogether,  and  it  was  not  till  we 
were  leaving  the  country  that  we  found  a  body  of  cavalry  posted 
close  to  our  camp  at  Wady  Seiyal,  and  that  a  serious  fray  had  really 
occurred  just  before  we  arrived,  which  may  account  for  the  excited 
bearing  of  many  of  the  Arabs  we  met.  The  Bedouin  are  for  some  reason 
or  other  all  much  excited  just  now  in  the  south,  and  we  hear  that  war 
is  going  on  within  three  hours'  distance  of  our  present  camp  at  Beit 
Jibrin. 

Two  sites  of  especial  interest  demand  a  special  description,  namely, 
'Ain  Jidy  and  Masada. 

'Ain  Jidy. — The  spring  of  'Ain  Jidy  comes  out  from  beneath  a  rock  on  a 
little  plateau  oOO  feet  above  the  Dead  Sea,  and  1,200  feet  below  the  top 
of  the  cliffs.     Its  temperature  at  the  spring  head  on  a  cool  cloudy  day 
we  found  to  be  83°  Fahr.,  unpleasantly  warm  to  the  taste,  though  the 
water  is  clear  and  sweet.     I  was  not  previously  aware  that  it  was  a 
thermal  spring.     The  stream  flows  in  a  long  cascade  over  the  steep 
face  of  the  cliff,  and  is  lost  in  channels  for  irrigation  beneath.     Its 
course  is  marked  with  tall  rushes  and  low  bushes,   and  the  gigantic 
leaves  of  the  'Osher,  the  yellow  berries  of  the  Solanum,  or  apple  of 
Sodom,  and  the   flat  cedar-like  tops  of  the  thorny  Dardara,  make  a 
thicket  round  the  spring.     The  bulbuls  and  hopping  thrushes  delight 
in  this  cover,  and    on  the  cliffs  above,  the  black  grakles,  with  their 
golden  wings  and  melodious  note,  may  be  seen  soaring.     Beneath  the 
spring  on  every  side  are  ruined  garden  walls  and  terraces,  and  a  large 
teiraced  mound  or  tell,  perhaps  the  site  of  the  ancient  town.     An  aque- 
duct leads  from  the  spring  to  Wady  el  Areijeh,  where  are  other  smaller 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEll's    REPORTS.  133 

water  channels,  relics  of  some  well-watered  garden  of  perhaps  Crusading 
times.  The  tombs  found  by  Dr.  Tristram  we  did  not  see,  but  what 
seemed  to  me  of  most  interest  was  a  rude,  square,  solid  platform,  about 
10-15  feet  wide,  and  3  feet  high,  consisting  of  unhewn  blocks,  and  having 
very  much  the  appearance  of  what  might  not  unnaturally  be  expected 
to  exist  in  such  a  spot — namely,  an  ancient  altar,  dating  back,  perhaps, 
to  Jewish  times. 

There  is  a  ruined  mill,  apparently  modern,  at  the  spring,  and  a 
building  resembling  a  small  tower,  beneath  the  gorge  of  Wady  el 
Areijeh,  but  beyond  what  is  mentioned  above,  we  saw  no  indications 
of  antiquity.  Not  a  single  palm  exists  this  side  of  the  Dead  Sea,  and 
the  shore  presents  alternately  masses  of  boulders  and  broken  stones, 
or  fine  shingle,  very  tiring  to  walk  upon.  The  whole  extent  is  utterly 
barren  until  the  cane-brake  and  marshy  ground  near  the  northera 
springs  and  Has  Feshkhah  are  reached. 

3Iasada.—Th.e  site  of  Masada  requires,  perhaps,  more  careful  explora- 
tion than  we  were  able  to  give  to  it.  Time  pressed,  and  we  could  only 
afford  a  single  day,  so  we  got  into  the  saddle  by  6  a.m.,  reached  the  ruin 
by  9  a.m.,  and  remained  till  3  p.m.  "We  executed  a  traverse  survey  of  the 
top  with  the  prismatic  compass  and  tape,  and  special  plan  of  the  chapel. 
We  also  fixed  the  positions  of  the  Eoman  camps  below.  A  very  severe 
gale  of  wind  came  on,  and  we  found  great  difficulty  in  taking  our 
observations.  I  was  disappointed  in  the  hope  of  descending  to  the 
tower  at  the  north  angle,  being  afraid  to  venture  in  so  strong  a  wind 
70  feet  down  over  the  edge  of  the  precipice,  although  I  had  brought 
ladders  and  ropes  for  the  purpose.  Perhaps  some  opportunity  may 
occur  later  of  making  this  interesting  exploration.  We  returned  to 
camp  at  6  p.m.,  and  were  kept  awake  all  night  by  the  wind. 

To  give  an  adequate  idea  of  the  appearance  of  Masada  is  by  no  means 
easy,  a  great  plateau  standing  1,500  feet  or  more  above  the  Dead  Sea, 
and  measuring  2,080  feet  along  its  greatest  length,  which  extends  north 
and  south,  and  1,050  feet  east  and  west ;  it  is  surrounded  on  every  side 
with  vertical  walls  of  rock,  and  cut  off  from  the  rest  of  the  cliff  by 
deep  gorges  on  the  south,  south-east,  north-west,  and  west,  whilst  on 
the  east  it  stands  above  a  broad  plain  reaching  down  to  the  shore  of 
the  Dead  Sea. 

The  first  point  which  strikes  one  on  approaching  the  ruin  and  climb- 
ing to  the  plateau  is  the  wonderful  exactitude  of  the  description  by 
Josephus  (B.  J.  vii.  8.2).  Left  last  to  the  Jews  as  a  stronghold  after 
the  captui-e  of  Herodium  and  Machcerus,  it  was  not  until  every  other 
disturbance  had  been  quelled  that  the  Romans  turned  to  the  tremendous 
task  of  reducing  Masada.  Flavius  Silva  "got  together  all  his  army" 
and  besieged  Eleasar,  chief  of  the  Sicarii,  and  having  garrisoned  the 
surrounding  country,  "  he  built  a  wall  quite  round  the  entire  fortress  ; 
he  also  set  his  men  to  guard  the  several  parts  of  it ;  he  also  pitched  his 
camp  in  such  an  agreeable  place  as  he  had  chosen  for  the  siege,  and  at 
which  place  the  rock  belonging  to  the  fortress  did  make  the  nearest 


13^  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

approacli  to  the  neiglabouring  mountain."  Yet  furtlier,  the  main  diffi- 
culty of  the  siege,  the  absolute  impossibility  of  obtaining  not  only  pro- 
visions, but  even  a  drop  of  water,  was  overcome  by  Roman  energy  and 
system,  and  supplies  were  brought  into  camp  probably  from  a  great 
distance ;  as  no  water  exists,  as  far  as  we  could  discover,  within  a 
radius  of  about  ten  miles,  the  principal  supply  was  probably  from  'Ain 
Jidy  and  the  springs  near  it  along  the  seashore. 

Josephus  goes  on  to  describe  the  fortress  and  the  valleys,  of  which  he 
says  well  "  that  the  eye  could  not  reach  their  bottoms."  Two  approaches 
alone  existed,  one  on  the  seaside,  one  on  the  west  or  land  side.  The  first, 
called  the  "  Serpent,"  from  its  innumerable  windings,  appears  to  have 
been  a  mere  track  by  which  a  man  could  climb,  and  has  almost  entirely 
disappeared ;  but  looking  cautiously  over  the  edge  I  could  see  far  down 
faint  traces  of  a  parapet  wall  near  the  bottom  of  the  precipice,  looking 
like  an  outwork  perched  upon  the  crags.  This  is  no  doubt  part  of  the 
more  difficult  ascent.  The  land  approach  was  easier,  a  narrow  knife- 
like promontory  of  softer  limestone  here  juts  out  from  the  rocky  wall. 
This  is  the  White  Fromontory.  The  junction  of  the  tongue  with  the  main 
cliff  is  now  hidden  by  a  huge  mound  of  debris  reaching  up  perhaps  300 
feet.  This  huge  earthwork  is  the  ramp  which  the  Eoman  general  made 
to  attack  the  fortress  from  the  side  of  his  camp  in  the  most  accessible  (or 
rather  the  least  impossible)  dii'ection. 

On  reaching  the  summit  one  is  struck,  first,  by  the  small  extent  of 
the  ru.ins  compared  with  the  area  of  the  plateau ;  secondly,  with  the 
difficulty  of  supplying  the  garrison  with  water.  The  first  is  fully 
oxj)lained  by  Josephus  :  "  For  the  king  reserved  the  top  of  the  hill,  which 
was  of  a  fat  soil  and  better  mould  than  any  valley,  for  agriculture,  that 
such  as  committed  themselves  to  this  fortress  for  their  preservation 
might  not  even  there  be  quite  destitute  of  food  in  case  they  should  ever 
be  in  want  of  it  from  abroad."  Thus  it  is  quite  natural  that  the  prin- 
cipal and  most  ancient  ruins  should  be  confined  to  the  northern  corner 
of  the  enclosure.  The  whole  plateau  was  surrounded  by  a  wall  which 
now  remains  in  heaps  of  good-sized  masonry  rudely  squared  and 
apparently  never  laid  in  mortar.  The  length  of  this  wall  we  make  to  be 
4,880  feet;  according  to  Josephus  it  was  seven  furlongs,  or  about  4,620 
feet ;  another  instance  of  the  fact  that  the  supposed  exaggerations  of  this 
author  disappear  before  careful  examination.  Even  the  great  length 
which  he  ascribes  to  the  "  Serpent  ascent,"  thirty  furlongs,  only  gives  an 
average  length  of  thirteen  times  the  vertical  height  to  be  scaled,  which 
cannot  be  thought  excessive,  being,  as  far  as  I  can  calculate,  almost 
exactly  the  gradient  of  the  terrible  Nukh  or  descending  path  from  the 
upper  cliff  to  the  spring  at  'Ain  Jidy. 

The  towers  round  the  wall  are  still  traceable  in  places,  and  the  block 
of  Herod's  palace  "within  and  below  the  walls  of  the  citadel,  but 
inclined  to  its  north  side  at  the  western  ascent,"  is  to  be  identified,  I 
think,  with  the  great  square  area  200  feet  wide,  which  now  presents 
nothing  but  a  confused  mass  of  fallen  walls  and  masonry,  and  which 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  135 

ficljoins  the  top  of  the  western  ascent  close  -within  the  "wall.  There  is  a 
striking  resemblance  between  the  masonry  and  that  at  Jebel  Fureidis. 
Near  the  north  corner  of  the  fortress  a  small  vault  remains  perfect.  It 
has  a  cradle  roof  semicircular,  and  with  the  narrow  keystone  and  broader 
stones  at  the  haunches  which  I  have  so  often  had  occasion  to  point  out 
as  being  distinctive  of  Roman  work.  Another  peculiarity  is  common  in 
the  two  sites.  The  main  part  of  the  ruins  consist  of  long  parallel  walls 
of  rudely  squared  masonry  extending  some  lOOfeet,  and  having  intervals 
of  only  10  feet.  It  will  be  found  that  a  precisely  similar  disposition 
equally  puzzling  exists  in  the  ruins  of  the  great  building  generally  con- 
sidered the  site  of  Herod's  summer  palace  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Fureidis. 
la  all  probability  these  foundation  vaults  were  used  as  storehouses,  and 
in  them  would  be  found  those  treasures  of  corn  and  fruit  which,  laid  up 
by  Herod,  were  found  fresh  and  good  100  years  later  by  Eleasar. 

Josephus  frequently  speaks  of  "  the  very  top  of  the  mountain,"  and 
the  expression  seems  to  refer  to  the  high  mound  at  the  north  angle,  from 
which  a  subterranean  passage  led  to  the  palace.  The  western  ascent  was 
guarded  by  a  large  tower  1,000  cubits  below  (about  1,300  feet,  again  a 
very  correct  estimate) ;  from  the  summit  of  this  we  did  not  remark  any 
traces,  and  no  doubt  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Romans.  It  can  hardly,  I 
think,  be  identified  with  the  curious  circular  tower  at  the  north  angle, 
70  feet  beneath  the  platform,  which  I  was  unable  to  visit,  but  which 
does  not  seem  to  be  specially  mentioned  by  Josephus. 

The  next  question  is  that  of  water  supply,  concerning  which  we  read 
that  Herod  "  cut  many  and  great  pits  as  reservoirs  for  water  at  every 
one  of  the  places  that  were  inhabited."  Of  these  we  found  six  in  all 
pretty  evenly  distributed  over  the  area,  and  averaging  50  to  100  feet  in 
length.  In  addition  to  this  there  is  a  fine  masoniy  reservoii'  measuring 
nearly  50  feet  in  length  placed  in  the  southern  angle,  and  a  small  well 
on  the  west  near  the  wall.  The  great  pits  were  all  di-y,  but  this  is  pro- 
bably due  to  no  rain  having  fallen,  and  not  to  the  decay  of  the  fortress, 
for  with  one  exception  they  do  not  seem  to  have  ever  been  cemented. 

To  return  to  the  Roman  siege  of  Masada.  The  "White  Promontory  was 
300  cubits  (400  feet)  beneath  the  plateau,  and  the  mound  made  by  Silva 
was  200  cubits,  or  270  feet  high.  On  the  top  of  the  mound  it  was, 
therefore,  necessary  to  raise  another  structure,  and  "  another  elevated 
work  of  great  stones  compacted  together  was  raised  upon  that  bank  :  this 
was  50  cubits  (about  70  feet)  both  in  breadth  and  in  height."  This,  also, 
remains  intact  upon  the  top  of  the  mound,  a  narrow  causeway  at  a  slope 
of  aboiit  one  by  one,  and  reaching  about  the  height  and  breadth  men- 
tioned by  Josephus  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  present  gateway. 
It  consists  of  large  blocks  rudely  hewn  and  very  closely  built  together. 
The  exactitude  of  this  description  furnishes,  I  would  suggest,  a  good 
answer  to  those  writers  who  are  only  too  apt  to  discover  exaggeration 
and  error  in  the  descriptions  of  the  Jewish  historian,  written,  as  they 
would  have  us  believe,  at  a  distance  from  the  spot  which  he  himself 
had  never  visited,  and  after  a  lapse  of  time  sufficient  to  account  for  any 


136  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    COXDER's    REPORTS. 

SLii^posecl  errcrs.  This  is  emi:)'hatical]y  imtrue  as  regards  Masada.  The 
description  is  that  of  one  familiar  with  the  site  and  accustomed  to 
describe  what  he  saw  with  an  accuracy  to  which  the  majority  of  modern 
writers  cannot  hay  claim. 

The  Eomau  investment  remains  perfect  to  this  day,  and  as  one  looks 
down  ujDon  the  long  wall  and  orderly  cami:is  spread  out  as  upon  a  plan 
Leneath,  the  mind  conjures  up  the  system  and  discipline  of  a  Eomau 
army,  the  shining  armour  and  orderly  ranks  which  Josephus  delights  to 
describe,  and  one  can  imagine  the  despair  of  the  wretched  zealots  as  they 
looked  down  secure  but  helpless  on  the  inevitable  fate  which  the  genius, 
energy,  and  determination  of  a  Eoman  general  was  slowly  but  surely 
preparing  for  them. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  fortress,  upon  a  low  spur  "of  the  hills,  lies  the 
camp  which  Silva  held  in  person.  It  is  a  square  of  some  200  feet  wide, 
as  far  as  we  can  judge,  rather  larger  than  the  average  of  such  camps  as 
exist  near  Jenin  and  Beit  Jibrin.  The  four  gates,  with  their  internal 
traverse,  and  the  Via  Principalis,  are  distinctly  traceable.  In  the  north- 
west corner  is  an  inner  enclosure,  which  I  suppose  to  be  the  position  of 
the  general's  tent.  The  walls  are  now  huge  heaps  of  stones,  but  they 
seem  to  have  been  built  up  in  courses  which  remain  visible  here  and 
there. 

A  second  camp,  almost  of  equal  magnitude,  is  laid  out  on  the  plain 
south-east  of  the  rock.  It  has  the  peculiarity  of  a  sort  of  bastion  in  the 
south-west  angle.  The  surrounding  wall  runs  in  front  of  these  camps, 
and  in  connection  with  this  there  are  six  small  square  forts  of  perhaps 
oO  feet  wide,  two  in  front  of  the  eastern  camp,  two  between  it  and  that  of 
Silva,  and  two  yet  farther  west,  the  last  being  skilfully  hidden  behind  a 
conical  peak  so  as  to  be  invisible  from  all  that  part  of  the  fortress  which 
is  most  nearly  ai3proached  to  this  outwork.  These  forts  remind  us  of 
those  mentioned  in  the  famous  siege  of  Jerusalem  by  Titus.  In  fact,  the 
attack  has  many  striking  points  of  similarity ;  it  is  made  on  the  open 
ground  north  and  east  of  the  fortress,  and  on  the  other  sides  the  great 
wall,  as  at  Jerusalem,  scales  the  steep  slopes  of  the  hills  on  the  opposite 
sides  of  the  ravine  and  runs  along  the  plateau  above.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  Silva,  when  he  planned  the  attack  on  Masada,  had  in  his  mind  the 
example  of  the  emperor  in  that  successful  blockade  which,  to  a  soldier, 
seems  remarkable  for  its  hapj)y  choice  of  position. 

The  value  of  this  perfect  example  of  the  method  employed  by  the 
Eomans  in  conducting  a  siege  in  the  stonier  parts  of  Palestine  is  unques- 
tionable ;  by  the  light  of  what  we  can  here  learn  we  shall  be  able  to 
search  at  Jerusalem  for  indications  of  the  great  surrounding  wall,  and 
of  the  site  of  Roman  camps,  and  I  already  see  that  the  great  flint  mounds 
near  Scopus,  which  have  as  yet  escaped  the  attention  of  explorers,  will 
require  careful  examination,  as  very  probably  connected  with  the  first 
Eoman  camp  there  established.  We  cannot,  however,  expect  at  Jeru- 
salem, where  the  ground  is  all  under  cultivation,  that  any  traces  so 
perfect  as  those  round  this  desblate  fortress  should  have  been  left  to  the 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDEr's  REPORTS.  137 

present  clay.  The  lesson  we  learn  from  Masada — untouclied  and  scarce 
visited  since  it  met  its  fate  from  Silva — is,  that  the  destruction  of  ruins  in 
Palestine  is  due  far  more  to  human  agency  tiian  to  the  gradual  action  of 
time. 

Eoman  ruins,  though  the  most  interesting,  are  not,  however,  the  only 
ones  at  Masada.  In  the  centre  of  the  area  stands  a  Byzantine  chapel, 
which,  from  the  disposition  of  the  atrium  and  the  rounded  arches  of  the 
windows,  I  should  be  disposed  to  think  earlier  than  Crusading  times. 
There  are  no  masons'  marks  on  its  walls,  and  the  masonry  of  the  apse  is 
finished  with  a  tooling  which,  as  I  have  previously  described  it,  belongs 
to  Byzantine  times. 

The  entrance  gate  to  the  fortress  is,  however,  evidently  later,  and 
has  a  pointed  arch  with  a  keystone  cirt  out  beneath  so  as  to  give  the 
apex  of  the  arch.  On  the  outside  are  the  marks  which  M.  de  Saulcy 
compares  with  planetary  signs. 

The  first  is  the  well-known  Wus/u,  or  tribe  mark  of  the  Easheideh 
Arabs,  two  of  the  others  are  claimed  by  sections  of  the  Jehalin.  The 
remaining  marks,  some  old,  some  fresh,  cut,  are  of  the  same  origin,  and 
show  the  assertion  made  by  various  tribes  in  turn  of  proprietorship  of 
the  hidden  treasures  which  the  Bedouin  suppose  to  exist  here.  I  did 
not  observe  any  mark  which  seemed  to  me  of  earlier  character. 

Two  curious  details  remain  to  notice — the  hermit's  cave  and  the  pigeon- 
hole niches  in  the  walls  of  the  buildings.  The  first,  a  small  tomb-like 
cavern  immediately  south  of  the  chapel,  I  have  never  seen  noticed.  I 
entered  and  planned  it,  and  found  on  the  wall  of  the  vestibule  the 
following  short  inscription  painted  on  the  white  rock  in  that  curious  red 
l^igment  which  is  observable  in  the  graphita3  on  the  pillars  of  the  Holy 
Sepulchre  church,  and  in  those  of  the  Basilica  at  Bethlehem,  in  the  apse 
of  the  chapel  in  the  Convent  of  the  Cross,  and  in  other  places  where 
mediaeval  graphites  remain  : — 

-fKTPmKOc+ 

On  the  left  is  a  rude  bit  of  ornamentation  which  I  take  to  represent  a 
branch  with  two  pomegranates  and  some  leaves. 

The  pigeon-hole  niches  formed  by  the  disposition  of  the  masonry  in 
the  interior  wall  of  a  tower  on  the  west  wall,  and  on  both  sides  of  the 
wall  forming  the  chord  of  a  semicircular  structure  in  another  part  of  the 
ruin,  have  been  photographed  before,  and  have  considerably  puzzled  most 
explorers.  I  suppose  them  to  be  of  Christian  origin.  We  shall  have  occa- 
sion to  mention  similar  niches  in  the  cave  chapels  at  Beit  Jibrin.  At 
Damascus  the  Burj  el  E.us,  or  "  tower  of  heads,"  has  similar  niches, 
where,  1  believe,  the  skulls  of  criminals  used  to  be  exhibited.  The 
niches  are  larger  than  those  for  lamps,  so  common  in  tombs,  as  at 
Tibneh.  The  disposition  of  skulls  into  trophies  is  a  ghastly  fancy, 
common  in  Italy  and  in  parts  of  France  as  well  as  in  Sinai,  and  the  most 
natural  explanation  seems  to  me  that  the  skulls  of  the  monks  or  hermits 
who,  as  we  see  from  the  chapel  and  the  Christian  inscription,  once  fre- 
quented the  spot,  were  collected  and  exhibited  to  their  brethren  upon 

L 


138  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

these  walls.  The  semicircular  building  is  away  from  the  site  of  the 
Eoman  remains  in  an  isolated  position,  and  as  it  falls  approximately  to 
the  east  I  suppose  it  to  be  a  ti-acc  of  another  chapel,  though  I  failed  to 
find  traces  of  the  walls  of  a  nave. 

For  further  particulars  I  must  refer  to  the  plan  which  we  shall  send 
home  as  soon  as  possible,  and  to  detailed  notes  which  are  stored  in  our 
note-books.  Of  subterranean  cayerns,  beyond  a  few  caves  in  the  face  of 
the  cliff  looking  like  hermits'  habitations,  I  saw  no  traces ;  but,  as  I  have 
said  above,  I  was  unfortunately  unable  to  attempt  the  descent  to  the 
great  circular  tower,  and  did  not  therefore  see  those  entrances  wLich 
Dr.  Tristram  mentions  as  probably  leading  to  great  vaults.  Such  vaults 
are  not,  however,  mentioned  by  Josephus  in  his  general  descrii)tion, 
although  he  makes  mention  of  a  cavern  iu  which  the  seven  Avretched 
survivors  found  refuge.  This  need  not,  however,  of  necessity  have  been 
larger  than  the  supi^osod  hermit's  cave  or  tomb  described  above,  which 
would  hold  easily  more  than  double  that  number. 


XXXIII. 

Beit  Jibrin,  March  2QtJi,  1875. 

The  Shephalah  and  Plain  of  Judah,  Beit  Jibrin,  Gath, 
Adullam,  and  LiBNAn. 

The  survey  is  at  present  steadily  advancing  through  the  lowlands  and 
Plain  of  Judah.  Nearly  half  the  towns  which  are  noticed  in  the  topo- 
graphical lists  of  the  Book  of  Joshua  belong  to  districts  now  being 
surveyed,  and  for  the  most  jiart  almost  unknown.  With  the  exception 
of  Captain  Warren's  survey  of  part  of  the  j^lain,  Eobinson's  journey  to 
Beit  Jibrin  and  Gaza,  Vandevelde's  journey  along  the  same  line  and  along 
the  coast,  and  Tobler's  "Wandering,"  scarce  any  attention  has  been  paid 
to  this  part  of  Palestine.  The  district  west  of  the  Dhoheriyeh  hills  and 
south  of  Beit  Jibrin,  as  well  as  the  very  intricate  hill  country  north  and 
east  of  our  present  camp,  more  particularly  require  exploration.  They 
prove  to  be  more  thickly  strewn  with  ruins  than  any  portion  of  the  land 
we  have  seen,  and  most  of  these  sites  show  evidences  of  great  antiquity. 
Our  progress  is  therefore  slow  and  careful,  and  we  shall  endeavour,  if 
possible,  not  to  lose  a  single  name.  Our  guides  are  taken  from  many 
villages,  those  nearest  the  part  surveyed  being  adopted  in  turn,  and  the 
native  scribe  is  sent  into  the  field  to  secure  the  orthography  when  the 
natives  cannot  be  brought  as  far  as  the  camp. 

Of  the  general  results  it  is  premature  to  speak  in  detail  as  yet,  and  I 
will  reserve  the  report  of  our  identifications  till  the  country  of  Judah  is 
completed,  when  it  can  be  treated  altogether.  Some  idea  of  the  value  of 
crrr  work  may,  however,  be  derived  from  the  following  statement : — 


LIEUT.  CLAUDK  R.  CONDER's  REPORTS.  139 

The  eleven  districts  into  wMcli  the  cities  of  Jiidah  are  divided  (exclu- 
sive of  twenty-nine  cities  of  the  Negeb,  south  of  Beersheba,  afterwards 
allotted  to  Simeon),  contain  in  all  niuety-seven  names  of  towns;  of  these 
forty-two  were  placed  ia  the  low  hills  (or  Shephalah)  and  on  the  mari- 
time plain.  Of  the  total  of  ninety-seven,  thirty-five  had  been  identified 
with  tolerable  certainty  before  the  period  of  the  survey ;  but  of  these, 
three  (Adullam,  En-gannim,  and  Beth  Dagon)  have  only  lately  been  fixed 
in  consequence  of  the  researches  of  M.  Ganneau.  Of  the  remainiug 
thirty-two,  by  far  the  greatest  number  are  due  to  Robinson,  whilst  Yande- 
velde,  Wolcott,  and  others,  have  added  an  occasional  stray  discovery. 

At  the  time  at  which  I  write,  the  number  of  new  identifications  in 
Judah,  sufficiently  well  considered  for  publication,  due  to  our  Survey, 
has  reached  a  total  of  thirty-three.  I  fully  expect  that  at  least  four 
or  five  more  are  still  to  be  made,  as  well  as  identifications  of  towns 
not  mentioned  in  the  15th  chapter  of  Joshua.  I  do  not  include  in  this 
total  sites  previously  proposed  and  now  confirmed  by  our  work.  But 
it  is  not  only  in  numbers  that  we  have  made  a  step  in  advance,  for,  as 
the  number  of  sites  known  will  now  average  more  than  three-quarters 
of  the  total  in  each  district,  it  becomes  possible  to  understand  the  system 
according  to  which  the  names  occur,  and  to  define  the  limits  of  the 
districts.  This  is  especially  the  case  with  regard  to  the  lowlands  of 
Libnah,  a  group  of  nine  towns,  of  which  this  royal  city  was  the  capital, 
and  of  which  only  three  are  previously  identified  by  Robinsm.  I  hope 
that  we  shall  be  able  to  show  thoroughly  good  identifications  for  the 
remaining  six,  and  thus  to  pi-ove  that  the  order  of  occurrence  of  the 
names  is  perfectly  regular  in  this  case,  being  in  a  circle  from  right  to  left. 
This  is  only  one  instance  of  the  canon  which  we  have,  I  hope,  established, 
that  "  the  order  of  occurrence  of  the  names  in  the  topographical  lists  is 
a  certain  indication  of  relative  situation."  The  final  identification  of 
three  out  of  every  four  sites  mentioned,  which  may  reasonably  be  ex- 
pected, is  indeed  a  great  advance  in  Biblical  illustration. 

The  principal  sites  of  interest  now  visited  are  Beit  Jibrin,  Tell  el  Safieh, 
the  Valley  of  Elah,  and  the  site  of  Adullam,  which  should,  I  think,  be 
accepted  as  identified  by  M.  Ganneau  with  the  present  'Aid-el-raia. 

Beit  Jibrin. — Beit  Jibrin,  identified  by  Dr.  Robinson  with  the  Eleuthero- 
polis  of  Jerome  and  the  Betogabra  of  the  Acta  Sanctorum  and  Peutinger 
tables,  was  known  as  Beit  Jibril  to  the  Arab  geographers  of  the  middle 
ages,  and  this  was  converted  into  Gibelin  by  the  Crusaders.  Whatever  the 
ancient  name  of  the  site,  its  present  title  dates  in  all  isrobability  from 
Christian  times.  There  is  on  the  N.W.  side  of  the  village  a  small  plot 
of  ground,  with  a  few  scattered  stones,  which  is  held  sacred  as  a  Weig  (a 
contraction  meaning  a  spot  sacred  to  some  holy  personage),  but  no 
building  of  any  kind  is  erected  on  it.  The  place  is  called  Nebi  Jibril,  or 
Nebi  Jibrin  (the  fellahin  invariably  change  the  L  into  M  orN,  e.g.,  Ism'ain 
for  Ism'ail,  Israim  or  Isr'ain  for  Isr'ail).  The  translation  of  this  is,  of 
course,  the  "Prophet  Gabriel,"  and  the  veneration  of  this  site  is  no 
doubt  due  to  a    traditionary  remembrance  of  the    church  which  Dr. 


140  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R,    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

Robinson  heard  of  close  to  this  spot,  ' '  with  pictures  in  the  southern  part 
(of  the  Kalah)  now  shut  up,  and  indeed  buried  beneath  the  ruins."  All 
traces  of  this  church  seem  to  have  disappeared  beneath  the  mounds  which 
here  exist ;  but  the  circumstance  is  of  value,  as  seeming  to  show  that 
the  name  Beit  Jibrin  is  not  a  corruption  of  any  Hebrew  or  Aramaic 
word,  but  simply  signifies  "The  House  of  Gabriel,"  being  so  called,  I 
would  saggost,  in  early  Christian  times,  from  the  church  to  the  Angel 
within  the  town. 

Lying  Ioav  on  the  side  of  a  white  chalk  hill,  hemmed  in  with  higher 
rolling  ridges,  and  surrounded  with  extensive  and  very  ancient  olive 
groves,  Beit  Jibrin  can  hardly  be  seen  in  any  direction  at  a  distance  of  a 
mile.  It  is  a  site  peculiarly  rich  and  sheltered,  but  of  no  natural 
strength,  and  cannot  therefore  be  identified  Avith  any  place  which  was 
famous  as  a  stronghold  in  early  times. 

The  ruins  in  and  round  the  town  are  very  extensive  and  interesting. 
The  soft  rock  seems  to  have  tempted  its  inhabitants  in  every  age,  and 
traces  of  Jewish,  Roman,  Byzantine,  Crusading,  and  Saracenic  workmen 
are  to  be  found.  The  most  striking  peculiarit}',  which  it  shares  with  a 
few  other  sites  in  the  Shephalah,  is  the  great  number  of  enormous 
caverns  which  are  to  be  found  on  every  side.  As  a  rule,  there  is  an 
open  court,  or  sunken  approach,  hemmed  in  with  walls  of  rock,  and 
leading  to  great  domed  apartments  having  man-holes  in  the  roofs.  This 
class,  of  which  there  are  eleven  principal  examples,  goes  by  the  name 
of  Arak.  Where  the  entrance  is  a  narrow  door,  or  well-mouth,  and  the 
caves  have  no  light,  the  natives  call  it  a  Ulai/lKD'aJi.  The  third  kind,  the 
rock-cut  sepulchres,  they  name  here,  as  throughout  Palestine,  Namus 
(plural  Nawamis),  which  means  a  mosquito,  and  is  a  vulgar  corruption  of 
the  proper  Arabic  title  Naus  (pi.  Nawawis). 

That  Beit  Jibrin  is  an  ancient  site  may  be  judged  from  the  existence 
of  rock-cut  wine -presses  and  olive-presses  in  its  vicinity,  and  of 
sepulchres  of  unusual  size,  one  containing  thirty-four  loculi,  running 
in  from  the  sides  of  its  two  chambers  in  the  ordinary  manner  of  Jewish 
tombs,  the  length  of  each  being  no  less  than  8  feet  4  inches.  There  are 
four  good  examples  of  this  style  of  tomb,  as  well  as  several  which  have 
been  broken  into  and  destroyed  in  the  process  of  enlarging  the  great 
caverns. 

The  village  itself  consists  of  mud  huts,  with  a  good  stone  house  be- 
longing to  one  of  the  two  great  families  in  the  centre.  On  three  sides 
it  is  surrounded  with  mounds,  which  might  very  possibly  be  worth 
excavating,  but  on  the  north,  about  one  hundred  paces  from  the  houses, 
runs  the  line  of  the  old  fortifications.  Tfu'ee  or  four  courses  are  visible 
almost  throughout  the  whole  extent,  and  at  the  N.W.  angle  the  N.  and 
W.  walls  reach  up  to  8  or  9  feet,  whilst  within  stands  a  fort,  or  Kal'ah, 
200  feet  wide. 

These  fortifications,  with  the  remains  of  a  ditch  and  counterscarp,  are 
put  down  by  Dr.  Robinson  as  dating  from  the  Roman  period,  but  it 
seems  to  me  questionable  whether  they  can  be  carried  back  further  than 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEli's    REPORTS.  141 

the  12tli  century,  ■when  King  Fulke,  who  found  the  pLice  an  ancient 
ruined  site,  rebuilt  it  in  a.d.  1134,  with  "  impregnable  walls,  a  mound, 
bastions,  and  advanced  works,"  as  described  by  William  of  Tyre  (quoted 
by  Eobinson).  A  careful  traverse  with  the  compass  shows  that  the  wall 
recedes  towards  the  centre  of  the  north  side  so  as  to  make  a  curtain,  and 
that  the  counterscarp  is  thrown  out  in  a  circle,  so  as  probably  to  allow  of 
an  interior  ravelin  or  advanced  work  of  some  kind.  The  Kal'ah  also 
has  towers  at  its  corners,  and  the  N.W.  part  of  the  line  projects  as  a 
sort  of  bastion.  These  peculiarities  resemble  Crusading  rather  than 
Roman  work.  That  part  of  the  Kal'ah,  at  least,  is  of  this  date  we  suc- 
ceeded in  proving  by  the  examination  of  a  long  vault,  built  in  four  bays 
"with  pillars,  having  marble  capitals  of  good  workmanship,  the  acanthus 
patterns  in  low  relief,  similar  to  Crusading  buildings  at  Kalensawieh, 
Cajsarea,  and  many  other  sites  ;  there  is  a  simple  cornice,  with  well- 
execute  1  mouldings  and  dentcllated  work  above  the  pillars,  good  pointed 
arched  and  groined  ragwork  in  the  vaults ;  finally,  on  the  better  pre- 
served stones  we  noticed  the  diagonal  chiselling  which  M.  Ganneau 
pointed  out  as  distinctive  of  a  certain  class  of  Crusading  work,  and  we 
found  three  masons'  marks  which  I  recognised  as  occurring  in  the 
Muristan,  the  castle  of  Kaukab  el  Ilawa,  the  church  at  Abu  Gosh, 
and  many  other  12th  century  buildings. 

I  feel,  therefore,  little  hesitation  in  putting  down  the  whole  of  the  forti- 
fications as  Crusading,  though  a  fine  arch,  seemingly  of  a  gateway,  exists 
within  the  wall  at  the  N.E.  corner,  which  is  apparently  semicircular, 
though  it  mau  have  a  slight  point,  and  24  feet  span,  with  a  double  ring 
of  masonry  in  the  voussoirs.  It  might  possibly  be  thought  Eoman  at 
first  sight,  but  the  windows  of  the  great  church,  next  to  be  described, 
have  precisely  the  same  structure,  and  are  certainly  Byzantine.  The 
length  of  the  line  of  fortification  visible  is  close  upon  2,000  feet,  or  three 
times  that  of  the  village.  Beit  Jibriu  must  therefore  in  the  middle  ages 
have  been  a  very  considerable  place. 

Lieut.  Xitcheuer  has  photographed  the  vault  on  the  side  of  the  Kal'ah, 
the  Great  Church  of  St.  John,  and  one  of  the  curious  caves  at  Tell 
Sandahannah  near  the  town.  The  weather,  however,  is  very  grey  as  yet, 
hot  and  hazy,  with  strong  east  wind  at  night. 

SandalianrtCih. — xibout  a  mile  S.E.  of  the  village  are  the  remains  of  the 
great  church  or  cathedral,  called  by  the  fellahin  Sandahannah  or  St.  John. 
It  is  the  finest  specimen  of  a  Byzantine  church  which  I  have  yet  seen  in 
Palestine,  and  possesses  a  great  peculiarity  in  its  two  side  chapels.  The 
nave  is  32  feet  wide,  and  must  have  been,  it  would  seem,  in  the  original 
plan,  121  feet  in  length.  Two  walls  run  out  in  continuation  of  the  apse 
diameter,  pierced  with  two  tiers  of  two  windows  with  circular  arches. 
Each  wall  is  61  feet  long,  giving  a  total  width  of  lol  feet  to  the  building. 
In  the  two  corners,  N."W.  and  S.W.,  are  chapels  about  70  feet  long  by 
20  feet  broad,  inside,  their  apses  being  in  lines  parallel  to  the  main 
apse,  which  has  an  orientation  20"  S.  of  east.  The  southern  chapel 
has  only  the  apse  left,  but  in  the  other  the  foundations  of  its  walls 


142  LIEUT,     CLAUDE    R.    CONDER  S    REPORTS. 

remain,  with,  two  vaults,  having  good   round  arches  and  cradle  roof 
below. 

This  original  plan  of  the  building  has  subsequently  been  altered  by  Cru- 
sading architects ;  piers  are  built  on  to  the  walls  of  the  nave,  supporting 
pointed  arches,  and  one  bay  remains  with  its  roof  almost  entire,  18  feet 
broad,  from  centre  to  centre  of  pier.  A  curious  difficulty  liere  occurs  in 
the  roof.  The  magnificent  apse  is  covered  with  a  beehive  roof,  of  whicb 
every  stone  is  in  place,  forming  a  hollow  quarter-sphere ;  the  height 
from  the  to]3  is  43  feet,  but  the  Crusading  roof  to  the  nave  is  about  10 
feet  lower.  The  way  in  which  the  semicircle  thus  left  open  on  the 
diameter  of  the  apse  was  closed  it  is  now  impossible  to  understand. 
There  seem  to  have  been  some  fine  marble  columns  in  the  nave,  standing 
on  pedestals  beneath  the  base,  each  pedestal  about  3  feet  high,  with  a 
cross  upon  it,  surrounded  with  a  laurel  wreath.  All  these  and  other 
details  wo  measured  and  sketched  carefully.  The  church  is  a  splendid 
example  of  the  most  careful  style  of  Byzantine  construction  and  masonry. 
The  tooling  of  the  stones  is  precisely  that  which  I  have  described  in  a 
previous  report  as  belonging  to  early  Christian  work.  One  of  the  stones 
in  the  great  apse  is  8  feet  long,  the  average  is  from  2  to  5  feet.  None  of 
the  stones  are  drafted.     The  height  of  the  courses  is  18  inches. 

The  Crusading  parts  of  the  work  consist  of  smaller  masonry,  and  the 
diagonal  chiselling  is  visible  upon  the  pier  stones. 

The  Caves.- — The  question  of  the  date  of  the  great  caverns  here  and  at 

Deir  Dubban  is  interesting  and  puzzling.     At  Beit  Jibrin  every  cave  or 

system  of  caves  has  a  name,  but  these  seem  to  be  modern  and  trivial, 

unless  any  importance  is  attached  to  the  title  'Arak  el  Finsh,  or  the 

Phoenician  Cavern.     The  principal  are  'Arak  el  Kheil,  Abu  Mizbeleh,  El 

Moia,  Heleil,  Esalmi,  El  Mokat'a,    El  Finsh,   Sandahannah,  Sherraf, 

Sobek,  and  Eerhud,  with  'Arak  Hala  some  little  way  west  of  our  camp. 

In  all  of  these  the  same  disjposition  is  visible — rounded  chambers  with 

domed  roofs,  from  20  to  50  feet  diameter,  communicate  with  one  another ; 

detached  pillars  support  the  roof  in  places  ;  the  height  is  30  or  40  feet ; 

and  a  thin  crust  only  of  the  hard  rock,  pierced  with  a  round  well-hole, 

exists  above.     The  walls  are  sometimes  very  rough,  sometimes  coarsely 

but  regularly  dressed  with  a  pick  diagonally.     In  two  places  springs 

exist  within  the  cave.     In  many  of  them  crosses  of  various  character  are 

cut  on  the  walls,  sometimes  15  to  20  feet  from  the  ground.     In  one  cave 

is  a  rude  drawing  deeply  cut,  and   10  to  12  feet  from  the  ground.     It  is 

so  curious  that  I  enclose  a  sketch.     Many  of  these  rounded  caves  have 

the  appearance  of  chapels,  and  have  apses  facing  east.     It  is  possible, 

therefore,  that  this  may  be  a  rude,   unfinished  representation  of  the 

Crucifixion,  dating  from  early  Christian  times.     In  all  the  caves  where 

crosses  occur  there  are  also  Cufic  inscriptions,  generally  at  a  low  level, 

within  reach,  and  consisting  of  short  religious  ejaculations — Ya  Allah, 

Ya  Mohammed,  or    "There  is  no  God  but  God;    Mohammed  is  the 

Messenger  of  God."     There  is,  however,  one  very  long  and  important 

one,  which  Dr.  Eobinson  did  not  (as  he  afterwards  regretted)  find  time 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDEr's  REPORTS.  143 

to  copy.  I  send  a  sketch,  for  it  requires  a  very  considerable  scaffold  to 
approacli  it  for  a  squeeze.  It  contains  the  name  of  Saladiu,  who  took 
Beit  Jibrin  in  about  1187  a.d. 

There  is  one,  however,  of  these  Anils  which  deserves  special  notice. 
It  was  visited  by  Eobinson,  and  has  the  peculiarity  of  a  chamber  50  feet 
long  by  18  feet  wide,  with  a  well-cut  barrel  vault  for  the  roof,  beneath 
which  on  either  side  runs  a  band  of  tracery  in  low  relief,  2  feet  wide. 
The  pattern,  which  is  decidedly  mediceval,  differs  on  the  two  walls.  I 
copied  it  carefuUj',  and  send  a  specimen.  "We  also  planned  the  whole 
of  this  system  of  caves,  and  found  some  dog-tooth  moulding  cut  on  one 
of  the  doors,  which  resembles  the  window  photographed  in  the  Muristan 
by  Lieutenant  Kitchener.  There  is  also  a  niche,  with  what  seems  to  bo 
a  figure,  now  much  defaced.  Another  peculiarity  visible  in  many  of  the 
caves  consists  of  long  rows  of  niches,  some  8  to  10  inches  either 
waj^,  placed  round  the  walls.  In  one  case  a  sort  of  buttress  exists,  with 
niches  in  front  and  at  the  sides.  South  of  the  town,  near  Tell  Sanda- 
hannah,  is  a  cavern  which  contains  1,774  of  these  niches.  Lieutenant 
Kitchener  has  taken  a  view  of  it ;  it  is  9G  feet  long  and  7  feet  wide ; 
the  niches,  placed  in  two  tiers,  separated  by  pilasters  into  12  bays ;  each, 
tier  consists  of  five  rows  of  four  in  a  row,  giving  ten  rows  in  a  total  height 
of  about  12  feet.  There  are  also  four  transepts,  about  six  feet  broad 
and  26  feet  long,  three  having  only  an  upper  tier  of  niches,  and  a  broader 
space  below.  The  niches  arc  about  10  inches  either  way.  Two  side 
doors  led  from  the  south  end  of  the  gallery.  The  object  of  the  excava- 
tion is  puzzling  in  the  extreme.  Lieutenant  Kitchener  is  of  opinion  that 
they  are  catacombs,  and  that  skulls  were  placed  in  the  niches,  and 
trophies  of  bones  below.  We  have  seen  similar  niches  in  rock-cuttings 
near  Tanturah,  but  never  before  in  such  numbers.  The  only  other  ex- 
X)lanation  besides  that  above  which  occurs  to  me  is  that  urns  for  ashes 
were  kept  here,  in  which  case  the  cave  would  date  back  to  Eoman  rather 
than  to  Christian  times. 

The  whole  hill  round  Tell  Sandahannah  is  burrowed  with  caves,  but 
these,  again,  are  of  a  different  character.  They  are  not  lighted  from 
without,  and  the  floors  are  reached  by  winding  stairs.  They  consist  of 
circular  domed  chambers,  well  cut,  and  communicating  with  one  another. 
There  is  also  a  great  square  chamber,  supported  on  rude  rock  pillars. 
Of  the  most  perfect  system,  visited  by  Dr.  Eobinson,  we  made  a  plan. 
The  chambers  are  dry,  but  full  of  mud,  and  may  very  possibly  have  been 
intended  for  cisterns.     No  other  use  suggests  itself. 

The  question  of  the  date  of  all  these  excavations  is  difficult.  Through- 
out the  south  of  Palestine,  in  the  soft  limestone  district,  I  have  invari- 
ably found  the  great  caverns  connected  with  Christian  ruins.  Even  in 
the  hard  rocks  of  the  desert  the  fifth  century  hermits  hewed  caves  to  live 
in.  The  niches,  also,  where  we  have  before  met  them,  seem  connected 
with  Christian  sites,  which  renders  the  explanation  given  above,  and 
enlarged  upon  in  a  former  report,  very  probable.  That  the  caves  are 
subsequent  to,  or  -were  at  all  events  very  greatly  enlarged  at,  a  period 


144  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

later  than  that  of  the  Jews  is,  I  think,  proved  by  the  way  in  which 
the  ancient  sepulchres  are  broken  into,  and  appear  cut  in  half  high 
up  in  the  roof  of  the  caverns.  As  shown  above,  the  caves  are  full  of 
Christian  emblems,  and  it  seems  on  the  whole  most  probable  that  they 
are  partly  quarries  (as  is  very  plainly  seen  in  places  where  half-quarried 
stones  remain),  and  partly  used  for  dwellings,  chapels,  or,  perhaps,  as 
now,  for  stables  to  flocks  during  the  earlier  Christian  times.  No  doubt, 
however,  more  than  one  period  should  be  found  in  them,  and  as  Christian 
and  Moslem  succeeded  one  another,  each  may  have  added  something  to  the 
number  and  size  of  the  caves. 

Roman  Camps. — Beit  Jibrin  seems,  at  some  time,  to  have  been  be- 
sieged by  the  Eomans,  if  I  am  correct  in  supposing  that  the  three  great 
tells  which  surround  it  are  the  sites  of  Roman  camps  ;  they  may,  how- 
ever, have  been  constructed  later,  when  the  Crusaders  fortified  the  town. 
They  are  known  as  Tell  Burnat  west.  Tell  Sandahannah  south-east,  and 
Tell  Sedeideh  north-west.  On  each  is  a  square  enclosure,  with  a  foun- 
dation, seemingly  of  a  wall  of  small  stones,  but  some  4  feet  thick. 
The  square  faces  towards  the  cardinal  points,  and  the  length  of  a 
side  is  about  50  yards.  The  positions  chosen  entirely  command  the 
town,  and  the  artificial  character  of  the  top  of  each  tell  is  at  once 
visible  from  a  distance.  An  aqueduct  leads  from  near  Tell  Sedeideh 
to  a  cistern  close  to  camp,  but  this  appears  to  be  of  Saracenic  date. 
It  is  possible  we  may  find  some  clue  to  the  identification  of  Beit  Jibrin 
in  the  history  of  the  places  besieged  by  the  Romans  in  this  part  of 
Palestine. 

Gatli. — Beit  Jibrin  has,  I  believe,  been  identified  by  some  authors 
with  Gath,  but  to  this  there  seem  to  me  to  be  many  objections.  The 
Onomasticon  is  not  always  a  safe  guide,  but  in  this  case  is  almost 
the  only  one  we  have,  and,  to  say  the  least,  it  was  easier  to  find 
an  old  site  in  the  third  century  than  in  the  nineteenth  century.  The 
Onomasticon  defines  Gath  as  being  north  from  Eleutheropolis  (or 
Beit  Jibrin),  on  the  road  to  Lydda,  and  again  visible  to  those  who 
went  from  Eleutheropolis  to  Gaza  (probably  for  Gazara,  or  Gezer,  at 
Tell  Jezer),  at  the  fifth  milestone.  This  is  a  fatal  objection,  at  least 
to  the  Gath  uf  Easebius  being  at  Beit  Jibrin  ;  in  addition  to  which 
Gath  was  in  the  country  of  the  Philistines — the  plain  I'ather  than 
the  Shephalah — it  was  a  strong  site,  and  fortified  by  Eehoboam,  not 
as  is  Beit  Jibrin,  a  position  naturally  weak.  Josephus  mentions  the 
"Borders  of  Gath  "  in  connection  with  Ekron.  Gaza  to  Gath  he  again 
gives,  apparently  as  defining  the  whole  extent  of  the  southern  plain 
taken  by  Joshua. 

In  the  flight  of  the  Philistines  down  the  Yalley  of  Elah,  they 
were  smitten  to  Sha'araim  and  Gath.  None  of  these  indications, 
slight  though  they  are,  fit  with  Beit  Jibrin,  but  they  all  fit  well  with 
the  other  proposed  site  at  Tell  el  Silfieh,  the  sti'ong  fortress  of  Blanche 
Garde  or  Alba  Specula.  The  most  conclusive  passage  in  Josephus 
Day  be  added  (Ant.  v.  1.  22),  where  he  defines  the  limit  of  the  tribe 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS.  145 

of  Dan—"  Also  tliey  had  all  Jamnia  and  Gatli,  from  Ekron  to  that 
mountain  where  the  tribe  of  Judah  begins,"  a  definition  which  places 
Gath  very  far  north,  and  at  all  events  not  farther  south  than  Tell  el 
Siifieh. 

In  one  passage  Josephns  substitutes  Ipan  (Ant.  viii.  10.  1),  where 
Gath  occurs  in  the  Old  Testament  (2  Chron.  xi.  8),  but  this  does  not 
appear  to  assist  the  identification  much.  Gath  seems  to  have  been 
one  of  the  principal  Philistine  strongholds,  and  as  such  its  position 
must  have  been  important.  It  is,  however,  curiously  omitted  in 
the  topographical  lists,  as  is  also  Ascalon,  another  Philistine  city — 
probably  because  neither  was  taken  during  Joshua's  campaign  in  the 
plains. 

The  magnificent  natural  site  of  Tell  el  Safieh,  standing  above  the  broad 
valley,  which  seems  undoubtedly  the  Yalley  of  Elah,  and  presenting 
on  the  north  and  west  a  white  precipice  of  many  hundred  feet,  must 
have  made  this  place  one  of  importance  in  all  ages.  In  its  mounds, 
excavation  might  be  productive  of  good  results,  bat  even  of  the  fortress 
of  Blanche  Garde  no  trace  seems  to  remain  beyond  the  scarped  side 
of  the  rock  upon  the  east,  evidently  artificial.  There  are  many  large 
caves  in  the  northern  precipice,  and  excavations,  where  grain  is  now 
kept.  The  village  at  the  top  is  a  collection  of  miserable  mud  huts,  in- 
habited by  insolent  peasantry,  one  of  whom  I  had  the  satisfaction  of 
sending  bound  to  Hebron  for  threatening  me  with  a  stone. 

The  isolated  position  of  this  site  would  fully  account  for  its  being 
held  (as  the  Jebusites  held  Jerusalem)  by  the  original  native  popula- 
tion, never  expelled  by  Joshua,  whilst  the  plains  round  it  were  in  the 
hands  of  the  Jews,  and  from  this  outpost  there  Avas  an  easy  passage 
up  one  of  the  great  high  roads  to  the  hills— the  Yalley  of  Elah  in  which 
Samson  and  Samuel,  and  probably  also  David,  in  turn,  so  repeatedly 
encotmtered  the  Philistine  invaders. 

AduUam, — The  site  of,  perhaps,  primary  interest  in  our  work  from 
this  camp  is  that  of  the  royal  city  of  AduUam,  with  the  cave  or  hold 
so  famous  in  the  history  of  David,  in  the  identification  of  which  I  am 
happy  to  say  our  work  entirely  confirms  the  previous  discovery  due  to 
M.  Ganneau.  The  traditional  site  of  Adtillam  is  east  of  Bethlehem  in 
Wady  Klmreitun— an  extraordinary  cavern  with  long  winding  pas- 
sages. The  jreneral  identification  of  later  times  has,  however,  been 
with  Deir  Dubban,  "  The  Convent  of  Flies,"  apparently  because  no  name 
which  approached  more  closely  in  the  district  in  which  Adullam  was 
known  to  lie  could  be  found,  and  because  a  cavern  similar  to  those  just 
described,  is  here  to  be  found  on  the  west  side  of  the  village.  In  a 
report  from  Beit  'Atab  {Qaarterlij  Statement,  January,  1875,  p.  19)  I 
described  the  cavern  of  Umm  el  Tttweimin  tinder  the  impression  that 
this  was  the  spot  M.  Ganneau  had  supposed  identical  with  Adullam, 
but  this  mistake  he  afterwards  pointed  out  to  me  and  gave  me  indica- 
tions of  the  whereabouts  of  the  trtie  site. 

There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  the  cave  of  Adullam  was  a  site 


146  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

separate  from  tlie  royal  city  of  that  name.  Joseplms  says  tliat  David, 
escaping  from  Gath,  "  came  to  the  tribe  of  Judah,  and  abode  in  a  cave 
by  the  city  of  Adullam"  (Ant.  vi.  12.  3).  Theuce  he  sent  to  his 
family  in  Bethlehem,  and  here  he  first  collected  to  him  "every  one  that 
was  in  distress,  and  every  one  that  was  in  debt,  and  every  one  that  was 
discontented"  (1  Sam.  xxii.  2). 

Tiie  site  of  the  city  itself  appears  to  be  very  ancient.  The  patriarch 
Judah  is  mentioned  as  going  clown  (from  the  hill  country  it  would 
seem  to  the  Shephalah)  to  visit  his  friend  Hirah  the  AduUamite.  It 
api^ears  in  the  list  of  royal  cities  taken  by  Joshua  (Joshua  sii.  15), 
between  Libnah  and  Makkedah.  It  is  again  mentioned  (Joshua  xv. 
35)  in  the  list  of  fourteen  cities  of  the  Shephalah,  and  its  name  here 
appears  between  those  of  Jarmuth  (Tarmuk)  and  the  northern  Socoh 
(Shuweikeh\  That  it  was  a  site  of  natural  strength  we  infer  from  the 
expression  "  the  hold,"  which  is  used  in  reference  to  David's  retreat, 
in  or  close  to  it  (1  Sam.  xxii.  5),  and  also  from  its  being  fortified  by 
Rehoboam  (2  Ohron.  xi.  7),  as  mentioned  in  the  list  of  his  fortresses, 
the  name  occurring  between  Socoh  and  Gath.  In  this  list,  however,  the 
order  of  occurence  throughout  seems  of  little  value.  A  further  indica- 
tion of  position  occurs  in  the  notice  in  Micah  i.  15,  where  it  is  named 
with  Achzib  and  Mareshah.  The  requisites  for  the  site  of  Adullam  are 
therefore  as  follows  : — 

1st.    That  it  be  in  the  Sliephalah  or  low  hills. 

2nd.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Jarmuth  and  Socoh. 

3rd.   At  no  great  distance  from  the  district  of  Mareshah  and  the 

northern  towns  of  the  Libnah  district. 
4th.  Probably  between  Gath  and  Bethlehem.    ^ 
5th.  That  it  be  a  strong  natural  site. 

6th.  That  it  be  an   ancient   site   of  importance  with  rock-cut 
tombs,  good  water  supply,  ancient  and  main  roads  and 
communications  from  ditferent  sides. 
7th.  That  it  contain  one  or  more  habitable  caves. 
8th.  That  the  modern  name  contain  the  important  letters  of  the 
Hebrew,  especially  the  'Ain. 
The  fact  that  this  town  whilst  in   one   district  is  yet  mentioned  in 
connection  with  the  northern  tosvns  of  the  district  immediately  soirth 
of  it,  is  in  itself  a  very  important  indication,  and  would  fix  Adullam 
as  tov.-ards  the  south  part  of  the  district  to  which  it  belongs. 

The  requirements  are,  it  will  be  seen,  fully  met  in  every  particular 
by  the  site  I  am  about  to  describe.  Upon  Murray's  new  map  it  will  be 
seen  that  a  great  valley  separates  the  Shephalah  from  the  high  hills, 
and  runs  first  north-west,  then  north,  from  the  watershed  near  Hebron 
to  the  neighbourhood  of  Socoh  or  Shuweikeh  ;  it  then  turns  west  and 
runs  near  Tell  el  Safieh,  and  so  into  the  sea,  north  of  Ashdod.  The  first 
part  to  Socoh  is  called  Wady  Sur,  afterwards  it  becomes  Wady  Sumt, 
the  probable  Valley  of  Elah. 

On  its  eastern   brink,  about  five  miles  south  of  Socoh,  is  the  hill 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS.  147 

of  Keilali,  above  wliicli,  in  tlie  high  hills,  stands  Klmrds,  which  I  have 
proposed  to  identify  with  Hareth.  West  of  Socoh  are  the  scenes  of 
other  battles  with  the  Philistines,  and  a  visit  to  the  spot  explains  their 
choice  of  this  part  of  the  counti-y  for  raids.  The  broad  valley  is,  in  the 
greater  part  of  its  course,  over  a  mile  across,  and  the  rich  arable  ground, 
watered  by  a  small  brook  from  springs  farther  up,  presented,  when  we 
visited  it,  a  long  vista  of  green  cornfields  and  brown  furrows,  now 
ploughed  by  fellahin,  who  come  down  from  Surif,  from  S'air,  and  from 
other  villages  in  the  hills.  Thus  from  their  stronghold  of  Gath  (if 
Tell  es  Safieh  be  Gath),  on  the  side  of  the  valley,  at  the  edge  of  the 
XDlain,  the  Philistines  had  a  broad  highway  leading  through  the  richest 
corn  laud  of  Judah  on  the  one  hand,  east  even  to  Jerusalem,  and  on 
the  south  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Keilah.  Thus  we  see  how  important 
it  was  to  hold  the  entrance  to  this  rich  but  ill-protected  countrj^  and 
the  occiirrence  of  contests  between  Socoh  and  Gath  is  explained,  whilst, 
on  the  other  hand,  we  understand  how  the  invaders  came  to  penetrate 
to  the  apparently  remote  village  of  Keilah,  where  they  robbed  the 
threshing-floors  (1  Sam.  xxiii.  1),  although  it  is  on  the  west,  separated 
from  Philistia  by  the  entire  breadth  of  the  rocky  hills  of  the  Shephalah. 

Upon  the  western  slope  of  this  valley,  north-east  of  the  village  of 
Umm  Burj,  and  about  half  way  from  Keilah  to  Socoh,  there  will  be 
found  on  Murray's  map  (1874)  a  Kubbeh,  or  Saint  house,  called  Wely 
Mudkor.  It  is  here  that  we  place  Mullam.  The  Kubbeh  stands  on 
the  north  edge  of  a  range  which  rises  some  500  feet  above  the  broad 
valley.  The  sides  of  the  hill  are  steep,  and  cut  into  terraces.  The 
Kubbeh  is  surrounded  by  heaps  of  stones  and  ruins  of  indeterminate 
date,  but  there  is  no  dou.bt  of  the  antiquity  of  the  site.  Wherever  the 
rock  appears  it  is  cut  and  quarried,  and  on  the  west  I  observed  the 
entrance  of  a  tomb,  now  closed  up. 

A  tributary  valley  runs  into  Wady  Sur  on  the  north,  and  on  the 
south  a  narrow  neck  of  land,  somewhat  lower  than  the  raised  citadel 
near  the  Kubbeh,  connects  the  site  of  the  city  with  the  remainder  of 
the  ridge.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  site  is  one  of  considerable 
natural  strength. 

In  the  valley  beneath  are  two  weUs,  one  of  great  antiquity,  circular, 
about  8  to  10  feet  diameter,  and  provided  with  twenty-four  stone 
troughs  similar  to  those  at  Beersheba,  but  roughly  shaped  and  oval, 
or  quadrangular,  instead  of  round.  At  the  junction  of  the  branch  with 
the  main  valley  stands  a  great  tree  known  as  Butmeh  Wady  Sur  (the 
Terebinth  of  Wady  Sur).  In  this,  and  in  the  name  Deir  el  Butm 
(Convent  of  the  Terebinth),  applied  to  a  ruin  near  Tell  el  Safieh,  we 
have  the  last  traces  of  Emek-Elah,  "the  Yalley  of  the  Terebinth." 
The  tree  is  conspicuous  for  a  long  distance,  and  is  one  of  the  largest  in 
Palestine.  There  are  also  several  smaller  Terebinths  along  the  course 
of  Wady  Sur. 

Next  in  importance  comes  the  question  of  roads.  A  main  line  of 
communication  from  Hebron  to  the  plain  passes  along  Wady  Sur  by 


148  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

this  site.  An  ancient  road,  witli  stone  side  walls,  is  traceable  towards 
Umm  Biirj,  but  is  not,  as  shown  on  the  map,  the  Roman  road  from 
Eleutheropolis  to  Jerusalem.  Lastly,  an  important  road  leads  up  to 
Surif  and  Bethlehem,  and  thus  on  the  east,  west,  north,  and  south,  with 
Bethlehem,  Beit  Jibrin,  Tell  el  Safieh,  and  Hebron,  there  are  ancient 
and  main  lines  of  communication. 

Conditions  numbers  one,  four,  five,  and  sis,  are  therefore  satisfied, 
but  the  others  are  more  important. 

As  regards  the  district,  this  site  is  about  three  miles  south-east  of 
Socoh,  and  rather  farther  south  of  Jarmuth,  which,  in  the  order  of  the 
list,  is  its  natural  position.  As  relates  to  the  cities  of  the  Libnab  dis- 
trict, it  it  about  three  miles  from  Keilah,  and  eight  from  Mareshah, 
being,  indeed,  just  on  the  border  between  the  two  districts. 

We  turn,  then,  with  interest  to  the  two  last  questions — the  Cave,  and 
the  name. 

There  is  no  great  cavern  at  the  ruin  in  question,  no  such  lofty 
chambers  as  at  Beit  Jibrin ;  no  halls  with  stalactitic  columns,  as  at 
Umm  el  Tuweimin ;  no  winding  galleries,  as  at  Khureitun.  This  is 
precisely  why  the  site  seems  most  probable.  Such  cavei'ns  are  at  the 
present  day  carefully  avoided  by  the  troglodytic  peasantry.  The 
dampness,  and  the  feverish  character  of  the  atmosphere,  the  size 
requiring  many  lights,  the  presence  in  the  darkness  of  scorjpions 
and  bats,  seem  to  prevent  the  large  caves  from  being  ever  used  as 
habitations.  The  caves  which  are  so  used  ai'e  much  smaller,  being 
about  the  area  of  an  ordinary  cottage,  some  twenty  to  thirty  paces 
across,  lighted  by  the  sun  without,  and  more  or  less  dry  within.  Wliere- 
ever  they  occur  the  roofs  will  be  found  black  with  smoke,  and  large 
families  are  lodged  in  some,  while  troops  of  goats,  cattle,  and  sheep 
are  stabled  in  others,  the  smaller  being  reserved  to  store  grain  and 
straw. 

It  is  in  caves  of  this  kind  that  our  site  a,bounds.  Round  one  upon 
the  western  slope  hundreds  of  goats  were  collected.  Two  moderate 
caverns  exist  on  the  northern  brow  of  the  hill,  and  another  farther 
sou-tb.  On  the  opposite  slopes  of  the  branch  valley  a  regular  line  of 
excavations,  all  smoke-blackened,  and  mostly  inhabited,  extends  for 
some  distance.  There  is  therefore  plenty  of  accommodation  for  the 
band  of  outlaws  who  surrounded  David  at  AduUam. 

Finally,  as  to  the  name.  The  ancient  site  is  called,  according  to  the 
correct  orthography,  Khirbet  el  Sheikh  Mudhkur,  "  The  ruin  of  the 
famous  Sheikh."  As  such  we  fixed  its  position  with  the  theodolite  in  the 
autumn  of  1873.  There  are,  however,  low  down  in  the  branch  valley, 
some  heajjs  of  stones  and  ruined  wails  to  which  the  traces  of  the  ancient 
name  seem  to  cling.  We  heard  it  from  eight  or  ten  people,  and  even 
from  Beit  Jibrin  the  situation  with  regard  to  Sheikh  Madhkur  was 
described  to  me  correctly.  It  is  pronounced  'Aid  el  Mieh,  which  means 
in  Arabic,  "  Feast  of  the  hundred,"  and  a  confused  tradition  of  some 
feast  held  on  the  spot  seems  attached  to  it.     The  name  contains  all  the 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  COXDER's  REPORTS.  149 

letters  of  the  word  Adnllam  (Elebrew,  A,  D,  L,  M),  and  contains  none 
otlier  of  vital  imiiortance.  The  change,  therefore,  to  a  title  having  a 
distinct  meaning,  may  be  regardei  as  only  another  instance  of  a  well- 
known  law  of  identification. 

If  this  identification,  proposed  by  M.  Gannean,  and,  as  shown  above, 
so  accordant  with  the  requisites  of  the  case,  be  admitted,  new  light  will 
be  found  to  have  been  thrown  on  the  life  of  David.  The  whole  topo- 
graphy assumes  a  consistency  which  traditional  sites  have  desti'oyed. 
From  Gibeah  (Jeba  near  Mukhmas)  David  flies  southward  to  Nob, 
thence  down  the  great  valley  to  Gath  (Tell  el  Safieh),  from  Gath  he  returns 
into  the  land  of  Judah,  then  bounded  by  the  Shephalah,  most  of  which 
seems  to  have  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Philistines  ;  and  on  the  edge  of 
the  country  between  Achish  and  Saul,  Philistia  and  Judah,  he  collects 
his  band  into  the  strongest  site  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  rich  corn  lands  of  Judah.  At  the  advice  of  the  seer  he  retires  to 
the  hills,  and  if  my  identification  of  Hareth  be  correct  it  is  but  a  march 
of  four  miles  distance.  Here,  as  at  Adullam,  he  was  also  within  easy 
reach  of  his  family  at  Bethlehem.  At  Kharas  he  hears  that  the 
Philistines,  whose  advance  he  probably  barred  when  holding  Adullam, 
had  invaded  Keilah  immediately  beneath  him,  and,  as  in  a  former  paper 
I  fully  explained,  it  is  this  propinquity  alone  which  accounts  for  his 
attack  upon  the  marauders. 

Keilah. — In  returning  to  camp  we  passed  close  to  Keilah,  having  fol- 
lowed the  brook  up  Wady  Sur  through  a  broad  green  valley  of  rich  soil 
with  low  scrub-covered  hills  on  the  west,  and  a  fine  view  of  the  contorted 
strata  and  dee^^  gorges  of  the  high  watershed  range  on  the  east.  I 
have  been  asked  to  describe  this  site.  It  is  a  hill  with  steep' sides 
terraced  and  covered  with  corn,  but  quite  devoid  of  trees.  The  terrac- 
ing, which  must  have  been  a  work  of  immense  labour,  and  which, 
whilst  strengthening  the  site  enlarges  the  arable  area  on  the  hill  side, 
is  in  itself  a  mark  of  the  a,ntiquity  of  the  site ;  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  is 
a  well  called  Bir  el  Kos  (Well  of  the  Arch),  from  a  sort  of  conduit  or 
arches  leading  to  a  cistern  beside  the  well  (as  well  as  could  be  judged 
from  the  distance).  Lower  down  the  valley  is  another  ancient  well,  Bir 
el  Su-weid,  with  stone  drinking  troughs  as  at  Adullam.  Tiiere  are 
rock-cut  tombs  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  and  remains  of  a  miserable 
ruined  village  at  the  top.  The  wady  is  here  narrower,  and  the  ruin 
hidden  in  its  folds  stands  above  corn-fields  in  a  very  strong  situation, 
fully  explaining  how  a  town  of  importance  "  that  hath  gates  and  bars  " 
(1  Sam.  xxiii.  7)  came  to  be  placed  here. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener  took  two  very  successful  photographs  of 
Adullam.  In  both  the  great  Terebinth  appears  in  the  foreground.  The 
first  shows  the  ancient;  site,  the  Kubbet  el  Sheikh  Mudhkur  and  its 
ruins,  the  cave  on  the  hill-top  and  the  broad  corn-fields  of  the  valley. 
The  second  has  in  the  foreground  the  remains  of  a  small  aqueduct 
which  leads  from  the  well  and  appears  to  have  been  used  for  irrigation. 
In  this  plot  the  well  is  shown,  and  the  ruins  to  which  the  name  'Aid  el 
Mieh  applies,  as  also  the  caves  on  the  opposite  hill. 


150  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

Lihna. — One  of  tlie  great  unsettled  questions  of  the  southern  plains  is 
the  site  of  Libnah.  The  indications  of  its  position  are  few  and  vague, 
especially  so  -when  it  is  remembered  that  out  of  the  cities  of  which  it 
was  the  capital,  only  three  had  been  identified  before  the  present 
time. 

The  notices  of  Libnah  are  as  follows.  It  was  taken  by  Joshua  before 
Lachish  and  after  Makkedah,  and  from  the  regularity  of  the  order 
in  which  these  sieges  occur  it  may  be  considered  as  between  the  two 
(Josh.  X.  29).  In  the  topographical  list  of  its  district  it  is  mentioned 
first,  followed  by  Ether,  Mareshah  being  the  last  name  in  the  list  (Josh. 
XV.  42).  It  was  a  city  of  the  priests,  and  as  such  we  should  expect 
from  the  examination  of  other  Levitical  sites  that  it  was  in  a  pleasant 
situation  and  had  natural  advantages  to  recommend  it  (Josh.  xxi.  13). 
It  is  principally  famous  as  having  been  besieged  by  Sennacherib  in  his 
advance  from  Lachish  (Umm-Lakis)  on  Jerusalem  (2  Kings  xix.  8),  and 
it  was  here  apparently  that  the  destruction  of  the  Assyrian  army  "took 
place,  when  the  "  angel  of  the  Lord  went  out  and  smote  in  the  camp  of 
the  Assyrians  an  hundred  and  four  score  and  five  thousand." 

By  Josephus  Libnah  is  mentioned  Ant.  ix.  5.  1,  and  Ant.  x.  1.  4, 
but  no  light  is  cast  on  the  subject  of  its  position. 

By  the  Onomasticon  it  is  briefly  noticed  as  a  village  of  the  district  of 
Eleutheropolis. 

In  the  absence  of  any  more  definite  information  we  are  obliged, 
therefore,  to  fall  back  on  the  general  position  of  the  district  and  the 
place  of  occurrence  in  the  list  of  names.  From  its  importance  as  a 
royal  and  Levitical  city  we  should  expect  a  position  marked  by  natural 
advantages  and  remains  showing  the  existence  of  a  considerable  site. 
The  name  signifying  tvliite  leads  us  also  to  place  it  where  white  cliffs  or 
soil  of  a  light  colour,  such  as  is  found  remarkably  in  many  ancient  sites 
of  the  Shephalah,  are  to  be  noticed. 

The  only  exact  clue  as  yet  given  exists  in  the  following  lists  of  identi- 
fications in  the  district,  of  which,  I  believe,  five  are  entirely  new: — 


1. 

Libnali 

Beit  Jibvin 

C.  R.  C. 

2. 

Ether 

Khirbet  'Atr 

C.  E.  C. 

3. 

Ashau 

Khirbet  Hazauali 

C.  E.  C. 

4. 

Jiplitah 

5. 

Asluiah 

Idliuah 

C.  E.  C. 

6. 

Nezib 

Kh.  Beit  Nu-sib 

Eobinson, 

7. 

Keilah 

Khirbet  Kila 

Eobinson, 

8. 

Achzilj 

Kiissah 

C.  R.  C. 

9. 

Mareshah 

Khirbet  Mer'ash 

Eobinson, 

A  few  words  will  show  the  satisfactory  nature  of  these  discoveries. 
Khirbet  'Atr  is  unmistakably  an  old  site,  and  the  name  I  have  care- 
fully verified.  It  is  about  a  mile  north-west  of  Beit  Jibrin,  and  shows 
the  usual  indications  of  antiquity  in  rock-cuttings,  foundations, 
terraces,  and  ruined  cisterns.  The  same  description  ax^plies  to  Ashan 
some  five  miles  south  of  Beit  Jibrin.    Idhnah,  the  same  distance  south- 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    B.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  151 

east,  is  still  inhabited,  and  from  this  point  the  names  run  north  and 
west  in  rcgiilar  succession  till  we  arrive  at  Mareshah,  one  mile  south  of 
Beit  Jibrin.  The  names  occur,  therefore,  in  the  most  direct  succession 
going  south,  east,  north,  and  returning  westward.  The  district  which 
is  so  marked  is  entirely  in  the  Shephalah  or  low  hill  country  south  of 
the  other  Shephalah  district,  of  which  Adullam  and  Jarmuth  were 
capitals. 

The  inference  seems  to  me  irresistible  that  Beit  Jibrin  was  the 
capital,  and  that  its  position  between  Ether  the  second,  and  Mareshah 
the  last  of  the  names,  occurring,  as  I  have  shown,  in  a  sort  of  circle, 
entitles  us  to  consider  it  as  Libnah.  The  site,  still  important  upon  the 
junction  of  several  main  roads,  ha^?,  as  I  have  before  noted,  lost  its 
ancient  name.  We  cannot  identify  it  with  Gath  or  with  ]Makkedah, 
which  were  much  farther  north,  nor  with  any  but  one  of  the  Libnah 
group. 

Situate  in  a  sheltered  and  fruitful  valley  amongst  olive  groves,  and 
(as  witnessed  by  the  presses)  once  surrounded  with  vineyards,  it  might 
well  be  taken  for  a  priestly  city,  for,  as  we  have  remarked,  the.Levites 
generally  had  a  full  share  of  the  fat  of  the  land.  The  great  cliffs  now 
burrowed  with  caves  present  all  round  it  gleaning  patches  of  white 
rock,  and  the  soil  of  its  corn-fields  is  also  white  and  chalky.  This 
peculiarity,  if  marked  in  spring,  must  be  ten  times  more  so  in  the  dry 
summer  and  autumn. 

Beit  Jibrin  is  also  on  the  direct  line  from  Lachish  to  Jerusalem,  that 
which  Sennacherib  would  probably  have  followed,  lying  as  it  does  in 
the  direction  of  the  great  Roman  road  to  Gaza  from  the  capital.  The 
site  is  also  between  Makkedah  (if  placed  near  Ramleh)  and  Lachish, 
though  not  in  a  direct  line.  The  object  of  Joshua's  campaign  was 
evidently,  however,  the  subjugation  of  the  royal  cities,  and  thus  of  the 
districts  of  which  they  were  the  capitals.  Thus  after  the  cajDture  of 
Makkedah  the  next  district  easily  approachable  was  that  of  the  Libnah 
lowlands,  the  southern  plain  coming  next  in  order. 

The  description  of  the  tombs  at  Beit  Jibrin  leaves  no  doubt  of  the 
importance  of  the  spot  in  Jewish  times,  and  although  the  loss  of  the 
name  forbids  any  satisfactory  confirmation  of  the  theory  here  put 
forward,  the  determination  of  the  district  before  so  doubtful  seems  to 
me  sufficient  evidence  of  the  correctness  of  my  conclusion. 

The  modern  village  of  Beit  Jibrin  does  not,  however,  exactly  occupy 
the  ancient  site.  It  lies  on  the  west  slope  of  a  low  rounded  mound  or 
hill  called  El  Mekurkush,  which  is  covered  all  over  its  extent  of 
ploughed  land  with  relics  of  tesselated  pavement,  pottery,  and  other 
indications  of  former  buildings.  Numerous  coins  are  found  on  this  spot, 
of  Crusading,  Byzantine,  Eoman,  and  Greek  periods,  huge  Ptolemies 
of  copper.  The  FeUah'm  tradition  also  points  to  this  having  been  the 
ancient  site,  for  the  name  Bab  el  Mediueh  ("  gate  of  the  city ")  is 
applied  to  a  place  on  the  east  side  of  the  mound,  where,  however, 
nothing  remains  to  account  for  the  title. 


152  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    B.    CONDER's    RErOKTS. 

Another  curious  name  is  applied  to  traces  of  former  cultivation — an 
aqueduct  witli  seven  cisterns  of  good  masonry  (evidently  for  irrigation, 
as  seen  in  various  parts  of  the  plain),  with  ruined  enclosures  of  large 
stones,  rock-cut  wine- presses  and  an  oil-press  stone,  which  are  to  be 
found  west  of  the  village.  This  piece  of  ground  is  called  Bustan  d 
Finsli.  If  Finsh  means,  as  usually  interpreted,  Fhivnician,  we  have  here 
"  the  Phoenician  garden,"  but  the  fellahin  say  that  Ei  Finsh  was  a 
Christian  king  of  Beit  Jibrin,  in  which  case  the  name  is  more  likely  a 
corruption  of  Alphonse.  This  supposition  is  strengthened  by  the  same 
name  being  applied  to  the  Crusading  tower  at  Keratiyoh  which  is  called 
Kal'at  el  Finsh. 

Mej'del,  April  2. — Beit  Jibrin  has  proved  the  most  valuable  camp  we 
have  yet  completed  ;  424  names  were  collected,  and  180  square  miles 
surveyed.  The  majority  of  ruins  are  early  Chrii^tian,  and  in  the  low 
hills  they  average  three  ruins  to  every  two  square  miles. 


XXXIY. 

ASCALON,   ASHDOD. 

Gaza,  Ain-il  20th,  1875. 

Since  last  report  another  large  piece  of  country  has  been  laid  in  on 
the  maritime  plain.  The  original  and  better  plan  of  the  campaign 
would  have  taken  iis  south  from  Beit  Jibrin,  but  as  the  Arabs  were  all 
quarrelling,  and  serious  fights  had  just  occurred,  it  seemed  best  to 
remain  still  in  the  fellahin  country,  and  to  enter  the  Arab  district 
from  Gaza  when  they  had  had  time  to  cool  down  a  little. 

We  therefore  camped  at  Mejdel,  some  twenty  miles  west  of  Beit 
Jibrin,  and  thence  we  have  visited  Ascalon,  Ashdod,  Lachish,  and 
Eglon,  making  a  special  survey  of  the  first  to  the  scale  of  12  inches  to 
the  mile.  "We  have  connected  Gaza  with  Ramleh  and  Tell  Jezer  by 
triangulation,  and  obtained  some  very  fine  lines  across  the  country  and 
down  the  sea  coast.  Our  next  two  camps  will  give  us  over  1,000  square 
miles  completed  since  leaving  Jerusalem,  and  thus  our  work  in  about 
two  and  a  half  months  will  be  equal  to  the  total  amount  surveyed  in 
1874. 

Ascalon. — The  site  of  primary  interest  in  this  area  is  the  great  English 
fortress  of  King  Richard,  on  the  border  of  the  sea,  and  we  spent  in  all 
five  days  here  surveying,  exploring,  and  photographing.  I  turned 
special  attention  to  the  questions  concerning  Ascalon  raised  by  Trof. 
Pusey,  and  I  believe  the  correct  solution  to  be  as  follows  : — 

In  the  January  number  of  the  Quarterly  Statement  for  1874  subscribers 
will  remember  a  letter  from  Prof.  Pusey,  to  which  my  attention  was 
specially  called  by  the  Committee,  in  which  the  identity  of  the  Ascalon 
of  Herod  and  of  the  Crusades  with  the  Ashkelon  of  Scripture  is  disputed. 
The  arguments  in  favour  of  this  view  are  both  drawn  from  mediaeval 


LIEUT.    CL.VUDE    R.    CONDER  S    REPORTS. 

sources,  tlie  first  being  the  fact  that  in  536  a.d.  a  synodical  letter  was 
signed  both  by  the  Bishop  of  Ashkelou  and  by  the  Bishop  of  Maiumas 
Ascalon,  from  which  it  is  evident  that  the  two  were  distinct  towns;  the 
second  passage  is  to  be  found  in  Benjamin  of  Tudela,  who  distinctly 
states  that  there  was  another  Ascalon  four  parasangs  from  tlie  sea-side 
town,  and  traditionally  the  more  ancient,  the  Ascalon  of  his  time  having 
been  built,  he  informes  us,  by  Ezra.  This  other  Ascalon  was  at  that 
time  (1163  A.D.)  in  ruins.  The  value  of  the  traditional  information  here 
given  is,  however,  very  slight,  as  Bejamin  of  Tudela  gives  identifications 
•of  the  most  extraordinary  character  throughout  his  narrative.  The 
passage  is  of  value  as  corroborating  the  former  in  the  statement  that 
there  were  two  Ascalons,  but  the  distance  cannot  be  relied  on ;  for 
whilst  the  distances  of  places  through,  which  Eabbi  Benjamin  passed  are 
generally  pretty  correct,  those  of  places  he  did  not  visit  are  often  very 
anuch  in  error.  The  distances  from  Ashkelon  to  Ashdod  he  makes  two 
parasangs,  which  would  give  five  miles  for  the  parasaiig,  and  twenty 
miles  as  the  distance  between  the  two  Ascalons. 

It  appears,  then,  that  as  far  as  positive  evidence  goes,  the  argument 
•only  tends  to  show  that  there  were  two  mediseval  Ascalons.  Which  of 
these  was  the  Ashkelon  of  Herod  or  of  Scripture  is  a  separate  question. 
The  mediseval  Ascalons  both  exist  still,  as  we  have  been  the  first,  I 
believe,  to  discover. 

We  were  considerably  surprised  to  find,  when  working  north  of  Beit 
Jibrin,  that  an  Ascalon  (Khirbet  'Askalon)  existed  in  the  hills  near 
Tell  Za  Kariyeh.  At  first  I  thought  a  false  name  had  been  purposely 
given  us,  but  as  I  obtained  it  twice  myself,  and  Corporal  Brophy  three 
times,  from  different  witnesses,  there  is  no  doubt  that  it  is  a  well-known 
site.  The  termination  of  the  word  differs  from  the  name  of  the  sea- 
side town,  which  is  pronounced  ^Askaldn.  The  site  shows  remains  of 
an  early  Christian  church,  or  convent,  and  a  great  lintel  of  stone,  with 
a  deeply-cut  cross  in  the  centre,  resembling  somewhat  the  Maltese 
Cross,  lies  on  the  ground.  Such  lintels  are  to  be  found  in  all  that  class 
of  ruins  which  date  from  about  the  fifth  to  the  seventh  century.  The 
distance  from  the  shore  is  about  twenty-three  miles,  which  would  agree 
with  the  four  parasangs  as  deduced  from  the  distance  to  Ashdod,  but  I 
am  not  able  to  find  the  length  of  the  parasang  given  in  any  book  we 
have  here. 

Thus  we  have  a  simple  explanation  of  the  two  mediaeval  quotations. 
'Askalon  we  should  judge  to  have  been  an  inhabited  site  in  the  sixth 
century,  but  in  all  probability  fallen  into  ruins  by  the  twelfth. 

We  may  now  turn  to  the  question  of  the  ancient  site  of  Askelon. 
That  it  should  be  placed  at  the  Christian  ruin  in  the  hills  is  of  course 
impossible;  and  our  information,  though  very  slight,  and  restricted  to 
one  passage  in  the  Bible,  and  one  in  Josephus,  seems  to  me,  neverthe- 
less, to  point  to  the  Philistine  Ashkelon  being  identical  with  the 
media3val  Ascalon.  The  only  passage  in  the  Bible  of  topc-graphical 
value  as  concerns  Ashkelon  is  that  in  Jeremiah  xlvii.  7,  where  the 

M 


154  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    V..    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

prophet  speaks  of  "Aslikelon  and  tlie  sea-coast,"  leading  one  to  sup- 
pose that  the  mediajval  Ascalon,  or  Maiumas  Ascalon  (Ascalon  by  the 
sea),  is  intended.  In  the  absence  of  any  contradictory  statement  it 
seems  to  me  also  safe  to  assume  that  the  Ascalon  of  the  later  Jewisb 
times  was  that  beantified  by  Herod  ;  and  it  can  be  proved,  I  think,  that 
Herod's  Ascalon  was  both  that  of  the  Bible  and  that  of  the  Crusaders, 
for,  in  the  first  place,  Josephus  distinctly  states  that  the  Ascalon  where 
the  Jews  attacked  Antonius  (Bk.  iii.  ii.  1)  was  "  an  ancient  city  that  is 
distant  from  Jerusalem  five  hundred  and  twenty  furlongs."  This  Avould 
be  about  sixty-five  Roman  miles.  The  present  Ascalon  is  only  about 
fifty  Eoman  miles  by  road  from  Jerusalem,  so  that  it  cannot  well  be 
taken  to  mean  any  inland  town.  In  the  second  place,  the  Ascalon  of 
Herod  and  Richard  arc  probably  the  same,  for  v^^e  learn  that  "  for  those 
of  Ascalon  he  bailfc  baths  and  costly  fountains,  as  also  cloisters  round 
a  court,  that  were  admirable  both  for  their  workmanship  and  largeness," 
BJ.  I.  xxi.  11.  In  the  Itinerary  of  Richard  I.  we  find  it  mentioned  that 
the  builders  erected  their  towers  ripon  ancient  foundations,  and  we 
find  that  all  along  its  huge  walls  great  columns  of  syenite,  15  to  20 
feet  long  and  o  feet  diameter,  have  been  built  into  the  masonry  as 
through-bonds.  Such  was  indeed  the  constant  practice  of  the 
Crusaders  in  any  place  where  ancient  pillars  were  to  be  found,  but  iii 
such  sites  as  'Athlit  they  do  not  occur ;  and  as  the  syenite  must  have 
been  brought  by  sea  from  Egypt,  we  cannot  suppose  the  Crusaders  ta 
liave  first  brought  these  pillars  to  Ascalon,  but  must  regard  them  as 
the  remains  of  Herod's  cloisters  utilised  by  those  practical  masons 
to  whose  indifference  to  archaeology  we  owe  the  loss  of  many  an  interest- 
ing ruonument. 

The  outcome  of  this  inquiry  is,  therefore,  that  the  Aslikelon  of  the 
Bible,  and  of  Ilerod,  and  of  the  Crusaders,  are  all  one  town  on  the  sea- 
shore, distinguished  from  another  early  Christian  inland  Ascalon  by 
the  title  Ascalon  Maiumas. 

This  title  may,  I  believe,  be  best  rendered  by  our  English  "  watering- 
place,"  and  like  it  does  not  apparently  apply  to  a  port  or  harbour  only^, 
for  the  fine  springs  north  of  Ciesarea,  with  remains  of  a  teuiple  and 
theatre,  and  of  a  great  aqueduct  to  the  city,  still  retain  the  name  of 
Miamas,  which  is  no  doubt  the  representative  of  an  ancient  Maiumas, 
or  place  of  toutcr. 

Ascalon  not  only  has  not,  but  it  may  be  safely  said  never  could  have 
had  a  real  port.  A  straight  coast-line  of  cliffs,  from  20  to  70  feet  high, 
exists  on  its  sea  side,  and  a  strong  sea  wall  was  built  by  the  Crusaders 
against  these.  The  port  destroyed  by  Sultan  Blbars  must  have  been  an 
artificial  Crusading  harbour,  of  which  there  ai-e  still  remains,  for  a 
jetty  of  pillars  placed  side  by  side,  as  at  Csesarea,  seems  to  have  run  out 
beneath  the  sea-gate  on  the  south,  a  few  of  those  nearest  the  shore  still 
remaining  in  place.  That  it  possessed  no  natural  harbour  in  the  middle 
ages  is  evident  from  the  following  passage,  which  I  quote  at  length,  as 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  155 

clearly  sliowing  ttat  the  Maiumas  Ascalon  of  Christian  times  could  not 
have  applied  to  any  properly  so  called  port. 

"  The  city  of  Ascalon  lies  on  the  coast  of  the  Grecian  Sea,  and  if  it 
had  a  good  harbour,  could  hardly  find  an  equal  for  its  situation  and  the 
fertility  of  the  adjoining  country.  It  has,  indeed,  a  port,  but  one  so 
difficult  of  access,  owing  to  the  stormy  weather  in  which  the  army 
reached  it  (Jan.,  1192),  that  for  eight  days  no  vessel  could  enter  it.  .  .  . 
At  last,  Avhen  the  weather  became  more  favourable,  some  ships  entered 
the  harbour  with  provisions ;  but  the  storm  returned  and  the  army 
began  again  to  be  in  want." 

At  the  present  time  a  small  brig  is  lying  off  the  coast  taking  in  a 
cargo,  but  it  is  unsafe  for  ships  to  approach  too  near,  and  the  wreck  of 
one  vessel  lies  on  the  sand  a  little  north  of  the  ruins.  It  is  evident 
that  the  harbour  cannot  have  been  much  better  in  Crusading  times, 
when  English  sailors  were  unable  to  bring  food  to  the  starving  army. 
It  is  true  that  the  sand  has  covered  a  great  deal  of  the  ruins,  but  the 
existence  of  a  creek  is  rendered,  I  think,  impossible,  by  the  unbroken 
line  of  cliff,  at  the  foot  of  which  lov/  reefs  run  out  into  the  sea. 

Next  to  the  question  of  the  Maiimias  comes  tliat  of  the  sacred  lake 
of  Derceto,  but  of  this  we  could  find  no  traces,  unless  tbe  name  of  the 
modern  village  north  of  the  ruins  El  Jura,  "  the  hollow," — generally 
applied  to  an  artificial  reservoir  or  pond, — be  supposed  to  preserve  a 
tradition  of  the  .site.  The  village  itself  stands  p)retty  high,  but  there  is 
a  low  tract  full  of  beautiful  gardens  between  the  ruins  and  the  houses. 

Ascalon  is  one  of  the  most  fertile  spots  in  Palestine.  The  great 
walls,  which  are  well  described  by  William  of  Tyre  as  a  bow  with  the 
string  to  the  sea,  enclose  a  space  of  five-eighths  of  a  mile  north  and 
south,  by  three-eighths  deex?.  The  whole  is  filled  with  rich  gardens, 
and  no  less  than  thirty-seven  wells  of  sweet  water  exist  within  the 
Avails,  whilst  on  the  north,  as  far  as  the  village,  other  gardens  and  more 
wells  are  to  be  found.  The  whole  season  seemed  more  advanced  in  this 
sheltered  nook  than  on  the  more  exposed  plain.  Palms  grow  in  num- 
bers ;  the  almond  and  lemon-trees,  the  tamarisk  and  prickly  pear, 
olives  and  vines,  with  every  kind  of  vegetable  and  corn,  already  in  the 
ear,  are  flourishing  throughout  the  extent  of  the  gardens  early  in  April. 
Only  on  the  south  the  great  waves  of  ever-encroaching  sand  have  now 
surmounted  the  fortifications  and  swept  over  gardens  once  fruitfal, 
threatening  in  time  to  make  all  one  sandy  desert,  unless  means  can  be 
found  to  arrest  its  progress. 

The  ruins  of  the  town  are  now  covered  with  some  10  feet  of  good  soil. 
Marble  pUlars,  inscriptions,  and  bits  of  ai'chitectural  ornamentation,  are 
constantly  dug  up,  and  all  the  good  stones  are  carried  to  Jaffa  or  Gaza, 
and  sold  for  modern  buildings.  Thus  the  Roman  and  Crusading  ruins 
are  at  once  hidden  beneath,  yet  not  protected  by  the  soil,  but  disappear- 
ing piecemeal,  and  scattered  over  the  country.  At  every  well  a  pillar 
shaft  is  placed  on  its  side,  and  worn  into  lui-rows  by  the  ropes,  whilst  a 
capital  or  base  is  used  to  tie  the  cord  to.     It  was  on  one  of  these  that  we 


156  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

found  the  only  fragment  of  inscription  we  could  see  anywhere,  being 
carelessly  written  as  follows  : — 

niKPA. 

In  the  north  quarter  of  the  town,  on  the  higher  part  of  the  cliff,  stands 
•what  is  traditionally  known  as  the  church.  Its  true  hearing  is  98°,  and 
part  of  the  apse  can  be  just  seen,  but  the  ruin  has  been  so  defaced  by  the 
abstraction  of  its  ashlar  that  it  was  impossible  to  make  a  plan.  A  few 
pillar  bases  of  white  marble  have  been  excavated,  and  lie  together  within 
the  ruins.  There  is  a  curious  fact  connected  with  them,  each  base  has 
masons'  marks,  intended  apparently  to  show  Avhat  shaft  belonged  to  each, 
but  in  three  cases  these  marks  were  all  Phoenician  letters  in  three 
groups. 

I  do  not  remember  ever  to  have  seen  similar  marks  in  any  building  in 

the  country. 

The  walls  of  Ascalon  are  almost  all  that  now  remain,  and  are  in  many 
places  covered  over  with  sand.  They  are  not  of  very  great  thickness,  but 
strong  towers  at  intervals  give  flank  defence  throughout.  In  the  south- 
west corner  is  a  postern,  and  on  the  east  the  principal  gate,  leading  side- 
ways into  the  interior,  through  a  projecting  return  in  the  wall.  The 
stone  used  is  the  soft  crumbling  sandstone  of  the  cliffs,  and  the  masonry 
is  very  small  throughout ;  but  against  these  natural  disadvantages  the 
splendid  workmanship  of  the  time  has  triumphed,  and  the  stones  are  set 
in  a  cement  so  hard  that  with  thick  beds  and  a  mass  of  hard  shells  from 
the  shore  the  whole  forms  a  sort  of  concrete  seemingly  indestructible. 
The  base  of  a  turret,  20  feet  diameter  and  6  feet  high,  lies  on  the  east, 
overturned  like  a  gigantic  cheese,  and  wherever  huge  blocks  have  fallen 
or  walls  breached  and  gutted  stand  up  like  skeletons,  it  is  evident  that 
the  hand  of  man,  and  not  the  lapse  of  time,  have  ruined  these  magnificent 
piles  so  hastily  yet  so  solidly  constructed. 

In  the  account  of  the  building  of  Ascalon  ("  Itin.  Eic,"  Book  V.,  chap, 
vi.,  p.  262. — Bohn),  five  towers  are  enumerated  as  having  names,  viz.  : — 1, 
The  tower  of  "the  Maidens;"  2,  of  "the  Shields;"  3,  the  "Bloody 
Tower;"  4,  the  "Admiral's  Tower;"  o,  the  "Bedouin's  Tower."  Of 
all  these  traces  still  remain,  and  it  would  be  curious  to  identify  them. 

One  curious  tradition  connected  with  Ascalon  remains  to  bo  noticed. 
It  appears,  according  to  our  guide,  a  very  superior  old  sheikh,  that  thirty 
years  ago  the  fellahin,  digging  outside  the  walls  near  the  cemetery,  which 
surrounds  a  modern  wely,  close  to  the  eastern  gate,  found  a  broad  slab 
of  stone,  and  on  raising  it  they  discovered  what  seems  from  the  descrip- 
tion to  have  been  an  embalmed  corpse,  with  sword  by  side  and  ring  on 
his  finger.  Frightened  by  the  glare  from  his  eyes  they  reclosed  the  tomb, 
nnd  as  the  violator  died  soon  after  they  concluded  it  was  a  prophet,  and 
built  a  rvxde  tomb  above  the  slab,  now  used  as  a  wely,  or  place  of  prayer. 
We  had  some  thought  of  digging  up  this  body,  probably  a  Crusading 
hero,  especially  as  we  were  told  at  first  that  it  was  a  mummy,  but  there 
seemed  many  objections  to  touching  a  place  held  sacred,  and  close  to 


o 


IJEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  157 

modern  tombs,  -which  were  sufficient  to  deter  us  if  wo  could  have  dis- 
covered the  true  spot  and  had  no  respect  to  the  supposed  reward  for  so 
sacriligeous  an  exploration. 

Ashdod, — Jamnia,  Gaza,  and  Ashdod  being  inland  towns  had  each  a 
post  or  small  suburb  on  the  sea-shore.  That  of  Ashdod  is  not  marked  on 
the  maps.  Ashdod  itself  presents  very  little  of  interest,  it  is  a  large  mud 
village,  with  numerous  palms  on  the  east  and  agi-eat  marsh  on  the  west ; 
a  sand-hill  shelters  the  village  from  the  sea  wind,  and  is  covered  with 
gardens  fenced  -with  cactus.  On  this  hill,  according  to  Dr.  Porter,  the 
temple  of  Dagon  stood.  A  large  khan,  now  in  ruins,  but  thirty  years 
ago  still  in  use,  lies  near  the  village,  and  a  very  fine  sarcophagus  of 
Eoman  period  just  behind  it,  at  the  principal  wely.  Lieut.  Kitchener 
took  a  general  view  from  the  south,  but  the  site  is  not  well  adapted  for 
effective  views. 

Leaving  Ashdod  itself,  we  struck  west,  over  the  great  sandhills,  which 
have  now  reached  the  village.  Upon  the  sea-shore  we  found  what  is  no 
doubt  the  ancient  Maiumas,  an  extensive  ruin  with  fragments  of  tesselated 
pavement,  cisterns  lined  in  cement,  and  on  the  north  side  a  Crusadin 
castle  of  masonry  similar  to  the  fortifications  of  Ascalon.  It  measures 
180  feet  N.  and  S.,  by  144  feet  E.  and  W.,  and  has  a  round  tower  at  each 
corner  and  two  flanking  the  central  gate  on  the  west,  whilst  scomingly 
there  were  two  others  on  the  east,  but  one  has  disaj)peared.  A  curious 
inscription  was  found  by  the  non-commissioned  officer  on  one  of  the  stones 
of  the  foundation  on  the  north-west,  being  well  and  sharply  cut  as  below 
— possibly  the  crusading  name  of  the  place  :  eaom. 

It  is  said  that  there  is  a  greater  depth  of  water  at  this  point  between 
two  reefs  north  and  south  of  the  castle  than  anywhere  else  along 
the  coast,  and  boats  touch  here  in  preference  to  Ascalon.  In  fact,  we 
found  on  bathing  that  the  shore  sloped  more  rapidly  here  than  in  other 
places  where  we  have  swum.  It  seems,  therefore,  natural  to  place  the 
Maiumas  of  Ashdod  here,  especially  as  the  present  name  of  the  ruin, 
Minet  tl  KaVah,  "Harbour  of  the  Castle,"  shows  that  at  some  time  or 
other  there  was  a  port  here.  This  discovery  completes  the  list  of  the 
ports  along  the  coast  of  Philistia. 

Crusading  sites. — The  great  plain  so  famous  for  the  exploits  of  Samson 
and  of  David  in  their  contests  with  the  Philistines  and  with  the  nomadic 
tribes  became,  in  the  twelfth  century,  the  theatre  of  war  between  the 
English  and  Saladin,  and  the  Crusading  chronicles  are  full  of  names 
which  represent  the  garbled  versions  of  Arabic  names  adopted  by  the 
new  conquerors  of  the  land.  Many  of  these  it  is  impossible  to  identify 
from  want  of  indications,  but  a  few  may  be  placed  as  below  : — 

Furhia. — This  fortress  was  between  Gaza  and  Ascalon,  and  was  held 
by  Eichard  in  1192.  We  cannot  hesitate  to  identify  it  with  the  modern 
Ilerbia,  on  the  road  between  these.  The  foundations  of  a  Crusading 
castle  still  remain  on  the  south  side  of  the  village. 

Oadida.— This  town  or  village  was  the  scene  of  King  Eichard's  contest 
with  a  furious  boar,  to  which  the  Chronicles  devote  a  whole  chapter 


]^58  LIEUT.  CLAUDE  R.  CONDER  S  REPORTS. 

("Itin.  Eic,"  V.  31,  p.  280.— Bohn).  It  was  visited  from  Ascalon,  and 
would  most  probably  be  the  present  Khirhd  Jedeiyedeh,  about  three  miles 
south  of  Keratiyeh,  in  the  middle  of  the  plain. 

Galatia.  — This  was  a  strong  fortress,  afterwards  destroyed  by 
Saladin.  Leaving  Blanchcgarde  (Tell  el  Safieh),  "and  advancing  all 
night  by  the  light  of  a  splendid  moon,  they  arrived  at  Galatia ;  there 
they  rested  a  short  time  and  sent  to  Ascalon  for  provisions  "  ("  Itin.  Ric," 
V.  3,  p.  303.— JBohn).  The  tov/n  of  Keratlya,  in  which  are  remains  of  a 
strong  Crusading  fort,  agrees  well,  as  pointed  out  by  Lieut.  Kitchener, 
with  the  position  required  for  Galatia.  It  is  about  eight  miles  from  Tell 
el  Safi,  and  ten  from  Ascalon.  Corporal  Armstrong  subsequently  found 
another  ruin  about  three  miles  north,  called  Jelediyeh.  The  name  is 
more  nearly  the  same,  but  the  distance  from  Tell  el  Safi  seems  rather  too 
small. 

In  conclusion  I  may  give  here  the  identification  of  the  castles  destroyed 
Iby  Saladin  in  1192,  those  with  the  star  being  new  identifications. 

Galatia *Keratiya. 

Blanchewarde Tell  el  Safi. 

Plans     . .  . .  •  •  •  •  *Kaleusawi6h. 

Moen *Tantm-a. 

St.  George        . :  . .  •  •  Lidd. 

Eamala Eamleh. 

Belmont  . .  . .  . .  — • 

Toron Tibnin. 

Ernuald,  or  Arnald     . .  . .  *Latruu. 

Beauveoir,  Belvoir       . .  . .  Kaukab  el  Hawa. 

Mirabel lias  el  Ain. 

Castle  of  Baths  (near  Eamleh 

and  Lydda)    . .  . .  . .  — 

As  regards  Toron  and  Beauveoir  it  is,  however,  possible  that  there 
may  have  been  two  of  the  name,  and  that  they  also  stood  in  the  maritime 
plain,  as  do  the  remainder. 


XXXV. 

Gaza,  Gerar,  and  Makkedah. 

At  the  time  of  commencing  this  report  the  spring  campaign  of  1875 
is  rapidly  dramng  to  a  close.  This  campaign  completes  southern 
Palestine  as  far  as  Beersheba  and  Gaza  (the  boundary  being  the  great 
valley  running  from  Beersheba  to  the  sea),  with  the  exception  of  about 
200  square  miles  north  of  Beersheba,  in  the  country  of  the  Teiaha 
Arabs.  A  very  fierce  contest  is  at  present  going  on  between  this  tribe 
and  the  Azazimeh,  the  central  point  of  the  fighting  being  Beersheba 


LIEUT.     CLAUDE    R.    CONDEr's    REPORTS.  159 

As  the  season  Avas  getting  late  for  staying  in  the  plains,  it  seemed  on 
tlio  whole  best  to  fill  in  the  more  interesting  country  lying  south  of 
Eamleh,  and  to -leave  this  bit  of  desert  country  until  the  Arabs  have 
C'ithcr  made  peace  or  have  been  exterminated. 

The  total  amount  now  surveyed  is  4,430  square  miles;  some  1,400 
only  remain,  as  far  as  I  can  roughly  calculate,  to  be  filled  in. 

Since  last  report  we  have  examined  several  sites  of  interest,  esjiecially 
Oaza,  Umm  Jerrar  (supposed  to  be  Gerar),  El  Moghar  (first  pro- 
posed, I  believe,  by  Captain  Warren  as  the  site  of  Makkedah),  Yebna 
(Jamnia),  the  valley  of  Elah,  the  valley  of  Sorek,  and  several  other 
important  places. 

Inscriptions. — Gaza  and  its  neighbourhood  abound  in  Greek  inscrip- 
tions ;  very  few,  however,  have  escaped  M.  Ganneau.  I  give  four  which 
•are,  I  believe,  new,  though  not  of  great  value. 

No.  1,  upon  a  granite  column,  fonning  the  east  goal  of  the  Mcidan 
or  racecourse  of  Abu  Zeid.  It  stands  close  to  the  road  leading  south- 
cast  from  El  Muntar,  and  is  just  a  mile,  or  1,000  ba'a,  from  the 
western  goal,  also  close  to  the  road.  These  pillars,  originally  taken 
from  some  great  building  probably  of  Eoman  times,  are  half  buried  in 
the  soil ;  the  first  two  lines  of  an  inscription  were  alone  visible,  deeply 
though  rudely  cut.  They  were  noticed  by  Lieut.  Kitchener  and  Corporal 
Armstrong,  who  excavated  the  remainder  of  the  text.  The  racecourse 
is  sa,id  to  have  been  laid  out  by  the  Saracens  700  years  ago ;  the  pillar 
must  apparently  have  passed  through  an  intermediate  period  of  existence, 
when  it  T\ras  used  as  a  tombstone. 

AOMECTIKOY 
YREP  AOME 
CTIKOT     T 
lOY  AE0H 
KEN     .... 

No.  2,  a  curious  fragment  of  inscription,  mth  contractions,  evidently 
Christian,  on  a  piece  of  marble  about  IS  inches  long,  lying  beside  a  rude 
wely,  or  cenotaph,  on  a  sandy  top,  some  four  miles  south  of  Gaza.  The 
place  is  called  Sheikh  Eashed,  but  the  inscription  is  probably  brought 
as  an  ornament  from  somewhere  else.  It  runs  as  follows,  being  broken 
off  on  the  right : — 

+  HAIN 

No.  3  forms  the  cover  of  a  well,  or  selil,  in  the  courtyai'd  of  EI 
Khudera,  a  small  mosque  in  the  village  of  Deir  Belah.  A  round  hole 
10  inches  diameter  has  been  cut  through  the  centre  of  the  inscription, 
which  is  much  worn  in  the  upper  line. 

ETE 

MATPE-APAPIANO 
Ano    •   INHCIOTAI0 


160  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

The  stone  is  partly  covered  with  mortar  on  the  right,  so  that  the  lines 
may  originally  have  extended  farther. 

No.  4,  a  slab  on  the  floor  of  the  same  mosque,  near  the  cenotaph  of 
St,  George,  The  first  line  is  almost  obliterated  by  the  feet  of  visitors* 
It  runs  as  below  : — 

ITI^QICAPATC  ...  n 

AMAAnOAAOAflPn 

OT  EK  TON.IAinNETXA 

This,  from  the  expression  ek  twi>  iSiSn',  would  also  appear  to  be  a  funerary- 
inscription. 

Deir  BelaJi. — This  \'illage,  at  which  the  two  last  inscriptions  occur, 
lies  beyond  the  boundary  valley.  I  visited  it  in  company  with  Mr. 
Prichett,  who  is  engaged  in  founding  schools  at  Gaza,  which  promise 
to  be  very  successful.  His  native  catechist  was  the  first  to  discover  the 
stones,  and  pointed  them  out  to  us.  The  mosque  in  which  they  occur 
is  a  small  building  about  18  feet  long  by  12  feet  wide,  having  three 
alcoves  or  small  apses  on  the  east  side.  The  cenotaph  of  Mar  Jirjis,  or 
El  Khudr,  stands  in  it,  placed  north  and  south,  contrary  to  ordinary 
Mohammedan  fashion.  The  building  itself  bears  11.5°  or  25'  south  of 
east.  On  the  floor,  besides  the  slab-bearing  inscription  No.  4,  is  another 
large  slab,  6  feet  long,  having  two  crosses  of  the  Maltese  form, 
with  A  and  H  each  side  of  each  cross.  There  is  also  another  device 
which,  as  well  as  we  could  make  out  in  the  dark,  was  in  the  form  of  a. 
mitre,  with  its  pendent  ribbons.  From  this  chamber,  which  bears  some 
resemblance  to  a  small  Christian  chaj^el,  an  ascent  of  three  steps  leads 
to  the  outer  cloister.  Another  fragment  of  inscription  is  built  into 
the  upper  step,  but  the  letters  are  very  rough,  and  only  the  word  a-rro 
could  be  deciphered.  There  are  fragments  of  marble  built  into  the  walls 
of  the  court,  two  of  which  resemble  parts  of  an  altar.  A  cornice,  well 
cut  and  floridly  ornamented,  is  built-in  face  down,  and  only  just  visible- 
The  traditional  history  of  this  mosque  is,  that  it  stands  on  the  site  of  a. 
large  convent  which  had  a  chapel,  and  this  accounts  for  the  name  Mar 
Jirjis,  or  El  Khiidr,  which  never  occurs,  as  far  as  I  can  find,  except  on 
Christian  sites,  Mr.  Pritchett  informs  me  that,  according  to  the  people 
of  Gaza,  Deir  el  Belah  (Convent  of  dates)  is  a  modern  name,  arising,  no 
doubt,  from  the  great  number  of  date  palms  surrounding  the  village,  and. 
more  abundant  here  than  in  any  place  I  have  visited  in  Palestine.  The 
old  name  seems  to  have  been  Deir  Mar  Jirius,  and  the  Bishop  of  Gaza, 
who  resides  at  Jerusalem,  bears  the  additional  title  of  Bishop  of  Mar 
Jirius  to  the  present  day.  The  population  of  the  village  is,  however, 
now  entirely  Mohammedan,  though  a  Greek  Khuri  (or  Cure),  and  a  few- 
Greek  Christians,  lived  here  within  the  half-century, 

Deir  Belah  is  supposed,  with  reason,  to  be  the  Fortress  of  Darum, 
south  of  Gaza,  and  near  the  Egyptian  frontier.  This  fortress  is  ofteix 
mentioned  in  the  history  of  King  Richard's  adventures  in  Philistia,  and 
■was  rebuilt  by  him  after  having  been  taken.     No  remains  of  fortification. 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS.  161 

exist,  nor  is  the  site  remarkably  strong,  but  it  was  undoubtedly  at  one 
time  in  Crusading  hands,  and  fragments  of  their  work  may  be  seen  in 
scattered  pillar-shafts  and  in  the  remains  of  the  chapel.  The  name  is 
apparently  lost  or  contracted  to  Deir,  but  a  curious  relic  of  it  remains,  as 
we  foimd,  and  as  has  been  previously  noted  by  Eobinson.  The  southern 
road  from  Gaza  passes  by  a  spot  just  at  the  edge  of  the  town,  to  which 
the  name  Bab  Darun,  or  Oate  of  Darum,  still  applies.  This  southern 
road  passes  near  Deir  Belah  on  the  east. 

Gaza. — The  population  of  Gaza  is  said  at  one  time  to  have  outnum- 
bered that  of  Jerusalem.  There  are  now  18,000  inhabitants,  of  whom  the 
majority  are  Moslems,  oOO  only  being  Greek  Christians.  The  remains 
of  antiquity  are  not  of  any  gi-eat  interest  beyond  the  curious  church, 
now  a  mosque.  The  principal  question  with  regard  to  Gaza  is  the 
situation  of  the  ancient  town,  concerning  which  opinions  differ.  I  am 
disposed  to  think  that  it  stood  on  the  hill  where  the  main  part  of  the 
j)resent  town  stands ;  broad  mounds  svirround  this  eminence,  and  appear 
in  the  middle  of  the  buildings.  Judging  by  comparison  with  other 
sites,  these  probably  mark  the  site  of  former  fortifications.  Considerable 
suburbs  have  grown  up  round  this  position  on  the  north,  south,  and 
east.  Mohammedan  tradition  points  to  a  spot  south  of  the  town  near  the 
Bab  el  Darun,  where  seven  j)illars  have  been  placed  as  Mohammedan 
tombstones.  This  place  is  said  once  to  have  been  within  the  city,  some 
say  at  its  centre.  Others,  again,  say  that  Gaza  once  extended  to  the- 
hill  of  El  Mimtar  (the  traditional  hill  to  which  Samson  carried  the 
gates,  and  probably  the  real  site).  It  is,  however,  certain  that  the  town 
stood  on  a  hill  in  the  time  of  Alexander,  and  there  seems  no  good  reason 
for  supposing  the  site  to  be  changed.  It  appears  that  a  considerable 
to"\vn  stood  on  the  sea-shore  in  early  times,  and  this,  no  doubt,  was  the 
Maiumas  Gazoe,  which — like  the  Maiumas  Ascalon — was  a  separate 
ecclesiastical  see.  PiUar-shafts,  marble  slabs,  glass,  and  tesseras,  are 
constantly  found.  In  the  middle  of  the  sand-hills,  near  the  shore,  is  a 
beautiful  garden  of  lemons,  sui-romided  by  a  mound,  which  seems  to 
mark  the  site  of  this  second  to^vn  ;  near  it  is  a  ruined  jetty  on  the  sea- 
shore, probably  denoting  the  site  of  the  port. 

Another  tradition  gives  great  antiquity  to  the  olives  round  Gaza, 
These  magnificent  groves,  which  form  a  long  avenue  on  the  north  of  the 
city,  are  said  to  have  been  planted  by  the  Greeks,  and  it  is  asserted  that 
at  all  events  since  the  coming  of  the  Saracens  some  700  years  back  not  a 
single  new  tree  has  been  planted.  It  is  quite  possible  that  there  is  some 
truth  in  this,  for  many  of  the  trees  stand  on  huge  roots,  and  have  evi- 
dently sprung  up  from  the  remains  of  former  trunks  now  rotted  away. 
Thus,  considering  the  immense  age  to  which  olive-trees  attain,  it  is  pos- 
sible that  the  trees  may  be  the  natural  descendants  of  former  planted 
olives. 

The  great  church  is  described  by  Eobinson  as  older  than  Crusading 
times,  and  possibly  dating  back  to  the  fifth  century.  The  arches  are, 
however,  pointed,  and  the  western  door  is  of  mediaeval  character  and 


162  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

very  fine.  Of  this,  as  well  as  of  the  interior,  Lieutenant  Kitchener  took 
a  photograph.  The  church  consists  of  four  bays,  having  a  total  length  of 
110  feet.  The  nave  is  22  feet  wide  in  the  clear,  the  north  aisle  13  feet.  The 
south  wall  has  been  pulled  down  by  the  Moslems  and  a  second  arcade 
added  on  this  side,  but  its  outer  wall  is  not  parallel  with  the  axis  of  the 
church.  A  niihrab  is  placed  at  the  east  end  of  this,  and  is  again 
skewed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  point  approximately  to  the  Kibleh.  A 
wall  has  been  built  across  the  east  end  of  the  nave  and  north  aisle,  pro- 
bably at  the  place  where  the  steps  of  the  main  apse  commenced, 
though  it  is  possible  that  the  church  extended  one  bay  farther.  The 
result  of  these  alterations  is  that  no  one  of  the  three  apses  remains. 

The  style  of  the  capitals  is  Byzantine,  and  the  semi-pillars  of  the 
clerestory  are  much  heavier  than  in  most  Crusading  works,  but  the 
arrangement  of  the  windows  and  roof  is  mediseval.  The  piers  suppoi't- 
ing  the  clerestory  are  of  a  fine  brownish  mai-ble,  and  the  mouldings  of 
the  bases  are  very  well  cut.  The  diagonal  chiselling  so  remarkable  in 
one  style  of  Crusading  masonry  is  here  very  distinct  and  well  executed. 
Upon  the  clerestory  pillar  nearest  the  east  end  on  the  north  side  is  a 
curious  device  cut  in  low  relief  on  the  shaft.  A  squeeze  was,  I  believe^ 
taken  by  M.  Ganneau,  and  I  did  not  therefore  give  it  special  study.  A 
wreath  surrounding  the  golden  candlestick  and  a  tablet  with  three  lines 
of  inscription  are  all  that  can  be  seen  from  below.  The  Crusaders  seem 
to  have  been  in  the  habit  of  using  this  device,  for  a  capital  belonging  to 
the  Church  of  Gabriel  at  Beit  Jibrin  lies  near  the  Bir  el  Hammam, 
having  a  representation  of  the  golden  candlestick  on  the  boss.  It  is, 
however,  curious  and  unusual  to  find  a  device  cut  on  the  shaft  of  a 
pillar,  especially  as  no  other  in  the  church  is  so  ornamented. 

A  small  Greek  church  exists  in  the  Christian  quarter  of  the  town  ;  we 
visited  it,  but  it  seemed  to  have  nothing  ancient  about  it,  and  the  v/hole 
structure,  with  the  exception  of  two  Byzantine  columns  which  look  very 
much  out  of  place,  is  extremely  rude.  The  Greek  priest,  however, 
informed  lis  that  it  was  1,440  years  old,  and  had  been  built  by  a 
Byzantine  emperor.  There  is  also  said  to  be  a  register  1,000  years 
old  in  the  church,  and  another,  dating  even  earlier,  and  said  to  be 
written  on  canvas,  is  reported  to  be  in  possession  of  the  Bishop  in 
Jerusalem. 

Gerar. — Perhaps  the  most  interesting  question  in  this  part  of  the 
covmtry  is  that  of  the  site  of  Gerar.  This  ancient  town,  the  dwelling- 
place  of  Abraham  and  Isaac,  is  indicated  as  being  between  Kadesh 
(on  the  east)  and  Shur  (on  the  west).  In  later  times  we  find  that  Asa, 
having  defeated  the  Ethiopians  nearMareshah  (2  Chron.  xiv.  13),  drove 
them  back  on  the  road  to  Egypt  as  far  as  Gerar.  To  Eusebius  Gerar 
was  known  as  being  twenty-five  Eoman  miles  from  Eleutheropolis,  or 
from  Beit  Jibrin.  Doctor  Eobinson  was  here,  as  usual,  the  first  to  hear 
of  the  existence  of  the  name,  and  Mr.  Eowland,  travelling  from  Gaza 
to  Khalasa,  came  upon  a  broad  valley  called  Jorf  el  Jerar  (the  banks  of 
Gerar),  which  he  identifies  with  the  valley  of  Gerar  in  which  Abraham 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDER's    KEPOUTS.  163 

lived.  To  Vandcveldo  the  ruin  of  Umni  el  Jerar  was  pointed  out  as 
situate  near  Tell  el  Jema,  but  lie  docs  not  appear  to  liave  visited 
the  spot. 

Even  Murray's  new  map  is  defective  in  this  part   of  the  coimtry, 
and   the   run   of   the  valleys  is  incorrectly  shown.     The   great  Wady 
Ghuzzeh   runs   from   Beershcba   to   the    sea   some    six   miles    south    of 
Gaza.     At  about  the  same  distance  from  the  city,  rather  towards  the 
east,   on  the  north  bank  of  Wady  Ghuzzeh,   and  in  the  position  with 
regard  to  Toll  el  Jema  indicated  by  Vandevelde,  we  found  the  site  of 
Umm  Jerrar,  which  is  thirty  English  miles  in  a  straight  line  from  Beit 
Jibrin.     The  Jorf  el  Jerrar  must  be  applied  to  the  precipitous   earthy 
banks  of  this  great  valley,  the  bod  of  which  is  here  about  200  yards  wide. 
The  word  Jorf  is  appKed  throughout  Palestine  to  similar  mud  cliffs.     If 
we  attach  any  value  to  the  indications  of  the  Onomasticon,  which  seem 
to  m.e  to  be  generally  very  correct,  we  cannot  put  Gerar  farther  south. 
The  valley  is  wide  enough  to  explain  how  the  patriarch  is  said  to  pitch 
ills  camp  in  it,  and  at  the  time  we  visited  the  spot  a  large  encamp- 
ment of  the  Terabin  Arabs  was  settled  on  the  north  bank.     One  great 
question  remains,  that  of  the  wells  of  Abraham.     We  could  neither  find 
nor  hear  of  any  wells  in  the  neighbourhood,  or  indeed  any  nearer  than 
Beersheba.     The  springs,  too,  marked  on  the  maps  are  equally  fabulous. 
The  Arabs,  who  are  extremely  numerous,  supply  themselves  with  water 
by  digging  in  the  bed  of  the  valley,  when  they  come  upon  it.     These 
excavations,   or  small  ponds,  are  known  as  Ilafireh.     The  valley  has 
evidently  been  entirely  formed  by  water-action  of  considerable  violence, 
and  it  receives  the  drainage  of  an  immense  area,  as  its  head  is  close  to 
Hebron,  whence  it  runs  by  Beersheba  to  the  sea,  a  distance  of  over  sixty 
miles.     It  is,  indeed,  the  longest  watercourse  in  Palestine.     When  I  was 
last  at  Hebron  a  stream  three  feet  deep  and  some  ten  to  fifteen  feet 
broad  was  rushing  along  its  upper  course.     On  reaching  the  plain  the 
water  sinks  into  the  soil  and  suj)plies  the  living  wells   of  Beersheba  as 
well  as  the  Arab  Hafireh  lower  down  its  course.     We  are  accustomed  to 
consider  Abraham's  wells  to  have  been  very  important   and  durable 
works,  partly  because  the   stone-work  of  the   wells   at   Beersheba  is 
generally  attributed  to  the  Patriarch.     The  Arabic  inscription  which 
we  discovered  in  the  principal  well  at  Beersheba  shows  this  to  be  a 
fallacy,  and  I  think  we  have  evidence  that  Abraham's  wells  at  Gerar 
were  not  very  important  works  in  the  fact  that,   though  made   in  a 
friendly  country,  they  had  become  filled  up  in  the  time  of  Isaac,  who  was 
obliged  to  re-dig  them.     It  would  seem  to  mo,  therefore,  that  the  Arab 
Hafireh  sufficiently  fulfil  the  requirements  for  the  site  of  Gerar  as  far  as 
water  supply  is  concerned. 

The  name  as  pronounced  by  the  Arabs  is  Umm  el  Jerrar,  with  the 
sliuddeh,  or  mark  of  the  double  letter,  over  the  first  r.  This  is  important. 
Jerar  in  Arabic  signifies  ivaterpots,  and  it  might  be  supposed  that  the 
title  "Mother  of  pots  "  was  given  in  consequence  of  the  huge  mounds 
of   broken  pottery  visible  on  the  wady  bank  near   at  hand.     Jerrar, 


104  LIEUT,    CLAUDE    R.    COXDER's    REPORTS. 

according  to  the  dictionary,  comes  from  a  root  meaning  colledion  or 
drawing  together  (Jarr),  as  in  "Askirjemir,"  "a  numerous  army." 
Catafago  gives,  however,  another  meaning,  "  a  seller  of  ivuterpots.'" 

The  Hebrew  n"\J  is  supposed  by  Gesenius  to  mean  "  a  residence," 
but  Buxtorf  derives  it  from  a  root  having  a  meaning  similar  to  that  of 
the  Arabic  Jarr. 

A  more  important  objection  to  the  identification  consists  in  the  cha- 
racter of  the  site.     No  ruins  are  visible,   and  the  swell  of  ground  to 
which  the  name  applies  is  covered  Avith  a  poor  crop  of  barley  or  with 
coarse  grass.     There  are  over  a  dozen  cisterns  scattered  round,  being 
constructed  of   small  stones  laid  in  thick  beds    of   cement  of  reddish 
colour  mixed  with  jjottery  and  sea  shells.  The  cisterns  are  circular,  with 
domes  above  some  four  or  five  feet  diameter  and  six  or  eight  feet  deep. 
They  are  now  used  for  storing  corn,  but  from  comparison  with  other 
ruins  I   am  inclined  to  think  they  once  were  intended  for  rain-water, 
especially  as  a  sort  of  channel  in  cement  leads  to  one  of  them,  and  the 
remains  of  a  trough  are  to  be  seen  at  another.     This  peculiar  form  of 
cistern  is,  as  far  as  our  experience  goes,  confined  to  the  southern  plain^ 
and  we  can  scarcely  hesitate  to  ascribe  it  to  Crusading  times,  partly  on 
account  of  the  character  of  the  mortar  and  the  ilse  of  sea  shells  peculiar 
to  CruEading  Avorks  along  the  coast,  partly  from  the  occurrence  of  suck 
cisterns  in  exclusively  Crusading  sites.     I  have  sought  in  vain  for  evi- 
dence of  greater  antiquity,  and  the  conclusion  most  natural  is  that  these 
cisterns  represent,  as  in  other  parts  of  the  plain,   works  for  irrigation 
dating  from  the  middle  ages,   and  possibly  the  natural   successors  of 
similar  works  of  greater  antiquity. 

The  heaps  of  pottery  on  the  north  bank  of  the  valley  arc  very- 
curious.  They  are  semi-consolidated  by  the  infiltration  of  mud,  and 
some  ten  feet  high,  as  seen  in  section  on  the  side  of  the  cliff.  There 
are  fragments  of  every  size,  and  handles  of  pots  were  visible.  The 
material  is  a  red  colour,  differing  from  the  modern  black  jiottery  of 
Gaza.  Similar  heaps  are  visible  farther  west  at  Khirbet  el  'Adar,  and 
both  might  be  worth  excavation.  It  is  remarkable  that  the  sand- 
hills from  Gaza  to  Yebna  are  strewn  throughout  with  similar  red 
pottery. 

The  only  other  relics  noticeable  at  Umm  Jerrar  are  a  few  marble 
tesserte  (generally  a  sign  of  a  church  or  convent),  and  some  bits  of 
glass. 

So  far,  therefore,  there  is  nothmg  indicative  of  an  ancient  city  at 
Umm  el  Jerrar,  unless  it  be  the  pottery  heaps  which  may  mark  an  old 
mound,  such  as  exists  at  every  town  and  village  in  Palestine  where 
refuse  is  thrown  out,  and  which  at  the  same  time  forms  generally  a 
sort  of  boulevard  or  pleasure-ground,  on  the  summit  of  which  the 
elders  of  the  place  sit  smoking  and  chatting  in  the  cool  of  the  day. 
There  is,  however,  an  ancient  site  of  no  small  importance  immedi- 
ately south  of  Khirbet  Umm  Jerrar,  which  bears  the  name  of  Tell 
Jema.     It  is  an  enormous  mound,  crescent-shaped,  about  100  yards  on 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    H.    CONDER  CJ    REPORTS.  105 

tlie  diameter,  situate  on  tlic  brink  of  Wady  Gbuzzeli  on  tlie  south  side. 
Its  steep  sides  are  covered  with  broken  pottery,  and  it  appears  as  a  very 
conspicuous  point  from  the  north  and  east.  Here,  if  anywhere  in  the 
vicinity,  the  ancient  Gerar  would  seem  to  have  stood ;  nor  is  tliis  a  solitary 
instance  of  the  name  lost  to  its  proper  site  still  lingering  in  the  imme- 
diate neighbourhood.  The  names  of  Adullam,  and  of  the  Altar  Ed,  may 
"be  cited  as  other  instances,  and  there  seem  to  me  reasons  for  supposing 
that  the  true  site  of  Eglon  is  to  be  sought  at  Tell  el  Hesy,  immediately 
south  of  'Ajlan,  where  a  fine  supply  of  water  and  large  mounds  indicate 
a  natural  site  for  a  great  city.  These  notes  on  the  site  of  Gerar  may 
prove  of  interest,  but,  like  many  others  of  the  more  ancient  cities,  the 
locality  can  hardly  be  considered  capable  of  demonstration,  and  can  at 
best  be  conjectured. 

Mahkedah. — One  of  the  most  important  towns  of  a  Eoyal  Canaanite 
city,  the  site  of  the  first  great  victory  of  Joshua's  Judasan  campaign, 
has  escaped  more  than  the  merest  conjecture,  and  even  Captain  "Warren's 
suggestion  for  its  identification  has  not,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  ajspeared 
in  print. 

Makkedah  is  to  be  sought  in  the  plain  country  of  Judah,  and  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Beth-Dagon  and  Xaameh,  names  which  immediately 
precede  it  in  the  topographical  list.  It  must  also  be  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  one  or  more  caves,  and  should  show  indications  of  an  ancient  and 
important  site. 

There  is  another  consideration  which  limits  the  position  of  Makkedah. 
Joshiia,  who  had  marched  from  Gilgal  to  Gibeon,  a  distance  of  some 
twenty  miles,  before  dawn,  pursued  the  defeated  Canaanites  down  the 
valley  of  Ajalon  to  the  plain,  whence  they  fled  to  Azekah  and  Makkedah. 
Makkedah  was  taken,  and  the  five  kings  hanged  by  sunset,  and  thus  we 
cannot  place  it  more  than  some  eight  or  ten  hours  from  Gibeon — that  is, 
under  thirty  miles.  It  should  also  be  on  the  natural  route  southwards 
from  the  point  where  the  valley  of  Ajalon  enters  the  plain.  These  con- 
siderations would  lead  us  to  place  Makkedah  near  the  north  boundary 
of  Judah,  a  situation  also  indicated  by  the  fact  that  it  occurs  last  in  a 
list  enumerating  the  towns  in  regular  succession  from  south  to  north. 

The  site  of  El  Moghar,  a  village  on  the  north  side  of  the  valley  of 
Sorek,  fulfils  in  a  remarkable  way  all  these  conditions,  as  may  be  briefly 
enumerated  thus : — 

1st.  El  Moghar  is  immediately  south-west  of  Ekron,  one  of  the  cities 
on  the  north  tribe-line  of  Judah. 

2nd.  It  is  not  far  east  of  Dejjun,  the  true  site  of  Beth  Dagon,  as 
fixed  by  M.  Ganneau.  It  is  five  miles  south-west  of  N'aaneh,  in  which, 
I  think,  we  can  hardly  fail  to  recognise  the  ancient  N'aameh. 

3rd.  It  is  an  undoubtedly  ancient  site,  as  evidenced  by  the  rock- 
quarrying,  and  by  the  existence  of  tombs  with  the  loculi  running  in 
from  the  sides  of  the  chamber. 

4th.  As  far  as  careful  examination  has  allowed  us  to  determine,  it  is 
the  only  site  in  the  plain  where  caves  occur.     The  houses  are  built  over 


166  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEll's    REPORTS. 

and  in  front  of  caverns  of  various  sizes,  and  small  caves  called  Moghair- 
Summeil  exist  in  the  face  of  cliffs  nortli  of  the  village. 

5tli.  It  is  some  twenty-five  miles  from  Gibeon  in  a  line  down  the 
valley  of  Ajalon,  and  close  to  the  main  road  north  and  south  from  Gaza 
to  Lydda. 

6th.  It  is  not  far  removed  from  Azckah,  v/hich,  as  will  be  shovvTi  later, 
v/as  some  ten  miles  farther  east. 

Yth.  Its  name  signifies  in  Arabic  the  caves.  The  Syriac  version  of 
Josh.  X.  10  famishes,  however,  a  linlc  bebween  the  modern  Arabic  and 
the  ancient  Hebrew,  as  the  v/ord  Mahkedah  is  there  rendered  ]\Iokor, 
which  approaches  the  Arabic  Moghr,  of  which  the  plural  form  is 
Moghar,  or  more  commonly  Moghair. 

These  various  points,  when  taken  together,  seom  to  me  to  form  a 
pretty  satisfactory  identification,  placing  Makkedah  in  tha  district  in 
Avhich  Mr.  Grove,  and  all  the  best  authorities,  have  contended  that 
Makkedah  should  be  sought.  Vandevelde's  identification  at  Summeil, 
some  twelve  miles  faither  south,  depending  on  the  reported  existence  of 
a  cave  of  which  vv^e  could  find  no  traces,  and  on  the  existencs  of  ancient 
ruins  which  do  not,  however,  date  beyond  the  middle  ages^  falls  to  the 
ground,  as  would  be  naturally  expected  from  its  great  distance  from  the 
site  of  Gibeon. 

A  short  description  of  this  remarkable  site  may  be  of  interest.  The 
broad  valley  of  Sorek,  the  homo  of  Dalilah  and  the  scene  of  the  return 
of  the  ark  from  Philistia,  expands  upon  leaving  the  hills  into  a  flat  plain 
of  rich  corn-land  bounded  by  the  hills  of  Gczer  on  the  north,  and  by 
rolling  uplands  separating  it  on  the  south  from  the  next  great  water- 
course, the  valley  of  Elah.  About  half-way  along  its  course,  from  the 
hills  to  the  sea,  a  sort  of  promontory  runs  out  from  the  uncultivated 
downs  around  Ekron  (now,  a5  then,  the  property  of  nomadic  tribes 
settled  among  the  peasantry).  The  valley  has,  in  fact,  made  a  way  here 
through  a  bar  of  soft  sandy  stone,  and  a  corresponding  promontory  or 
tongue  on  the  south  melts  away  into  the  southern  uplands.  The  northern 
is  the  highest,  and  is  divided  into  throe  tops,  the  last  of  which  falls 
abruptly  and  supports  a  large  mud  village  clambering  up  the  steep 
eastern  side  and  crowding  round  the  caves.  Another  village,  and  a 
remarkable  tell  or  knoll  immediately  north  of  it,  form  the  termination 
of  the  southern  promontory.  The  first  village  is  El  Moghar,  which 
I  propose  to  identify  with  Makkedah;  Iho  second,  Katrah  or  Gatrah, 
which,  as  I  shall  have  occasion  to  explain  later,  seems  to  me  the  true 
site  of  Gederoth,  afterwards  known  as  Kedron. 

North  of  El  Moghar  are  gardens  hedged  with  cactus  extending  over 
the  whole  hill-top.  South  of  it  are  ancient  olives,  a,lso  walled  with 
cactus,  whilst  east  and  west  extend  fine  cornfields  and  broad  flat 
expanses  of  brown  ploughed  laud. 

The  slopes  of  the  promontory  are  steep  on  the  east,  and  in  part  pre- 
cipitous. It  is  in  this  respect  unique,  for  in  no  other  part  of  the  plain 
do  the  sandstone  cliffs  thus  appear.     Hence  it  is,  I  believe,  the  only 


LIEUT.  CLAUDE  K.  CONDER's  REPORTS.  167 

place-  wliere  caves  are  to  be  found.  Ouc  of  these,  now  broken  away  in 
front,  has,  curiously  enough,  five  loculi  rudel}^  scooped  in  its  sides.  It  is  the 
only  cave  I  saw  Avith  such  loculi,  and  an  enthusiast  might  contend  that 
here  we  have  the  very  place  of  sepulture  of  the  five  kings  who  "  Avere 
found  hid  in  a  cave  at  Makkedah." 

The  site  seems  well  to  answer  the  requirements  of  the  case.  Hidden 
from  view,  and  perched  high  above  the  route  of  their  pursuers,  the  five 
sheikhs  would  have  looked  down  in  fancied  security  on  the  host  hurry- 
ing beneath  on  the  high  road  to  Azekah  and  Gath  and  other  "  fenced 
cities."  The  fact  of  their  discovery  and  capture  before  the  taking  of  the 
town  would  show  that  it  is  to  one  of  the  caves  outside  the  city  that  they 
must  have  retu-ed.  These  caves  are  generally  very  small ;  some  are 
broken  away  in  front,  and  others  filled  in;  but  two  at  least  can  be 
pointed  out  wherein  five  men  might  crowd,  and  the  entrances  of  which 
could  easily  be  blocked  with  the  "great  stones"  which  lie  scattered 
near.  No  trees  now  exist  near  the  caves,  though  olives  and  others  are 
to  be  noticed  south  of  the  village ;  but  the  number  of  trees  throughout 
this  part  of  the  plain  is  much  greater  than  farther  north,  and  the  most 
enthusiastic  could  scarcely  hope  to  discover  those  which  in  the  time  of 
Joshua  supported  the  corpses  of  the  five  royal  victims. 

Yehna. — The  site  of  our  fourth  Philistine  camp  is  also  a  famous  place, 
and  one  of  those  mentioned  on  the  north  tribe-line  of  Judah,  which 
reached  the  sea  at  the  mouth  of  Nahr  Eubin,  or  River  of  Reuben — so 
called  from  the  reputed  tomb  of  Reuben  on  its  banks.  In  the  Book  of 
Joshua  the  name  is  Jabneel,  and  later,  Jabneh  or  Jamnia. 

There  is  nothing  of  great  interest  in  the  modern  village,  with  the 
exception  of  the  so-called  church,  a  building  49  feet  long,  by  32f  feet 
broad,  interior  measurement.  The  fellahin  say  it  was  originally  a 
church,  but  it  has  neither  apse  nor  western  door,  and  is  divided  into 
two  walks  of  equal  width,  with  a  kibleh  niche  on  the  south  side — not, 
however,  in  the  centre  of  the  bay.  The  main  door  is  on  the  north,  and 
has  a  pointed  arch.  The  windows  are  of  the  loopholed  form  found 
in  the  white  tower  at  Ramleh,  and  the  whole  construction,  including 
the  minaret  at  the  north-west  corner,  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  the 
Rimleh  White  Mosque,  which  was  built  in  A.D.  1318.  A  well-cut  in- 
scription stands  in,  evidently  in  situ,  on  the  north  wall  of  the  minaret,  as 
is  well  seen  in  Lieut.  Kitchener's  photograi)h.  It  runs  as  follov/s,  being 
taken  down  by  our  scribe  : — 

"  In  the  name  of  God  the  merciful,  the  pitiful.  Founded  this  minaret 
the  blessed,  the  poor,  before  most  high  God,  the  pious  the  Emir  great 
and  (lion-like)  Soliman  el  Nasri,  in  the  fourth  month,  in  the  year  eight 
and  thirty  and  seven  hundred." 

The  minaret  therefore  dates  at  the  close  of  the  fourteenth  century, 
subsequent  to  the  Ramleh  mosque.  The  remainder  of  the  building  is 
possibly  of  the  same  date.  The  mosque  of  Abu  Harirch,  on  the  Avest 
side  of  Yebna,  contains  two  Abrabic  inscriptions  dating  earlier  than  the 
one  above  translated.     The  one  contains  the  names  of  Bihars  and  of 


168  THE    SITE    OF    ADULLAM. 

Klialil  ih)i  Saiuir,  Wall  of  Eamleh,  with  the  date  673  A.li.  ;  the  other 
the  name  of  "  Melelc  el  Munsur  Kalawun,"  and  the  date  693  A.H. 

Ycbna,  like  Ashdod  and  Gaza,  had  its  port,  but  of  this  very  little 
remains.  Eiding  down  the  course  of  the  iSTahr  Rubin  by  the  Saint-house 
of  Eeuben,  where  is  a  courtyard  cool  and  delicious  from  the  shade  of 
nine  huge  mulberry-trees,  I  found  the  ruins  some  little  way  south  of 
the  liver  mouth.  Very  little  masonry  remains,  except  on  the  south, 
where  a  square  mass  of  retaining  wall  shows  evidence  of  Crusading  work- 
manship. This  tower  is  known  as  Khirbet  Dubbeh.  Farther  north  are 
three  ancient  tombs  in  the  face  of  the  sandy  cliff,  one  having  eight  loculi 
running  in  from  its  sides.  These  are  called  by  the  natives  El-dekkaldn 
("  the  shops  "),  a  title  often  given  to  such  tombs  from  the  fellahin  fancy 
that  the  loculi,  like  the  cupboards  of  a  modern  bazaar,  were  used  to 
store  the  goods  of  the  shopman  who  sat  presumably  on  the  sort  of  divan 
which  often  runs  round  three  sides  of  the  chamber. 

The  port  would  seem  to  be  naturally  better  than  any  along  the  coast 
of  Palestine  south  of  Csesarea.  There  are,  however,  dangerous  reefs 
liidden  beneath  the  waves,  and  visible  from  their  dark  colour  in  the 
beautifully  transparent  water.  A  very  little  trouble  in  clearing  a  passage 
through  these  would,  I  imagine,  render  the  jMinet  Eiibin  a  better  port 
than  Jaffa,  as  the  reefs  are  farther  from  the  beach. 

The  river,  even  in  May,  was  full  of  water  for  several  miles  above  the 
shore,  and  deep  pools  exist  throiighout  its  course.  It  is  fed  by  springs 
at  and  near  the  foot  of  the  hills,  and  is  the  most  formidable  natural 
Ijarrier  between  the  Aujeh  and  Wady  Ghuzzeh.  It  therefore  forms 
along  the  latter  part  of  its  course  such  a  natural  boundary  as  would  be 
required  between  the  jjossessions  of  Judah  and  of  Dan. 

Claude  E,  Conder,  Lieut.  E.E., 

In  Command  Survey  of  Palestine. 


THE  SITE  OF  THE  CITY  OF  ADULLAM. 

By  0.  Clermont-Gais'js'EAu. 

Four  years  ago  I  was  led  to  place  the  city  of  AduUam  at  Ayd  el 
Mieh,  a  ruin  situated  north-east  of  Beit  Jibrin,  not  far  from  Sbuweikeb 
(the  ancient  Shocoh),  on  the  road  from  Jerusalem  to  Beit  Jibrin.  I 
oonimunicated  this  identification  to  several  persons  while  it  was  still  a 
conjectiu-e,  especially  to  Capt.  Burton  and  Mr.  C.  F.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,* 
on  their  journey  to  Jerusalem  in  1871 ;  to  M.  Eenan,  who  wished  to 
communicate  it  to  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions ;  and,  later  on,  to  Lieut. 

*  "Unexplored  Syria,"  1872,  ii.  294.  "AduUam  .  .  site.  M.  Gamieau 
pointed  out  the  true  site  farther  east,  at  the  Kliirbet  Adahniyeh,  pronounced  by 
the  people  Ayd  el  Miyya,  at  a  short  distance  froni  the  well-known  Bayt 
Nutof." 


LETTERS    FROM    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU.  169 

Conder,*  to  whom  at  the  same  time  I  pointed  out  several  oLlier  obser- 
vations made  during  the  same  excursion,  when  I  first  saw  Ed  el 
Miye;  among  others  the  tomb  of  the  Bauyldcr  of  Noah  and  El  Azhek 
(=Azeka  ?)  at  Ellar,  and  the  sculptured  cavern  and  the  inscriptions  at 
Khirbct  Za  Kariyeh,  and  several  names  of  localities  marked  in  my  route. 
I  propose  to  state  the  considerations  which  decided  me  to  adopt  hypo- 
theses in  which  I  am  the  first  to  detect  certain  weak  points. 


The  first  appearance  of  the  name  of  this  city  in  the  Bible  is  found  in 
Genesis  xxxviii.,  in  connection  with  the  episode  of  Judah  and  Tamar. 
Judah,  who  was  with  his  brothers  at  Hebron,  Avent  doiua  to  Hirah 
the  Adullamite,  and  married  the  daughter  of  the  Canaanite  Shuah.f 
Later  en,  the  patriarch,  accompanied  by  his  friend  Hirah,  J  goes  up  to 
Timnath  to  the  sheep-shearing.  According  to  Knobel,  this  Timnath 
has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Timnath  of  the  tribe  of  Dan  (=Tibnch, 
not  far  from  Ain  Shems),  but  would  be  the  Timnah  cited  by  the 
Book  of  Joshua  (xv.  57),  with  Hak-kain  (Cain)  and  Gibeah  in  the 
moimfains  of  Judah. 

At  the  time  of  Jerome  another  opinion  prevailed,  for  the  Onomasticon 
(s.  V.  Thamna)  identifies  this  Timnah,  where  Judah  went  for  his  sheep- 
shearing,  with  a  great  town,  Thamna,  situated  between  Jerusalem  and 
Diospolis,  and  belonging  to  the  common  territory  of  Dan  and  Judah. 
The  passage  is,  perhaps,  corrupt ;  at  all  events,  considering  the  evident 
theory  of  the  author,  we  ought  to  read  Eleutheropolis  (Beit  Jil>riu) 
and  not  Diospolis  (Lydda).§ 

*  When  I  arrived  at  Jenisalem,  at  tlie  ciul  of  1S73,  MM.  ConJer  and  Drake 
had  just  visited  the  great  cave  of  Umm  el  Tumaymiyg  with  Mr.  Neil  and  Dr. 
Cha])lin,  tliinking  that  it  was  the  place  pointed  out  by  me  as  the  possible 
Adullam.  Dut  I  never  visited  this  iilace.  ]\Ir.  Drake  rectified  Ins  error  in  a 
subsequent  note. 

t  There  is  a  village,  Esh'u,  not  far  from  tlie  neighbourhood  of  these  events.  The 
name  may  possibly  preserve  some  recollection  of  Shuali,  who  would  be  of  import- 
ance in  the  genealogy  of  Judah. 

+  The  Septuagint  and  the  Vulgate  translate  Eo'e,  shepherd,  which  seems  to 
agree  with  what  follows. 

§  Nevertheless  the  Onomasticon  places  the  Timnath  Serah  of  Joshua  in  the 
territory  of  Dan,  whicli  adds  to  our  difficulties.  Besides,  whether  tlie  Onomas- 
ticon understands  in  this  passage  the  Timuatli  Serah  of  Ephraini  (wliicli  is  ex- 
tremely impi-obable)  or  the  Timnath  near  Ain  Shems,  neither  of  these  localities 
is  found  between  Diospolis  or  Eleutheropolis  and  Jerusalem,  or  even  on  tl.e 
road  from  one  to  the  other.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  Onomasticon  has  iu 
view  an  unknown  Timnatli,  that  grouped  in  the  Book  of  Joshua  between 
Gibeah  and  Hak-kain,  the  neighbourhood  of  Gibeah  would  bring  us  to  the  middle 

N 


170  LETTERS    FROM    M.    C'LERMONT-GANNEAU. 

Judali,  before  arriving  at  Timnaili,  meets  Tamar  at  "  an  open  place," 
or  a  place  called  Enaim,*  or  possibly  Patali  Euaim,  on  the  road  wliicb 
leads  to  Timnatb.  It  bas  been  supposed  tbat  Enaim  was  uo  otber  than 
Enam,  mentioned  in  tbe  first  group  of  tbe  towns  of  the  Sbefelab 
(Joshua  XV.  36),  which  would  imply  the  identity  of  our  Timnatb  with 
tbe  Danite  Tibneb.  As  we  do  not  know  from  what  place  Judah  went 
to  Timnatb,  we  cannot  deduce  from  the  account  much  light  on  tbe 
position  of  AduUam,  as  some  writers  have  been  disposed  to  admit. 
The  city  itself  is  not  once  mentioned,  except  as  being  tbe  natal  place  of 
Hirah. 


II. 

The  Book  of  Joshua  gives  more  precise  indications.  In  tbe  list  of 
Canaanite  kings  defeated  by  the  successors  of  Moses  (xii.  15),  tbe  king 
of  Adullam  figures  between  those  of  Libnab  and  Makkedah. 

Farther  on  (xv.  36)  we  see  tbat  the  city  of  Adullam  belonged  to  tbe 
territory  of  the  tribe  of  Judah ;  it  forms,  with  Jarmuth,  Socbo,  and 
Azeka,  a  group  apart  among  tbe  fourteen  cities  placed  in  the  first  line 
in  tbe  Shepbalah. 

I  once  proposed  tbat  tbe  Shepbalah  might  be  considered,  not  as  the 
plain,  as  is  generally  understood,  but  as  tbe  low  country,  tbe  second 
slope  of  tbe  great  mass  of  bills  which  forms  tbe  territory  of  Judab 
and  its  level  undulations  in  the  plaius.  This  idea  was  adopted 
by  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  Drake  and  others  to  whom  I  submitted  it.  I 
still  think  it  is  perfectly  borne  out  by  the  facts.  Shepbalah  bas  properly 
tbe  sense  of  low,  and  not  oiflat :  tbe  word  under  this  form  corresponds 
with  the  Arabic  as/el,  in  the  feminine  soufla.  Tbe  vulgar  form  of  souffla, 
siffla,  is  applied  at  the  present  day  in  a  geographical  sense :  thus,  tbe 
village  Ellur  es  sijla  (the  low)  as  opposed  to  EUar  el  foka  (the  high),  is 
placed  near  several  cities  indicated  as  being  in  the  Shepbalah ;  and  about 
a  mile  and  a  half  north-east  of  Zanoua  (Zanoab  cf  the  Shepbalah)  there 
exists  a  little  village  called  Siiia  or  Sifala,  which  may  possibly  still 
mark  tbe  eastern  limit  of  the  Shepbalah. 

of  the  road  from  Jerusalem  to  Eleutlieropolis,  only  it  would  be  inadmissible  to 
extend  the  territory  of  Dan  so  far.  Tlie  passage  in  the  Onomasticon  leaves  the 
question  open  wliether  it  meant  Timnath  near  Dan  or  Timnatli  near  Gibeah. 

*  The  Ouomastioon,  apparently  making  itself  an  echo  of  the  current  Kab- 
binical  traditions  of  the  time,  indicates  Enan  as  a  desert  place  near  the  Thamna 
already  quoted,  with  a  spring— wlience  its  name — and  an  idol  held  in  great 
veneration.  St.  Jerome  adds  that  the  Hebrews  explain  the  expression  by  biviicm, 
a  word  which  he  adopts  in  the  Vulgate.  Perhaps  it  is  best  to  read  "in  the  en- 
trance of  Enaim."  Farther  on,  the  people  of  the  place  are  spoken  of,  so  that  it 
was  inhabited.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  Jerome  does  not  ex^^lain  the  nature  of 
the  worshix)  paid  to  tbe  "idol"  in  his  own  time.  Perhaps  it  was  one  of  the 
Canaanite  deities — an  Astarte,  pati'oness  of  the  class  to  which  Tamar  belonged. 


LETTERS  FROM  JI.  CLEKMON T-GA.VNEAIT,  171 

We  must  not,  therefore,  persist  in  seeking  Adullam  in  the  plain, 
nor  ought  we  to  be  astonished  if  we  find  the  place  as  high  up  amon<»' 
the  hills  as  Eshtaol,  Zorah,  or  Zanoah,  belonging  like  itself  to  the 
Shephalah.* 


III. 

In  the  First  Book  of  Samuel  we  learn  that  David,  pursued  by  the 
unrelenting  hatred  of  Saul,  and  no  longer  able  to  rest  at  Gath,  took 
refuge  in  the  cave  of  Adnllam.  His  brothers  and  his  relations  came 
down  from  Bethlehem  and  joined  him  there.  The  little  group  of  exiles 
was  increased  by  the  accession  of  "  eveiy  one  who  was  in  distress,  and 
every  one  that  was  in  debt,  and  every  one  that  was  discontented,"  and 
of  such  materials  the  future  king  formed  his  first  army.  On  one  occa- 
sion, David  having  expressed  a  desire  to  drink  "of  the  water  of  the 
well  of  Bethlehem  that  is  at  the  gate,"  three  of  the  bravest  of  the 
Gihhorim  successfully  passed  through  the  lines  of  the  Philistines  and 
brought  him  the  water  for  which  he  longed  (1  Chron.  xi.  19  j  2  Sam. 
xxiii.  13). 

It  is  clear  from  the  double  account  of  this  episode  that  there  was  no 
question  of  supplying  a  lack  of  water,  but  of  satisfying  a  longing  for 
home  quite  intelligible  in  an  exile.  I  insist  on  this  fact  because  some 
have  been  led  to  imderstaud  from  this  touching  episode  that  Adullam 
must  be  near  Bethlehem,  which  is  possible,  but  not  necessary. f 

The  narrative  in  both  the  Book  of  Chronicles  and  that  of  Samuel 
clearly  imi^lies  that  Adullam  had  a  strategic  importance,  so  that  it  is 
quite  natural  to  find  it  among  the  cities  fortified  by  Rehoboam  (2  Chron. 
xi.  7)  between  Bethzur  and  Shoclio. 

It  is  mentioned  in  Nehemiah  (xi.  30),  between  Jarmuth  and  Zanoah, 
as  ha%ang  been  inhabited  after  the  captivity  by  the  sons  of  Judah. 
Judas  Maccabeus  here  celebrated  the  Sabbath  at  the  head  of  his  army 

*  On  the  otlier  hand,  many  names  of  towns  certainly  situated  in  the  jJain  are 
nowhere  classed  among  those  of  the  Shephalah.  Tlie  existence  of  the  cities  of 
the  Shephalah  in  the  liighlands  has  so  much  embarrassed  commentators,  that  some 
of  them  have  had  to  suppress  the  difEculty  by  a  gratuitous  invention — viz.,  that 
the  word  Shephalali  is  not  Hebrew  at  all. 

t  This  is  the  opinion  of  Thenius  (Die  Bucher  Samuel,  ]i.  10.3).  The  same 
commentator  supposing  that  David,  after  placing  his  parents  in  safety  in  Moab, 
came  back  to  the  cave  of  Adullam,  and  that  it  is  to  this  locality  that  the  words 
of  Gad  apply  ("Abide  not  in  the  hold;  depart,  and  get  thee  into  the  land  of 
Judah"),  concludes  that  if  the  city  of  Adullam  was  in  the  territory  of  Judah,  the 
cave  was  without,  in  that  of  Benjamin.  But  is  it  sure  that  by  Eres  Yehoudah 
the  text  means  tlie  territory  of  the  tribe  ?  Is  it  demonstrated  that  the  events 
followed  as  Thenius  interprets  them  ?  Are  there  more  reasons  for  placing  the 
cave  of  Adullam  in  the  tribe  of  Benjamin  than  in  that  of  Dan,  for  example  ? 
One  thing,  however,  is  cpiite  clear — the  cave  and  tlie  city  were  quite  close  to  each 
other ;  both  were  in  the  land  of  Judah,  and  both  in  the  Shephalah. 


172  LETTERS    FROM    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU. 

after  defeating  Gorgias,  wlio  fled  to  Maveslia,  near  Beit  Jibrin  (2  Mace, 
xii.  38). 

Lastly,  in  the  clia]3ter  of  Micali  (chap,  i.)  which  contains  a  curious 
series  of  jeux  de  mots  on  different  towns  of  Palestine,  Adullam 
is  associated  with  Mareshah  in  one  of  these  alliterations,  with 
an  apparent  tendency  to  isolate  the  first  syllable  of  the  word,  Ad- 
AduUam. 


IV. 

If  we  pass  from  the  Bible  to  profane  texts,  we  have  to  remark  iu 
Josephus  the  transcription  of  the  name  as  Adullame  (Antiq.  vi.  12,  3). 

The  Onomasticon  gives  us  indications  on  the  position  assigned  to  it  by 
tradition  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries,  which  are  extremely  involved. 
We  must  try  to  clear  them  up. 

"  Eglon,  which  is  also  called  AduUam,  in  the  tribe  of  Judah,  where 
king  Debir  was  slain  by  Joshua.  It  is  still  a  large  town  in  the 
region  of  Eleutheropolis,  at  ten  miles  (Jerome  says  twelve  miles) 
distance." 

The  expression  irpos  ovaroXas  may  mean,  according  to  the  well- 
established  practice  of  Eusebius,  rather  the  north-east  or  south-east 
than  direct  east.  Gczer  is  thus  placed  in  an  easterly  direction  with 
regard  to  Emmaus,  eV  ^opeion — in  the  north.  Now  I  have  found  it 
at  Tell  el  Jezer,  which  is  north-west  of  Emmaus.  The  plural  appears 
to  mark  intentionally  a  direction  intermediate  to  the  cardinal  points. 

How  does  this  confusion  between  Eglon  and  Adullam  arise .?  The 
error  must  be  assigned  to  a  neglect  of  the  Hebrew  text,  because  no 
Greek  copyist  could  confuse  ErAHN  and  OAOAAAM.  In  fact,  the 
fault  is  due  to  the  Septiragint,  which  has  taken  in  Joshua  x.  5,  pit; 
for  Db-ijT,  and  has  written  oSoAAa^i  (or  oSoWa).  The  gimel  was  taken 
for  a  daleth,  the  two  letters  in  the  alphabet  then  in  use  resembling  each 
other  very  strongly,  and  the  substitution  of  the  Mem  for  the  Nun  was 
thus  almost  forced.* 

It  is  thus  that  the  strange  contradiction  in  the  passage  of  Eusebiusmay 
Lave  been  caused.  Eglon  is,  without  doubt,  Khirbet  Ajlan,  about  twelve 
Boman  miles  almost  due  west  of  Beit  Jibrin.  Eusebius,  harassed  by 
his  supposed  obligations  to  the  text  of  the  Septuagint,  and  preoccupied 
by  another  locality  cast  of  Beit  Jibrin,  where  he  placed  Adullam,  applied 
to  Eglon  what  he  really  intended  for  the  former  city.  Jerome,  in  his 
turn,  recognising  the  impossibility  that  two  different  places  should  be  the 
same,  and  having  rightly  ascertained  that  the  distance  of  Eglon  from 
Eleutheropolis  Avas  twelve  miles  and  not  ten,  corrects  the  narrative  of 
Eusebius,  but  preserves  the  orientation  applicable  only  to  Adullam.    In 

*  Tlie  Gi7nel  in  the  ancient  inscriptions  that  I  found  at  Jerusalem  was  written 
very  much  like  the  Daldh.  Lower  down,  iu  Joshua  xv.  39,  the  Septuagint  gives 
correctly  EFAflN. 


LETTERS    FROM    M.    CLERMONT-GANXEAU.  173 

another  passage  (s.  v.  x""^^').  the  Onomasticon  says  that  Chasbi  (Chezib), 
where  the  wife  of  Judah  gave  birth  to  Shelah  (which  is  probably  the 
Achzib  of  the  group  in  Joshua  xv.  37),  is  shown  in  a  desert  place  near 
Dollam,  or  Odollam,  in  the  confines  of  Eleutheropolis.  Piocopius  of 
Gaza  (Commentary  on  Joshua) — who  seems  to  have  only  reproduced  a 
portion  of  the  Onomasticon,  with  a  correction  of  the  distances — after 
stating  that  Yerimoth  is  at  the  fourteenth  mile  from  Eleutheropolis, 
near  Eshtaol,  adds,  without  any  indication  of  the  connection  in  his  own 
mind,  the  name  of  AduUam.* 

Lastly,  the  Onomasticon  places  Makkedah,  a  city  celebrated  for  the 
cavern  where  Joshua  killed  the  five  kings,  eight  miles  from  Eleuthero- 
polis in  the  east,  irpos  avarSKas  ;  this  is  within  two  miles  the  distance 
and  the  position  attributed  to  Adullam=Eglon.  We  may  imagine  that 
the  cave  has  produced  a  new  confusion  between  the  two  cities,  like 
that  which  we  have  pointed  out  above,  and  we  may  put  down  the 
measure  of  eight  miles  to  the  account  of  AduUam.  It  is,  in  fact,  dif- 
ficult to  believe  that  AduUam  and  Makkedah,  which  belong  to  two 
distinct  series  iu  the  lists  of  Joshua,  were  no  more  than  two  Eoman 
miles  apart. 


Y. 

In  working  upon  data  so  uncertain  it  is  clearly  difficult  to  determine 
tbe  exact  position  of  AduUam.  Nevertheless,  a  tradition — we  may 
boldly  call  it  a  legend — sprang  up  in  after  years,  which  placed  the  cave 
of  AduUam  at  the  immense  grotto  known  as  Moghuret  Khureitun, 
not  far  from  Bethlehem  and  quite  close  to  Tekoa.  The  description 
of  this  cave  has  been  given  a  hundred  times.  The  legend  was  only 
concerned  with  the  cave,  and  did  not  trouble  itself  to  establish  the 
proximity  of  a  city.     (See  Tobler,  II.  509  et  scq.) 

It  has  long  been  proved  that  the  name  of  Khureitun  applied  to  the 
cave  to  the  adjacent  ruins,  to  a  spring,  and  to  the  valley  below,  is  no- 
thino-  else  than  that  of  the  ascetic  Chariton,  who  founded  in  this  place 
one  of  his  two  Lauras,  called  Suka,  fourteen  stadia  from  Tekoa.  The 
orio-in  of  the  word  Suka  has  been  a  good  deal  discussed.  It  is  from  the 
Syriac.  Tobler  and  Sepp  explain  it  by  the  Hebrew  Succah,  a  tent  or 
house.  I  think  that  they  are  wrong.  We  should  have  in  that  case  ax 
and  not  a  k  in  the  Greek  transcription,  the  k'jpjxc  implies  a  Jcojyh  in 
tlie  original,  and  upsilon  an  i  rather  than  an  o  or  an  ou.\ 

Now  why  did  tradition  get  hold  of  this  cavern  called  KpefiacrToi/  and 

*  Trepi  tV  EtrSadiA  Kuiu.r]v  'OSoAXau.  Perliaps  tlu'  })hrase  may  be  separated  by 
a  stop  before  the  last  word. 

f  We  have  also  2ou/ca.  So  tlie  Scptuagint  gives  us  acox"  and  (tcoxo^v  for  Socho. 
So  in  the  Arabic  the  convent  Mar  Saba  is  called  Deir  es  Sik.  In  the  Annals  of 
Eutychius  (II.  108,  242,  243)  the  convent  of  Chariton  and  that  of  Saba  are 
called  the  old  and  the  new  Deir  es  Sik. 


174  LETTERS    FROM    M.    CLERMONT-GA"S"XEAU. 

make  Adullam  out  of  it  ?  Probably  on  account  of  its  remarkable  di- 
mensions and  its  proximity  to  Bethleliem.  Perliaj)s  tlie  name  of  SnJca 
went  for  something.  It  is  probable  that  tliis  belief  took  its  origin  at 
tlie  time  of  the  Crusades;  it  is  certainly  as  old  as  that  date;  and  the 
confusion  of  SuIm  with  Sik  and  Sccho  would  have  been  impossible  for 
a  Semitic  race,  but  the  Crusaders  would  be  helped  in  their  identification 
by  an  apparent  resemblance,  the  city  of  Socho  being  associated  with 
Adullam  in  the  Bible  narrative.  This  mistake  would  be  quite  in  accord- 
ance with  their  habits. 

We  cannot,  as  critics,  accept  such  a  ftible.  But  we  ourselves  have 
not  been  more  fortunate.  Our  own  topography  has  proposed  for 
Adullam  in  succession,  Deir  Dubban,  Beit  Alam,  Beit  Doula,  &c. 

Not  one  of  these  hypotheses  answers  to  the  conditions  of  the 
problem. 

First  of  all,  the  name  of  Adullam  must  be  considered  separately. 
Whatever  its  etymology,  it  is  certain  that,  however  preserved  by  the 
Arabs,  it  would  have  undergone  considerable  modifications.  For 
example,  it  might  have  been  Adlun,  under  which  name  we  shovild  at 
once  recognise  it.  This  name  exists,  but  unfortunately  it  is  attached 
to  a  place  very  far  from  the  territory  of  Judah,  on  the  coast  of 
Phoenicia,  between  Tyre  and  Sidon.  These  caprices  of  Onomastic  echoes 
are  not  rare  in  Syria. 

We  should  expect  a  deviation  of  the  final  syllable  into  oun,  in,  or  an  ; 
a  disappearance  of  the  d  by  assimilation  with  the  double  I ;  and  a 
transformation  of  the  ain  into  ghaln,  and  perhaps  into  li. 

Starting  with  this  principle,  I  was  struck  by  the  resemblance  of 
the  Hebrew  word  Adullam  with  that  of  a  ruin  called  Ed  el  Miye* 
situated  on  the  road  from  Jerusalem  to  Beit  Jibrin,  not  far  from 
Shuweikeh  or  Socho. 

In  1871  I  resolved  to  visit  the  place  in  order  to  verify  conjectures 
resting  upon  nothing  more  than  appearances  which  might  be  vain,  and 
I  included  this  place  in  the  programme  of  a  little  excursion — the  same 
in  which  I  discovered  Gezer.  The  following  are  some  of  the  notes 
which  I  made  on  the  journey  : — 

"  Starting  from  Jerusalem  on  the  30th  of  January,  in  a  pelting  rain,  we 
pass  (my  companion  being  Frere  Lievin)  by  Bettir,  Houbin,  and  Ella 
el  Foka.  Facing  this  latter  place,  on  the  other  side  of  the  valley, 
towards  the  south,  exists  a  place  called  El  Azhek,t  whose  name  singu- 
larly resembles  that  of  the  city,  hitherto  unknown,  of  Azeka.     It  is  a 

*  It  will  be  found  that  Lieutenant  Conder  spells  the  word  Ayd  el  Mieh. 

t  Azeka,  we  know,  is  a  crii,x  intcrpretum.  If  we  fix  it  at  EUar,  there  would 
he  among  other  advantages — (1)  Tliat  it  would  remain  in  the  groitp  of  Joshua  xv. 
36.  (2)  It  would  agree  with  the  fixing  of  the  PliiHstine  camp  (1  Sam.  xvii.  1)  if 
Vandevelde's  Damun  is  Dommim.  (3)  It  would  he  half-way  between  Jerasalem 
and  Beit  Jibrin,  in  accordance  with  the  Onomasticon.  Khirbet  Za  Kariyeh  has 
been  proposed ;  one  might  also  think  of  Beit  Iska  and  of  Khirhet  Haska. 


LETTERS    FROM    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU.  175 

rocky  plateau,  surrounded  by  lulls  of  greater  elevation,  with  no  other 
trace  of  ruins  than  a  great  circle  of  shapeless  stones  called  Bar  el 
Kihliyc. 

"  Then  Khirbet  Hanna,  Khirbet  Harik  esh  Shekhaleb,  with  the  tomb  of 
Noah's  daughter,  Khirbet  Jairieh,  the  Spring  of  Tannur  (legend  of 
the  Deluge),  Ellar  es  Sitia,  or  Bawaij  (mediasval  ruin).  From  thence  we 
directed  our  course  due  south-east,  and  arrived  a  little  before  sunset  at 
the  broad  valley  on  one  of  the  sides  of  which  are  the  ruins  which  I. 
wished  to  see.  They  were  called  Ed  el  Miye,  or  Id  el  Miye.  Like  most 
of  the  ancient  sites  in  Palestine,  they  have  no  determined  character,  but 
appear  to  cover  a  fairly  large  extent  of  ground,  as  well  as  could  be  made 
out  among  the  late  grass  with  which  they  were  covered ;  there  is  also  a 
lai'ge  well,  suri'ounded  with  several  troughs,  where  they  bring  the 
cattle  to  drink. 

"  The  place  is  absolutely  uninhabited,  except  in  the  rainy  season, 
when  the  shepherds  take  refuge  there  for  the  night.  These  peasants 
are  here  at  present  in  large  numbers. 

"  We  climb  the  hill  at  the  foot  of  which  these  ruins  extend.  Other 
ruins  lie  on  the  top  of  it,  and  a  small  monument  dedicated  to  the 
Sheikh  Madkur. 

"  The  hill  is  perforated  with  natural  grottoes,  where  the  shepherds  are 
already  housed  for  the  night.  It  is  easy  to  imagine  David  and  his 
companions  lodged  in  these  lai-ge  caves ;  from  them  one  commands  the 
plains  and  valleys  to  a  great  distance  round,  and  a  ghazzia  once  effected, 
this  natural  fortress  would  offer  a  sure  and  commodious  shelter. 

"  As  we  journey  without  tent,  with  our  horses  alone,  and  with  what  our 
Tchordjes  hold,  we  seek  a  shelter  in  the  rocks,  and  leave  our  beasts  in  a 
neighbouring  cave.  But  the  fellahin,  who  make  no  difficulty  about 
number,  protest  against  the  profanation  by  our  animals  of  a  grotto 
sacred  to  Madkur. 

"We  install  ourselves  as  well  as  we  can  in  this  rustic  sanctuary,  taking 
certain  precautions,  for  the  country  is  at  the  moment  a  prey  to 
famine.  We  divide  our  provisions  with  the  little  circle  of  curious 
visitors  who  surround  us,  near  a  great  fire  lit  in  the  liwan.  The  bread 
is  a  welcome  gift  to  these  poor  wretches,  who  have  been  living  for  weeks 
on  leaves  of  khoubbeije  (a  kind  of  mallow).  So  that  I  get  from  them 
without  any  trouble  valuable  information  on  the  place.  Local  tradition 
says  that  the  city  of  Ed  el  Miye  once — but  a  long  while  ago — suffered 
total  destruction  and  a  general  massacre.  Men,  women,  children, 
nothing  was  spared.  They  massacred,  among  others,  eighty  couples  of 
brothers,  reminding  one  of  the  eighty  couples  of  {Go?:ot)  brothers^ 
priests,  spoken  of  in  the  Talmud. 

"  Sheikh  Madkur — some  call  him  Maukur — was  the  son  of  the  Sultan 
Beder.  His  descendants  are  settled  at  Beit  Natif — they  have  built  and 
keep  up  the  wely. 

"  We  pass  the  night  with  a  little  distrust  of  the  vagabonds  round  us — 
hunger  is  a  bad  adviser.     But  Sheikh  Madkur,  or  the  ancient  divinity 


176  LETTERS  FROM  M.  CLERMONT-GANXEAU. 

T^''llom  lie  represents,  watches  over  us,  and  the  morning  arrives  -svithout 
accident.  We  set  off  immediately,  casting  one  rapid  glance  at  the  hill, 
which  is  full  of  caves,  tombs,  and  cisterns,  and  covered  over  with  great 
Idocks  of  cut  stone.  Wo  have  to  get  as  quickly  as  possible  to  Beit 
Jibrin,  for  the  sake  of  our  horses,  who  have  had  nothing  to  eat  but 
grass." 

Since  that  moment  the  idea  that  I  had  seen  the  ruins  and  the  cave  of 
Adullam  dwelt  continually  in  my  mind,  without,  however,  becoming  a 
serious  conviction.  During  my  last  visit  to  Palestine  I  proposed,  by  an 
excursion  in  the  region  of  Beit  Jibrin,  to  make  another  journey  to  Ed  el 
Miye.  We  found  the  place  completely  deserted,  the  whole  country  being 
ravaged  by  a  typhoid  fever.  I  ascertained  afresh  that  the  plateau  was 
covered  with  ruins,  and  had  once  been  the  site  of  a  city.  Among  the 
tombs  cut  in  the  rock  was  one  with  a  cross.*  We  explored  the  large 
■cavern  near  the  wely.  We  were  at  a  loss  because  we  had  nothing  to 
'give  us  light,  when,  to  our  surprise  and  joy,  we  discovered  in  the  wely 
a  packet  of  candles  still  in  their  blue  paper  cover,  and  deposited  by  some 
pious  hand  for  the  purpose  of  lighting  the  sanctuary.  Decidedly  the 
good  genius  of  Sheikh  Madkur  visibly  protected  us.  I  made  no  scruple 
about  appropriating  one  of  these  providential  candles,  and  I  subtituted 
a  small  piece  of  money  for  the  benefit  of  the  pious  donor  whose  offering 
I  had  been  obliged  to  use.  We  were  thus  able  to  visit  the  cavern  in  all 
its  extent  without  risk  of  breaking  our  necks,  as  had  nearly  happened  to 
me  already  at  Shiha. 

In  a  halt  at  Ellar  I  picked  up  a  new  legend  on  Ed  el  Miye  which 
enables  us  to  fix  the  orthography  of  the  name. 

The  day  of  the  great  feast  of  Mussulmans  (id)  a  terrible  fight  took 
T)lace,  a  long  time  ago,  between  the  hostile  liammonles  who  lived  in  the 
city.  A  hundred  (miye)  of  the  inhabitants  were  slain.  Since  that  time 
the  place  has  been  called  the  Feast  of  the  Hundred. 

It  is  curious  to  remark  that  the  explanations  in  vogue  among  the 
rabbis  of  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries  on  the  etymology  of  Adullam 
tended  also  to  sejiarate  it  into  two  parts. 

St.  Jerome,  in  fact,  who  was  the  pupil  of  the  Jewish  doctors,  translates 
in  his  De  Nominihus  Hehraicis,  Adullamitem  by  testificatem,  sive  testimo- 
nium aquce ;  Adullamim,  by  congregaiio  eornm;  and  OdoUam  by  testi- 
rnonium  eorum.f  Ho  merely  separates  the  first  syllable  to  assimilate  it 
to  the  Hebrew  cd,  witness.  As  to  the  second  part,  to  which  he  once  gives 
the  name  of  iraicr,  he  has  in  his  mind  the  Hebrew  maim.  Some  of  these 
contradictory  interpretations  would  be  very  well  explained  by  a  form 
analogous  to  the  Arabic  Ed  el  Miye. 

In  spite  of  the  striking  resemblance,  I  have  a  certain  scruple  about 
connecting  Ed  el  Miye  with  Adullam.     Generally  the  Arabic  names  give 

*  A  detail  of  some  importance :  if  the  place  was  inhabited  at  the  Cliristian 
epoch  there  is  a  chance  of  its  having  preserved  its  ancient  name,  and  one  nnder- 
stanils  how  a  survival  of  tlie  name  was  found  by  the  writer  of  the  Onomasticon. 

t  Cf.  also  on  Amwas,  Emmaus,  Quarterly  Statement,  July,  1874,  p.  163. 


ANCIENT   JEWISH    CRAVES.  177 

US  contractions  rather  than  the  reverse.  Wo  should  have  to  admit  that 
Ed  el  Miye  is  connected  with  Adullam  by  means  of  the  ethnic  form  in  tho 
feminine  Edchny,  Edd  Mijic. 

Ed  el  Miye  is  about  eight  Eoman  miles  from  Beit  Jibrin,  as  nearly  as 
can  be  hxed  from  existing  maps,  and  north-east  of  this  city.  It  is  exactly 
the  distance  of  the  position  assigned  by  tho  Onomasticon  to  Mellkedah  ; 
but  -wc  have  seen  that  this  passage  had  in  view  Adullam,  placed  else- 
where at  ten  miles. 

It  is  certain  that  in  placing  Adullam  at  Ed  el  Miye  we  not  only 
approach  tho  statements  of  the  Onomasticon,  but  also  satisfy  very  nearly 
all  the  conditions  demanded  by  the  texts  quoted  above,  including  the 
expedition  of  the  three  Gihorims  who  went  to  fetch  water  from  Bethlehem. 
The  journey  from  Ed  el  Miye  to  Bethlehem  and  back,  about  twelve 
leagues,  would  be  nothing  for  the  light-footed  mountaineers  who  sur- 
rounded David.  Those  who  consider  the  distance  too  much  have  only  to 
i-emember  that  it  is  related  as  an  exploit,  and  that  the  fatigue  has  to  be 
added  to  the  risk.  Let  us  not  forget,  besides,  that  when  David  as  a  boy 
killed  Goliath  he  carried  provisions  to  his  three  elder  brethren  from 
Bethlehem  to  the  camp  of  the  Israelites — that  is  to  say  towards  Sodom, 
in  the  valley  of  the  Terebinth  —nearly  as  far  and  in  the  same  parts  as 
Ed  el  Miye. 

All  these  coincidences,  then,  give  a  high  degree  of  vraisemhlance  to 
the  identification,  but  from  that  to  a  certainty,  such  as  we  have  in  Gezer, 
is  a  long  step.  I  ought  to  add,  in  conclusion,  without  attaching  any 
other  importance  to  it,  that  two  localities  might  also  pretend  to  the 
honour  of  representiug  Adullam,  if  we  confine  ourselves  to  the  phonetic 
point  of  view — EUar,  already  named,  and  Beit  Ellia,  a  little  to  the  east 
of  Ed  el  Miye  ;  but  the  phonetic  point  of  view  is  not  anything  in  topo- 
graphy, and  besides,  even  from  these  considerations,  Ed  el  Miye  has  the 
advantage. 


ANCIENT     JEWISH     GRAVES. 

Letters  fkom  Dr.  Titus  Tobler. 

The  following  letters  from  a  well-known  veteran  in  Palestine  Explora- 
tion will  be  welcome  to  all  who  desire  accurate  knowledge  on  an 
important  branch  of  Jewish  archyeology.  They  refer  to  papers  pub- 
lished in  diff'erent  numbers  of  the  Quarterly  Statement  by  Major  Wilson, 
Lieut.  Gender,  and  M.  Clermont-Ganneau. 

I. 

Munich,  24:th  March,  1875. 
The  different  kinds  of  graves  are  described  in  the  Quarterly  Statement 
in  siich  a  manner  as  to  justify  me  in  drawing  your  attention  to  them. 
I   recognised    four  kinds  of    graves   {Oolgatha,   1851,  p.   216,    &c.). 


178  ANCIENT    JEWISH    GRAVES. 

■wliicli   I   closely  investigated,    in   the    neigliboiu-hood   of    Jerusalem. 
1.  The  common  grave,  sunk  in  the  floor  of  the  grave-chamber,  which 
the  visitor  enters.     2.  The  sliding  or  oven  grave,   in  the  Talmud  Kok 
(plural  Kvlcim),   a  rectangular  sloping  space  cut  into  the  wall  of  the 
rock,  extending  six  feet  horizontally,  sufficiently  wide  and  high  to  admit 
of  a  corpse  being  pushed  in.     This  is  my  reason  for  thus  naming  it. 
3.  The  slu'lf  or  hench  grave,  a  shelf  or  niche,  six  feet  long,  cut  in  the 
wall  of  the  rock  ;   and  upon  this  the  corpse  was  laid,  even  when  it  had 
first  been  j)laced  in  a  coffin.     4.  The  troiKjli  grave.     If  a  trough  was  cut 
in  the  shelf  just  mentioned,  this  made  a  trough  grave,  into  which  the 
corpse  was  laid.     This  division  of  mine  was  accepted  by  the  German 
savants,  and  I  have  also  read  in  a  French  work,  "Trois  ans  en  Judee, 
par  Gerady  Saintine  "  (Paris,  1860,  p.  219)  :  L'examen  .  .  ,  nous  permet 
.  .  .  d'etablir  quatre  categories  des  chambres  faneraires;  les  chambres 
a  four  avec  ou  sans  rainure  dans  le  milieu,  celles  a  tablettes,  celles  a 
auge,  enfin  celles  a  couche  souterraine."     I  must  make  the  very  unwil- 
ling confession  that  I,  who  first  of  all  and  most  thoroughly  examined 
and  described  the  ancient  Jewish  graves,  am  not  altogether  clear  about 
the  reports  which  I  read  upon  these  graves  in  the  Quarierly  Statement — 
a   most  valuable   and  indispensable  publication.      Captain   Wilson's 
description  of  the  varieties  of  graves,  in  the  Qaarterhj  Statement,  1869, 
p.  QQ,  &c.,  interesting  as  it  is,  would  not  sufficiently  clear  up  the  matter 
if  it  were  not  accompanied  by  a  sheet  of  diagrams  ;  I  should  not  have 
understood  "deep  loculi"  and  "sunk  IocuIi"sLt  least  not  the  first. 
Lieut.  Conder's  paper  in  the  Quartcrhj  Statement,  1873,  i)p.  23,  47,  141,  is 
not  clear  enough.     It  is  hardly  justifiable  to  use  the  Latin  word  Joculus 
{locus  in  sepulchro)  for  an  ancient  Jewish  grave;  or  even,  according  to 
Drake  {Quarterlij  Statement,  1873,  p.  58  ;  1874,  p.  71),  to  help  it  out  with 
"  pigeon-hole  Jocuhis,"  because  the  ancient  Jewish  grave — which,  as  far  as 
I  know,  one  might  seek  for  in  vain  in  the  west,  setting  aside  the  modern 
mural  construction,  such  as   at  Barcelona— is  a  TTo/o;  I  consider  that 
this  definite  term  should  always  have  the  preference,  if  my  term  sliding 
or  oven  grave  is  less  suitable,  which  I  freely  admit.      Therefore,   if 
loculi  were  found  in  Rome,  they  could  not  be  designated  as  Koldm. 
In  the  cemetery  of  S.  Callistus,  and  the  catacombs  of  S.  Sebastiano,  the 
loculi  shelf  r/raves  were  introduced  like  the  bunks  of  a  ship.     The  term 
"pigeon-hole  Joculus''  could  not  be  applied  here  either,  because  it  is 
not  a  columbarium,  or  niche  of  that  sort.     M.  Clermont-Ganneau,  in  the 
Quarterly  Statement,  1874,  p.  108,  expresses  himself  more  accurately, 
"  loculi  in  the  form  of  ovens."     If  I  had  not  written  first  to  Jerusalem, 
and  another  time  to  Nazareth,  I  should  not  yet  have  solved  the  problem 
as  to  which  sort  of  graves  were  meant.     It  is  surely  an  obvious  necessity 
that  the  varieties  of  graves  should  be  accurately  and  similarly  desig- 
nated by  the  reporters.     I  avoided  the  subject  of  the  rock  chambers  or 
the  rock  grave-structure  for  fear  of  diffuseness.     The   Quarterhj  State- 
ment, from  the  wide  survey  obtained,  contains  much  valuable  informa- 
tion upon  them. 


ANCIENT   JEWISH    GRAVES.  179 

I  venture  to  draw  your  attention  to  something  else.  Stai'ting  from 
the  point  of  view  that  it  is  very  important  if  possible  to  obtain  correct 
tests  of  the  authorities,  I  edited  the  "  Itinerarium  Burdigala  Hieroso- 
lymam,"  the  "  Peregrinatio  S.  Paulfo,"  the  descriptions  of  S.  Eucherius, 
of  Theodosius  (Theodorus),  of  Antoninus  Martyr,  of  S.  Willibaklus,  of 
the  Commemoratoriam,  of  Bernardus  Monachus,  of  John  Wirziburgensis ; 
not  to  mention  Theodoricus  and  the  "  Citez  de  Iherusalem."  See  "  De- 
scriptiones  Terrse  Sanctse,"  Leipsic,  1874,  p.  525.  I  see  that  the  con- 
tributors and  editors  of  the  Quarterly  Statement  have  taken  no  notice  of 
all  this.  Tou  know  how  much  trouble  Clermont-Ganneau  gave  him- 
self to  obtain  the  text  of  John  of  "Wiiizburg  [QuarterJy  Statement, 
1874,  pp.  156,  164).  At  last  he  got  it,  but  not  the  one  which 
I  had  revised,  v.'hichis  tobe  recommended  in  preference  to  the  "Templum 
Domini "  on  account  of  some  important  improvements.  As  I  considei*ed 
it  important  to  edit  more  correct  texts,  I  think  that  it  would  also  not 
be  unimportant  for  your  readers  to  look  into  them.  At  the  same 
time  I  have  the  honour  of  sending  you  my  treatise  against  Mons.  de 
Saulcy,  which  contains  some  mention  of  the  ancient  Jewish  graves. 

Geokge  Geove,  Esq.  Titus  Toblee. 


II. 

Mttnich,  17;/i  April,  1875. 

I  was  delighted  to  get  an  answer  from  you,  and  it  gives  me  much 
pleasure  to  continue  the  correspondence. 

I  take  the  liberty  of  drawing  your  attention  to  a  few  other  matters. 
Prof.  E.  H.  Palmer,  who  visited  Beit  Jibrin,  mentions  the  inscriptions  ; 
but,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  does  not  speak  of.  the  very  curious  rock 
columbaria,  which,  I  might  almost  say,  are  exact  patterns  of  those  which 
one  sees  built  (gemauert)  in  Rome  and  Pompeii.  It  would,  therefore, 
be  desirable,  if  the  engineers  reach  this  point,  that  the  right  "terminus'* 
should  be  chosen.  In  my  third  journey  (p.  131)  I  recognised  an  evident 
columbarium  there — one  can  plainly  see  the  niches  for  the  urns. 

In  the  Quarterly  Statement  it  is  supposed  that  there  was  a  fortress  on 
the  Quarantana  mountain.  To  corroborate  this  you  will  see  the  same 
thing  mentioned  in  my  edition  of  Theodoricus  (1863,  ]).  72).  In  this 
author  may  be  found  mention  of  two  other  castles — Sapham,  and  one 
which  is  not  named,  and  is  difficult  to  find  in  the  authorities  (p.  98). 
In  "  The  Exploration  of  Palestine,  from  its  foundation  to  Dec,  1870," 
one  finds  (p.  15)  the  following  :  "  At  a  point  600  feet  distant  from  the 
south-western  angle,  the  Tarik  Bab  es-Silsileh  passes  into  the  Haram 
through  the  Bab  es-Silsileh,  over  luhaf  had  always  been  supposed  to  he 
an  earthen  cmbanJcment."  I  examined  this  cave  in  1846,  and  described 
it  to  the  Fund  in  my  memorandum  (Denkblattern,  p.  41  IF.),  where  I 
positively  declared  (p.  141  f.)  the  Suk  Bab  es-Sinsleh  (Silsileh)  to  be  a 
bridge.     In  my  "  Topography  of  Jerusalem,"  Bk.   1,  p.  206,  I  further 


180      NOTES    BY    CAPTAIN    WARREN,    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU,    ETC. 

proved  tliat  this  so-called  causeway  (Williams)  of  later  topographists 
served  as  a  bridge  (pons)  at  the  time  of  the  Crusades,  and  that  a  street 
led  under  it  from  the  Stephen's  Gate  (now  Damascus  Gate)  to  the 
Tanners'  Gate.  This  I  inferred  from  the  Citez  de  Iherusalem,  in  the 
incorrect  text  of  Beugnot,  as  I  then  knew  it  (1853). 

I  am  sui-prised  that  this  incorrect  Williams-Beugnot  text  should 
still  be  used  in  England,  since  as  early  as  1854,  in  the  "  Topography  " 
just  mentioned,  in  1859  in  the  "  Recueil  des  Historiens  des  Croisades," 
and  in  1860  in  De  Yoglie's  "  Eglises  de  la  Terre  Sainte,"  better  and 
here-and-there  thoroughly  correct  texts  are  to  be  found.  A  recently 
revised  text — the  first  critical  one — is  to  be  found  in  the  "  Descriptiones 
Terreo  Sanctse"  published  by  me. 

I  am  not  acquainted  with  the  space  to  the  south  below  the  temple 
plateau  and  the  mosques,  between  the  stejjs  under  the  Aksa  mosque  and 
the  western  wall  of  the  Haram  esh-Sherif ;  perhaps  I  overlooked  it  in 
Morison's  "  Recovery  of  Jeriisalem,"  in  "  Our  Work  in  Palestine,"  or 
in  the  Quarterly  Statements ;  of  the  latter,  in  spite  of  all  my  efforts,  I 
have  not  been  able  to  get  hold  of  the  first  number. 

In  "  The  Exploration,"  the  map  is  entitled  "  Thirty  square  miles  of 
Judaea,  showing  the  amount  of  our  present  knowledge  of  the  country  " 
(1870).  A  fcAv  things  are  wanting  in  this  map.  For  instance,  Ain 
Attan,  which  I  found  at  Wadi  Biar ;  Ain  Kasas,  near  the  so-called 
tanks  of  Solomon;  the  important  ruin  of  the  convent  at  Der  es-Seiar ; 
the  Wadi  Saich,  below  the  Wadi  Rahib ;  the  Wady  Tawahun,  below  the 
Wadi  Artas  ;  in  fact,  the  Arabic  names  of  valleys  generally  apply  only 
to  very  short  distances.  Compare  letterpress  and  map  of  my  "Deuk- 
blattern,"  and  of  my  Third  Journey. 

George  Grove,  Esq.  Titus  Tobler. 


PHILISTIA. 

The  following  suggestions  with  regard  to  possible  identifications  of 
ancient  sites,  not  hitherto  recognised,  the  results  of  my  reconnaissance 
of  the  plain  of  Philistia  in  1867,  are  put  forward  with  some  diffidence. 

May,  1875.  Charles  Warren. 

The  word  Shephalah  *  may  be  found  in  'Allar  es-Sifla  (or  'AUar  of  the 
low  lands),  in  contradistinction  to  'Allar  el-Foka  (the  upper). 

Page  162,  Quarterly,  Joshua  xv 

P.E.F.,  1871. 

Abu  Kabus        Cabbon. 

Kebu Cabbon. 

Eilin Dilean. 

*  Seep.  170. 


NOTES    BY   CAPTAIN   WARREN,    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU,    ETC.       181 


BesLit 
Sluaueli  . . 
Huleikafc 
Bir  en  Nalil 
Hatta      . . 
Beit  Affa 
B'alln      . . 
Ibneli 
Mogbara 


Bozkatli. 

Sharaim. 

Gath. 

Enaiu. 

Ether. 

Jeplita. 

Dilean. 

Libaala. 

Makkedah. 


SITE  OF  LIBNAH. 

This  ancient  city  was  one  of  the  most  important  of  those  attacked  and 
taken  by  Joshua,  and  its  subsequent  history  leads  to  the  surmise  that  it 
occupied  a  strong  and  commanding  position;  its  site,  however,  has 
hitherto  escaped  discovery,  although  it  is  suggested  as  being  repre- 
sented by  Arak  el  Menshiyeh  (Vandevelde),  by  Tell  es  Safieh  (Dean 
Stanley),  and  by  Beit  Jibrin  (Lieut.  Conder). 

Jabneel  and  Jabnah  are  each  only  mentioned  once  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  are  recognised  as  being  one  and  the  same  place.  I  propose 
to  identify  these  names  -with  that  of  Libuah,  the  modern  equivalent 
being  Ibna,  a  ruined  city  situated  on  a  conspicuous  hill  on  the  sea-coast 
between  Jaffa  and  Ashdod. 

The  Jabneel  of  the  Old  Testament  is  given  as  Lebna  in  the  LXX., 
and  again  the  Libnah  of  the  Old  Testament  is  in  one  instance  given 
in  the  LXX.  as  Lemna. 

We  have  Jebneel,  Jabnia,  Jamnia,  Jafneh,  lamnia,  Ibelin,  Ivelyn, 
Libnah,  Lebna,  Lemna,  Yebna,  and  Ibna  as  various  changes  upon  the 
old  words  Libnah  and  Jabnah,  the  modern  word  Ibna  representing  both 
these  early  forms. 

Libnah  was  given  over  to  the  jjriests,  the  sons  of  Aaron,  and  sub- 
sequently we  find  Jamnia  to  be  the  great  seat  of  Hebrew  leai'ning, 
where  the  Sanhedrim  sat. 

The  modern  Ibna  occupies  a  very  commanding  position  on  the  great 
road  along  the  coast  of  Palestine  ;  it  is  170  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
sea,  and  has  an  ancient  port  attached,  as  had  Gaza,  Ascalon,  &c.  It 
was  in  the  time  of  Josephus  one  of  the  most  populous  cities  of  Pales- 
tine. In  modern  days  the  encroaching  sand  has  swallowed  up  the  once 
fertile  sea-board  of  Philistia.  The  position  I  thus  assign  to  Libnah 
appears  to  agree  well  with  the  account  of  its  attack  by  Joshua. 

May  14,  1875.  Charles  "Warren. 


182       NOTES    BY    CAPTAIN   WARREN,    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU,    ETC. 

NOTE   ON  SHAAEAIM. 

In  Josluia  xv.  33-36  there  occurs  the  following  group  : — • 

"Eshtaol,  Zoreah,  Aslinali,  Zanoali,  En-gaunim,  Tappuah,  Enam, 
Jarmuth,  Adullam,  Socoli,  Azekab,  Shaaraim,  Aditliaim,  Gederali,  and 
Gederothaim,  fourteen  cities  with  tlieir  villages." 

Aslinah  =  Asalin,  quite  close  to  Sara. 

En-gannim  =  Um  Jina. 

Tappuali  =:  Artuf. 

In  my  paper  on  Adullam  will  be  found  some  notes  on  Azeka. 

As  to  Shaaraim,  I  am  very  nearly  convinced  that  w^e  find  it  in  the  ruin 
Sa'ire,  which  is  not  marked  on  any  map,  but  is  in  Robinson's  lists 
district  of  Arkab  between  Shuweikeh  (Socho)  and  Beit  Netif^r.e., 
precisely  in  the  region  required. 

C.  Clermont-Ganneau. 


AVEN  HASH-SHETEYAH. 


In  Joma  v.  2  we  read,  "  there  was  there  (in  the  Holy  of  Holies)  a  stone 
from  the  time  of  the  first  prophets.  It  was  called  Sheteyah,  and  its 
height  from  the  earth  was  three  fingerbreadths."  Ui^on  this  stone  the 
ark  would  appear  to  have  been  j)laced,  and  it  was  a  notion  of  the 
rabbis  that  the  earth  was  founded  upon,  or  rather  from,  it.  In  the 
Toldoth  Jesu  the  Aven  Sheteyah  is  affirmed  to  be  the  stone  which  the 
patriarch  Jacob  anointed  at  Bethel.  Upon  it  was  said  to  be  written 
the  nomen  tetragrammaton,  the  ineffable  name  of  God,  and  lest 
any  one  should  learn  the  letters  of  this  name,  and  become  possessed  of 
the  wondrous  powers  which  that  knowledge  conferred,  two  dogs  were 
placed  near  the  sanctuary,  which,  if  any  one  had  succeeded  in  learning 
the  letters  of  this  name,  barked  so  fiercely  at  him  as  he  was  passing 
out  as  to  cause  him  immediately  to  forget  it.  It  is  said  that  Jesus 
having  entered,  learned  the  name,  wrote  it  npon  parchment,  and  placed 
the  parchment  in  an  incision  which  He  made  in  His  thigh,  the  skin 
growing  over  it  on  the  name  being  pronounced,  and  having  escaped  the 
canine  guardians  of  the  place,  thus  became  possessed  of  the  super- 
natural powers  which  He  afterwards  manifested. 

Rabbi  Schwarz  (Das  Heilige  Land)  identifies  this  wonderful  stone 
with  the  Sakhrah,  and  after  remarking  that  it  is  now  raised  about  10 
feet  above  the  ground,  adds,  "  so  that  since  that  time  (when  Joma  was 
written)  the  temple  hill  has  been  lowered  nearly  10  feet." 

It  seems  strange  that  this  stone  should  have  been  confounded  with 
Zoheleth,  yet  in  the  Jewish  manual  arb'a  taanoth  (tisha  b'av)  this 
identity  is  suggested.  J-  C 

Jerusalem. 


NOTES    BY    CAPTAIN    AYAKUEN,    M.    C'LERMONT-GANNEAU,    ETC.       183 

Witli  reference  to  preceding  remarks  of  T>v.  Chaplin,  I  liave  to 
suggest  that  the  "Little  Sakhrah,"  now  lying  at  the  northern  end  of 
the  Haram  enclosure,  raay  possibly  be  tlie  stone  wliich  Jacob  anointed 
at  Bethel,  and  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  placed  in  the  Sanctuary 
of  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem. 

The  Sakhrah,  on  which  the  Dome  of  the  Eock  is  built,  is  a  portion  of 

the  solid  rock  of  :Mount  Moriah,  only  elevated  about  24  feet  above  the 

general  level  (2,420  feet)   'of   the  Haram  enclosure.     It  is  doubtful, 

therefore,  whether  its  highest  peak  could  have  been  on  so  high  a  level 

as  the  floor  of  the  Sanctuary  of  the  Temple. 

C.  W. 


NOTE  ON  NOB. 

Theke  is  a  certain  amount  of  evidence  as  to  the  position  of  this 
place,  which  not  only  escaped  me  when  first  writing  on  the  subject,  but 
also  appears  to  have  escaped  the  notice  of  Major  Wilson,  whose  argu- 
ment in  favour  of  another  site  is  confined  to  the  one  requisite  that  Nob 
should  be  on  the  direct  road  to  the  capital. 

Major  "Wilson  mentions  only  two  passages  in  the  Bible  as  referring 
to  Nob,  but  he  has  omitted  the  most  important,  Nehemiah  xi.  32,  where, 
in  a  systeiiatic  enumeration  of  towns  in  Benjamin,  we  get  the  names, 
Anathoth,  Nob,  Hananiah,  Hazor,  consecutively.  This  would  place 
Nob  between  Anata  on  the  east  and  Beit  Hanina,  close  to  which  is 
Khirbet  Hazur  on  the  west. 

Major  Wilson  says  that,  "  of  the  others  [towns  enumerated  Isaiah  (x. 
28 — 32)J  nothing  is  known."  For  these  towns— viz.,  Laish,  Gallim,  and 
Gebim— I  have  already  proposed  identifications  which  seem  to  me 
probable— viz.,  for  Laish,  which  is  evidently  near  Anathoth, i'/saiwVe/i, 
the  next  village  to  Anata;  for  Gallim, "  the  heaps,"  Khirhet  el  Soma,  "ruin 
of  the  heap;"  for  Gebim,  el  Jih;  and  possibly  we  may  add,  for  Madmenah, 
near  Gebim,  Bir  Xchdla,  close  to  El  Jib. 

All  these  indications  point  to  the  correctness  of  the  site  given  by- 
Mr.  Grove  for  Nob— viz.,  the  village  of  Sh'afat,  the  modern  name  having 
a  meaning  almost  the  same  as  that  of  Nob.  This  site  also  fulfils  the 
other  requisites  :  1.  It  is  in  full  sight  of  Jerusalem.  2.  On  the  direct 
route.  3.  A  conspicuous  point.  This  last  requisite  is  in  accordance 
with  the  expression  Zopliim—i.e.,  the  place  whence  the  tabernacle  was 
visible.  As  the  second  tithes  were  allowed  to  be  eaten  in  all  the 
Zophim,  it  is  only  natural  to  suppose  a  site  would  be  chosen  so  that 
a  o-ood  view  of  the  tabernacle  might  be  obtainable  at  a  considerable 

distance. 

These  arguments  do  not  in  any  way  interfere  with  the  identity  of 
Mizpeh  and  Nebi  Samwil,  for  which  I  contended  in  the  original  paper, 


184       NOTES    BY    CAPTAIN    AVARREN,    M.    CLERMONT-GANNEAU,    ETC. 

and  I  hope  to  show  that  the  balance  of  evidence  is  in  favour  of  this 
identification.  That  Nehi  Samwil  should  he  identified  with  some 
name  besides  that  of  High  Place  of  Gibeon,  Major  Wilson  himself 

allows. 

"  It  should  be  remembered,"  he  writes,  "  that  Nebi  Samwil  is  one  and 
a  quarter  miles  from  el  Jib  (Gibeon),  a  distance  so  great  that  it  would 
lead  us  to  expect  the  place  to  have  its  own  distinctive  name  rather 
than  one  derived  from  Gibeon." 

C.  R.  0^ 


Quarterly  Statement,  October,  1875.] 


THE 


PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND. 


PREFACE. 

The  Survey  of  Western  Palestine,  after  three  years  and  a  half  of 
nninterrupted  work,  has  received  a  temporary  check  by  the  attack 
on  the  party  at  Safed,  on  July  10th.  The  full  particulars  of  this 
attack  will  be  found  in  the  report  partly  drawn  up  by  Lieutenant 
Couder,  but  signed  and  despatched  during  his  illness,  by  Lieutenant 
Kitchener.  On  the  arrival  of  the  intellie-ence  the  Foreisn  OfHce 
was  at  once  communicated  witli,  and  no  time  was  lost  in  sendiuar 
instructions  to  Palestine.  Our  last  news,  dated  August  20th,  in- 
forms us  that  the  trial  was  fixed  to  come  on  at  Acre.  Lieutenants 
Conder  and  Kitchener  remained  in  the  Convent  of  Carmel  in  ordei" 
to  give  their  evidence  ;  they  will  stay  there  till  the  affair  is  settled  : 
and  the  British  Consul-General  of  Beyrout  has  been  instructed  by 
the  Foreign  Office  to  be  rejjresented  on  the  occasion.  No  provo- 
cation of  any  kind  has  yet  been  discovered  for  the  attack. 

Meantime   the    triangulation    is  for   the    moment    stopped.     Tlie 

Committee  have  been   put  to  great  additional  expense,  and,  pending 

0 


186  NOTES. 

;'the  result  of  the  trial — iii  consideration,  also,  of  the  unhealthy 
<state  of  the  country — the  non-commissioned  officers  have  been  sent 
home. 

It  is  hoped  to  resume  the  triangulation  without  much  delay ;  the 
^office  work  will  meanwhile  go  on  in  England  as  well  as  in  Palestine, 
;.-and  the  check  to  the  Survey  will  not,  it  is  trusted,  be  greater  than 
■the  time  occupied  in  settling  the  affair.  Justice  must,  however,  be 
obtained  before  the  party  can  again  venture  into  the  disturbed 
Klistrict. 

Such  an  accident  has  naturally  caused  a  considerable  strain  upon 
'the  finances,  and  our  supporters  are  earnestly  requested  to  remember 
^that  the  expenses  of  the  year  have  to  be  met.  In  April  last  the 
'Committee  asked  for  £3,500  before  the  end  of  the  year.  This 
iippeal  has  been  so  far  met  that  a  fair  proportion  of  the  amount  has 
'-"been  forwarded  to  the  office  within  the  six  months  which  have 
/elapsed  since  April  1st.  The  sum  looked  for  up  to  the  end  of  the 
•year  to  meet  expenses  and  pay  off  the  more  important  liabilities  is 
^-about  c£l,500.  Subscribers  are  most  carnestli/  asked  to  make  their 
:j>ayments  as  early  in  October  as  possible. 


NOTES. 

-  While  desiiing  to  give  every  publicity  to  propose  1  ideutiiications  by  officers 
:  Tea  the  Fund,  the  Committee  beg  it  to  be  distinctly  understood  that  they  leave 
<s-a.ch  proposals  to  be  discussed  on  their  own  merits,  and  that  by  publishing  them 
viiii  tiie  Quarterly  Statement  the  Committee  do  not  sanction  or  adopt  them. 


NOTES.  187 

AiiiJual  subscribers  are  earnestly  requestfd  to  forward  tlieir  subscriptions  for 
tlie  unrrent  year  at  their  earliest  convenience  and  without  waiting  for  application. 
It  is  best  to  cross  all  chcf|ucs  to  Coutts  and  Co.,  and  if  so  crossed  they  may  be 
safely  left  payable  to  bearer. 


Dr.  Ch;iplin  writes  from  Jerusalem,  August  13,  1875: — "Tlic  souterrain 
north  of  tlic  platform  in  the  Haram  has  recently  been  opened.  Ou  comparing 
my  notes  -with  those  of  Caj'tain  Warren,  it  appears  that  tlie  chamber  is  in  the 
.same  state  as  when  he  saw  it.  If  the  earth  can  be  removed  into  the  bays  it  will 
be  possible  to  examine  the  two  ends.  As  to  the  northern  side  and  what  is 
beyond  it,  I  fear  that  we  shall  learn  nothing  more  tlian  we  know  at  present. 
They  may  perhaps  dig  a  hole  in  the  wall  and  try  to  ascertain  if  there  is,  or  has 
been,  a  chamber  beyond.  The  present  aspect  of  the  wall  does  not  give  mucli 
hope  of  finding  a  church  beyond.  It  is  a  comparatively  modern  wall  of  very 
rough  workmanship,  and  I  could  not  find  any  trace  of  pillars,  or  piles,  or  arches, 
such  as  might  be  supposed  to  separate  the  aisles  of  a  church  from  the  nave." 

Further  examination  Avas  stopped  by  command  of  the  authorities. 


The   Committee  are  always  grateful  for  the   return  of  old  numbers  of  tlie 
Quarterly  Statement,  especially  those  which  are  advertised  as  out  of  print. 


The  amount  received  from  all  sources  between  June  30th  and  September  30th 
was  £867  Is.  6d.  The  balance  of  current  accounts  at  the  latter  date  was  only 
£140  Os,  6d, 


The  Committee  regret  to  announce  that  Mr.  St.  Clair,  who  has  lectured  for 
the  Fund  for  nearly  six  years,  has  resigned  his  appointment.  Application  for 
lectures  can  be  addressed  to  the  Secretary,  by  whom,  for  the  present,  arrange- 
ments for  the  season  M'ill  be'made. 


Ladies  desirous  of  joining  the  Ladies'  Association  are  ref|uested  to  communicate 
with  Mrs.  Finn,  The  Elms,  Brook  Green,  London,  W. 


A  memorial  window  to  the  late  Charles  F.  Tyrwhitt  Drake  is  to  be  put  up  in  the 
chapel  of  Wellington  College.  Half  of  the  expense  will  be  borne  by  the  college, 
half  by  Mr.  Drake's  personal  friends.  Any  of  these  who  would  wish  to  join 
in  this  tribute  may  address  the  Eev.  W.  F.  TjTwhitt  Drake,  Great  Gaddesden. 


THE  SURVEY  OF  PALESTINE, 


EETEOSPECT  FOR   1875. 

CoxYENT  ON  Caemel,  12th  Auffust,  1875. 

As  a  detailed  report  is  due  from  me,  but  impossible  under  present 
circumstances,  I  send  home  a  few  notes  on  our  discoveries  during  the 
course  of  this  year. 

On  the  28th  of  February  we  succeeded  in  leaving  Jerusalem,  and  in 
twelve  days  filled  in  and  triangulated  330  square  miles  of  the  desert 
west  of  the  Dead  Sea,  visiting  and  planning  Masada.  Wo  experienced 
at  the  close  of  this  work  some  of  the  most  boisterous  weather  we  have 
ever  withstood. 

Crossing  to  Beit  Jibrin  at  the  edge  of  the  Philistine  plain  we  com- 
menced on  the  12th  of  March  the  survey  of  this  most  interesting 
district,  and  completed  the  whole,  except  a  very  small  portion  near 
Beersheba,  by  the  loth  of  May.  Our  main  results  were  as  follows  : — 
We  visited  the  ruin  of  Sheikh  el  Madhkur,  where  we  verified  M.  Gan- 
neau's  discovery  of  the  existence  of  the  name  'Aid-el-Mieh,  attaching 
to  a  part  of  the  ruins.  In  my  report  I  showed  the  fitness  of  the  site  for 
identification  with  Adullam,  as  suggested  by  M.  Ganneau,  including  the 
existence  of  caves  still  inhabited. 

We  were  next  able  to  thi'ow  light  on  the  difficulty  as  to  the  existence 
of  two  Medioeval  Ascalons  by  our  discovery  of  a  Ivhirbet  'Ascalun, 
evidently  an  early  Christian  ruin.  We  made  a  careful  survey  of  Ascalon 
to  a  large  scale,  with  photographs  by  Lieut.  Kitchener. 

In  the  neighbouihood  of  Gaza  we  discovered  five  new  Greek  inscrip- 
tions, and  obtained  some  information  as  to  the  ancient  extent  and  site  of 
this  city.     Lieut.  Kitchener  was  the  first  to  photograph  the  interior  of 
the  cathedral  of  St.  John  Baptist,  now  a  mosque,  formerly  a  church, 
even  earlier  than  Crusading  times. 

We  also  visited  and  described  the  ruins  of  Khii'bet  Umm  el  Jerar, 
generally  supposed  to  be  the  Gerar  of  Abraham. 

Turning  north,  our  most  interesting  exploration  was  the  village  of 
El  Moghar,  suggested  by  Captain  Warren  to  be  the  site  of  Makkedah. 
We  found  caves  here,  being  the  only  place  in  the  plain  where  such  caves 
exist.  We  also  discovered  a  site  called  Deir  el  Aashek,  which  I  have 
proposed  to  identify  with  the  long  lost  Azekah.  We  visited  the  sites  of 
the  valley  of  Elah  and  the  valley  of  Sorek,  of  both  of  which  Lieutenant 
Kitchener  took  eS'ective  photographs. 


MEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEll's    KEPORTS.  189 

The  following  is  a  sketcli  of  tlio  identifications  -wliicli  I  imagine  to  bo 
new,  which  I  wouLl  suggest  for  reasons  afterwards  to  bo  given  in  full. 
They  extend  over  the  whole  of  the  tribe  of  Judah  : — 

1.  'A~ckah — Dcir  el  ^Aaaluk,  from  its  position  and  the  similarity  of  name. 

2.  Shaaraini,  in  the  LXX.  'Zmapi^  with  Tell  Zekarlych,  from  its  position. 

3.  Gederah — Tell  Jedcldch,  from  position  and  name. 

4.  Zaanan — Kh.  Sdnicli,  from  position  and  name. 

5.  Ifadashah—'Abdas,  from  position  and  name. 

6.  Dilcan — Beit  Timn.  Yiindevelde's  identification  with  Tinch,  which  on 
some  maps  is  coufouuded  with  Beit  Tima,  can  he  proved  inadmissible. 

7.  Mispcli — Kldrhet  el  JTicsheirefeJi ,  near  Gaza.  The  position  fits,  and  the 
name  is  the  Arabic  equivalent  of  the  Hebrew. 

8.  Cahbon — Ul  Kuhclhch,  from  proximity  to  the  next. 

9.  Lahmas — Khirhct  d  Zahm,  near  the  last. 

10.  Kithlish,  may  be,  I  suggest,  Kh.  Makkus :  in  the  LXX.  Maax^s  takes  the 
place  of  Kithlish. 

11.  Gcderoth — Gatrah,  from  name  and  position. 

12.  Naameh — Na'ani,  from  name  and  position.  This  may  be  known  to  sonio 
scholars,  but  has  not,  I  believe,  been  published  as  an  identification. 

13.  Libnah,  it  is  suggested  in  a  former  report,  may  be  Belt  Jiorin. 

14.  Ether — Khirbet  'Afr,  from  name  and  position. 

15.  Ashan — Kh.  Hccz^anah,  from  name  and  position.  The  Hebrew  'Ain 
becomes  the  Arabic  He. 

16.  Ashnah — Idhna,  from  name  and  position. 

ir.  Aelizib — Kussa  ;  the  name  has  the  same  signification  ;  in  the  Hebrew  "a 
lie,"  in  the  Ai-abic  "  a  fable  ;  "  the  position  fits  well. 
IS.  Dannah^Domeh,  from  position. 

19.  Debir—El  Dhohcrhjeh. 

20.  Holon — Khirbet  Koheleh,  name  and  position. 

21.  Arab—Kh.  el  'Arabiyeh,  name  and  position. 

22.  Dicmah  or  Rumah — El  Rameh,  from  position. 

23.  Eshean — Es-lut,  from  name  and  position.  The  Arabic  He  takes  the  place  of 
the  Hebrew  ^Ain. 

24.  Jcmum — Beit  CJiamhi,  from  position. 

25.  Zanoa/i — Kh.  Sdniit,  in  a  position  better  fitting  tlic  lists  than  that  of 
Eobinson's  Zanuta. 

26.  Maarath,  el  Jlogh'air,  from  position  and  name. 

27.  Galcm — Beit  Jala,  from  name  and  position. 

28.  Bezcdel — Eeir  Esncid,  from  j^osition. 

About  a  dozen  other  identifications  in  Judah  have  been  mentioned  in 
former  reports.  I  am  not  aware  that  any  ordinary  philological  rulea  are 
infringed  in  these  proposed  identifications. 

Dr.  Chaplin  upholds  the  identity  of  the  strong  village  of  Soha  with 
Kirjath  Jearim.  I  have  found  a  curious  apparent  confirmation  of  this  in 
the  possible  identification  of  Mouid  Scir  on  the  boundary  of  Judah  with 
the  present  Batn  (hill-top)  el  Saghir,  just  in  its  proper  place.  Dr.  Chaplin 
has  also  shown  me  very  strong  arguments  for  the  identification  of 
Ebenezer,  Shen,  and  Mispch. 


190  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    11.    CONDEIl's    REPORTS. 

"Whilst  resting  in  Jorusaleia  wc  examined  the  Asneric,  a  Crusading 
inn  for  pilgrims,  which  has  been  excavated  by  Ilcrr  Schick,  and  shows- 
lo':)g  rows  of  mangers.     It  is  close  to  th.e  Grotto  of  Jeremiab. 

Passing  up  the  country  wo  made  several  notes  of  interest.  We  foucd 
that  a  Khirhtt  Lozeli  or  Kh.  ll'ad  Lozeh,  not  yet  placed  on  the  map,  really 
exists  near  Betbel.  At  Nablus  we  found  that  nearly  the  whole  of  tlie 
floor  and  foundations  of  the  early  church  built  over  Jacob's  well  exists, 
hidden  by  modern  vaults.  We  also  discovered  that  the  name  Khirhet  Luzeh, 
about  which  there  has  been  much  argument,  applies  to  some  ruins 
on  the  south  side  of  Gerizim. 

Arriving  in  the  north,  we  commenced  the  ordinary  survey  in  con- 
junction with  tlie  raiining  a  lino  of  levels  across  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean to  the  Sea  of  Galileo.  Before  the  outrage  at  Safed,  on  10th 
July,  we  comj)leted  ISO  square  miles,  and  twenty  out  of  thirty  miles  of 
levelling.  Some  1,200  square  miles,  or  six  mouths'  work,  now  remain 
to  be  done. 

Our  discoveries  in  the  north  promised  to  be  of  groat  interest:  many 
identiticetions  want  only  confirmation  to  bo  proijosed,  such  as  Bdh- 
Dagon,  ShiJior-LlhiiatJi,  Ztbtdon,  NeaJi,  &c. 

At  Shefa  'Ainr  we  found  a  magnificent  sepulchre  with  inscription  and 
elaborate  ornamental  work,  which  Lieut.  Kitchener  photographed.  We 
found  the  present  church  to  be  built  on  the  remains  of  one  seemingly 
previous  to  Crusading  times.  AYe  also  fixed  the  date  and  authorship  of 
the  fortifications. 

Wo  next  found  iia  Khirhet  JluineJi  a  site  of  no  small  media3val  interest. 
According  to  an  early  Jewish  traveller  there  was  in  the  very  neighbour- 
hood of  this  ruin  a  place  called  liuma,  where  v/as  the  sepulchre  of 
Benjamin,  and  a  cave  called  Caisran,  whence  the  Messiah  was  expected 
to  appear.  At  A7;.  BumeJi,  which  eighty  years  ago  was  a  viUage,  I  found 
a  rude  Jewish  tomb  much  ruined,  and  a  cave  of  some  size  beyond  it,  also 
remains  possibly  of  a  synagogue. 

We  visited  the  rival  sites  of  Cana  of  Galilee  at  Khirbet  Kana ; 
I  discovered  traces  of  antiquity  and  a  grotto,  ajiparently  that  said 
to  be  used  as  a  church  in  the  middle  ages.  We  also  ascertained  the 
existence  of  an  ancient  site  called  Khirhet  Kcniui,  v/est  of  and  near  to 
Ivefr  Kenna. 

We  photograiDhed  and  planned  the  fine  church  of  St.  Anno  in  Seffu.- 
rieh,  and  found  the  date  of  the  castle. 

We  are  able  to  identify  the  Hlou/it  Asamon  of  Josejihus  with  Bas  d 
Hazivch  north  of  the  Euttauf  plain. 

I  have  found  the  date  and  builder  of  several  of  the  synagogues 
discovered  by  Major  Wilson,  and  I  hope  to  obtain  evidence  from  them 
as  to  the  length  of  the  cubit. 

The  total  amount  surveyed  in  ISTo  has  been  1,200  square  miles. 

Claude  E.  Co^'L)E^v,  Lieut.  E.E. 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE    R.    CONDEU's    REPORTS.  191. 


DAYID  xiND  GOLIATH. 

"\'cr.  l-l) :  "  Xow  the  Philistines  gathered  together  their  armies  to  battle, 
au'l  wore  gathered  together  at  Shochoh,  AvLich  belongeth  to  Judah,  and- 
pitched  between  Shochoh  and  Azekah,  in  Ephes-dammim.  And  Saul 
and  the  men  of  Israel  were  gathered  together,  and  pitched  by  the  valley 
ot'EIah  .  .  .  and  the  Philistines  stood  on  a  mountain  on  tho  one  side,, 
and  Israel  stood  on  a  mountain  on  the  other  side  :  and  there  was  a  valley 
between  them."  Ver.  52  :  "  And  the  wounded  of  the  Philistines  fell 
down  by  tho  way  to  Shaaraim,  even  unto  Gath,  and  unto  Ekron " 
(1  Sam.  xvii.) 

Few  events  in  Scripture  have  the  site  more  definitely  indicated.  Tho^ 
valley  of  Elah  has  long  been  known,  but  the  interesting  attempt  to  fix. 
tho  very  spot  where  David  slew  Goliath  has  been  rendered  ditficult  by  the- 
fact  that  Shochoh  alone  of  all  the  sites  enumerated  (not  including  Ekron) 
has  been  definitely  identified. 

I  propose  to  consider  each  of  these  sites  in  turn,  with  tho  indications' 
known  as  to  their  position,  and  to  put  forward  new  identifications  for 
Azekah,  Ephes-dammim,  and  Shaaraim ;  these  will,  I  think,  very  clearly 
indicate  the  position  of  the  two  armies,  and  the  meaning  of  certair^ 
details  in  the  description  not  hitherto  illustrated. 

ShocJioJi. — There  were  two  places  of  the  name,  one  in  the  Debiv  district^ 
far  away  from  the  scenes  of  combat  with  the  Philistines,  the  other  in  the 
district  of  the  Shephelah,  or  low  hill  country  on  the  south  side  of  Wady 
Sumt,  as  identified  by  Eobinson  with  the  modern  Shuweikeh,  a  position, 
fully  in  accord  with  its  mention  in  the  topographical  lists  as  between 
AduUam  ('Aid  el  Mieh)  and  other  northern  towns  of  the  district. 

Azekah. — This  town  occurs  in  the  same  list  with  Shochoh  (Josh.  xv. 
3o),  as  in  the  Shephelah.     The  only  other  indication  of  it.s  position  is  ta- 
be  found  in  the  account  of  the  flight  of  the  defeated  Canaanites  from, 
Ajalon  to  Makkedah  and  Azekah  (Josh  x.  10).     In  the  topographical  list 
Azekah  stands  between  Shochoh  and  Shaaraim.     It  must  therefore  h& 
sought  in  the  Shephelah,  but  the  same  reasons  which  induce  us  to  place 
Makkedah  at  El  Moghar — namely,  the  distance  from  Gibeon,  and  the 
relative  position  with  the  mouth  of  the  valley  of  Ajalon^ would  point  to 
Azekah  being  near  the  north  boundary  of  Judah,  and  close  to  the  plain. 
Azokah  has  been  placed  by  some  writers  at  Tell  Zekaria,  but  to  this- 
there  is  the  objection  of  an  important  difference  in  name.     Yandeveldc- 
speaks  of  a  place  called  Ahbek,  near  Beit  Nettie,  as  being  both  Aphek. 
and  Azekah.     In  the  same  neighbourhood  M.  Ganneau  tells  me  he  heard- 
the  name  El  Azek.     Vandeveldo's  Ahbek  is  applied  to  a  prominent  peak, v. 
but  on  his  map  the  name  is  written  Akbeh.     The  true  name  as  colleei^^d:' 
by  us  is  El  Salah.     Akbeh  is  no  doubt  merely  'AkaheJi,  "  the  ascenti"-'  a 
title  generally  applied  to  such  hills.      As  to  El  Azek,  wo  have  been- 
unable  to  obtain  the  name,  although  a  sj)ecial  expedition  was  made,  and 
the  camp  fixed  for  two  days  close  to  the  site.     The  Sheikh  of  Beit  '  Atab^ 


192  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    P..    CONDEr's    REPORTS. 

one  of  the  best  guides  we  liavc  ever  liad,  and  well  acquainted  with  this 
part  of  the  country,  denied  that  such  a  name  existed,  but  gave  me  the 
name  which  I  afterwards  have  verified  and  consider  to  represent  the 
true  site. 

There  is  a  great  objection  to  placing  Azekah  so  far  east  in  the  hills, 
which  is  that  it  supposes  the  defeated  Canaanites  to  have  fled  across 
some  thirty  miles  of  the  most  difficult  hill  country,  intersected  by  three 
or  four  impassable  valleys.  A  position  near  the  plain  is  the  only  one 
natural  to  the  interpretation  of  the  flight  from  Ajalon. 

The  site  which  I  should  propose  for  Azekah  bears  the  name  of  Deir  el 
'Aashek  ("  the  monastery  of  the  lover  "),  a  somewhat  extraordinary  title, 
according  to  its  significance  in  modern  Arabic.  The  change  of  the  name 
to  one  having  a  similar  sound  but  a  distinct  meaning  in  Arabic,  is  only 
another  case  of  the  well-known  law  of  which  Tibuah  (strawy)  for 
Timnah,  El  Semak  (the  fish)  for  Sycaminum,  Aid  el  Mieh  (feast  of  the 
hundred)  for  Adullam,  Er  Eameh  (the  reservoir)  for  Eamah  (the  hill,  in 
Hebrew),  and  many  others,  are  instances.  It  is  situated  on  the  south 
side  of  the  valley  of  Sorek,  eight  'miles  north  of  Shochoh.  A  main 
road  leads  to  it  from  the  valley  of  Elali.  It  may  be  thought  that  the 
•distance  from  Shuweikeh  is  too  great,  but  it  must  be  remembered  that 
no  knoivn  ancient  site  exists  between  the  two.  The  position  agrees  per- 
fectly with  the  other  indication,  as  it  would  immediately  confront  the 
Canaanites  flying  southward  from  the  valley  of ,' Ajalon.  The  distance 
irom  El  Moghar  is  rather  greater  than  that  from  Shochoh. 

The  site  itself  has  undoubtedly  been  at  one  time  crowned  by  a  convent. 
A  very  large  square  reservoir  of  rubble  masonry,  resembling  that  at  Tell 
Jezer,  supplied  the  inhabitants.  The  remains  of  a  chapel,  an  apse  fifteen 
feet  diameter,  exists  north  of  this  birket,  and  the  northern  wall,  twenty- 
six  feet  from  the  north  side  of  the  apse,  shows  that  the  building  was  of 
some  size.  At  present  all  is  overgrown  with  weeds  and  tall  thistles,  so 
that  the  time  is  unfavourable  for  exploration.  Cisterns  and  caves, 
however,  occur,  and  the  site  is  considerablylarger  than  would  be  required 
for  a  religious  edifice  only.  Another  very  large  ruined  site,  Khirbet 
Ferred,  exists  just  south  of  Deir  el  Aashek.  A  main  road  from  T. 
Zakeria  to  Tell  Jezer  leads  close  by  the  site  which  looks  northward  to 
the  broad  plain  of  the  Valley  of  Sorek,  and  this  is  a  natiu'al  line  of  flight 
for  the  Canaanites,  who  we  read  '"'entered  into  fenced  cities,"  such  as 
Makkedah,  Azekah,  Gath,  Shaaraim,  and,  no  doubt,  Gazer  also.  The 
existence  of  the  convent  shows  the  origin  of  the  term  Deir,  but  there  is 
nothing  against  the  antiquity  of  the  site  in  the  fact  of  its  subsequent 
occupation  by  Christians. 

Eplies-dammim. — What  and  where  Ephes-dammim  may  be  is  a  diffi- 
cult question.  The  translation  offered  for  the  word  in  the  Bible  Dic- 
tionary is  "  boundary  of  blood,"  in  which  case  it  may  be  taken  to  apply 
to  some  great  natural  boundary,  the  scene  of  frequent  fights  between 
the  Jews  and  the  Philistines.  In  another  account,  apparently  of  this 
same  battle,  the  word  is  shortened  to  Pas-dammim  (1  Chron.  xi,  13). 


LIEUT.    CLAUDE   R.    CONDEll's    REPORTS,  193 

In  Josephus  it  is  given  as  Arasam  (Ant.  vii.  12,  §  4-).  VauJeveldc 
speaks  of  a  ruin  called  Damiin  on  the  noilb.  side  of  "Wady  Sutnt  east  of 
the  Roman  road  to  Beit  Nettif,  but  for  this  ruin  wc  have  obtained  a 
different  name,  nor  have  we  as  yet  been  able  to  ascertain  for  certain 
whether  the  name  Damun  really  exists,  though,  accoi'ding  to  some  of  the 
peasantry,  it  applies  to  a  site  nearer  the  high  hills.  The  memory  of 
ancient  engagements  in  the  Shephelah  may  reasonably  be  thought 
traceable  in  such  titles  as  "  springs  of  the  warrior,"  "  well  of  the  hero's 
mother,"  unusual  names  applying  to  natural  features,  and  therefore 
undeniably  ancient.  The  only  traces  of  the  title,  "  boundary  of  blood," 
which  we  have  met,  may  perhaps  be  found  in  the  name  Beit  Fased 
applied  to  a  ruin  close  to  Shuweikeh ;  both  in  sound  and  meaning  this 
approaches  Pas-dammim,  for  the  S  in  Hebrew  being  a  SumcrJi  is  repre- 
sented by  the  Arabic  'Sad,  vvhilst  the  meaning,  "house  of  bleeding,"  is 
cognate  to  the  Hebrew  "  boundary  of  blood."  It  was,  no  doubt,  the 
great  valley  itself  separating  the  possessions  of  the  Philistine  from  the 
country  belonging  to  Judah  which  was  the  real  boundary  of  blood,  and 
as  the  expression  "in  Ephes-dammim "  might  be  supposed  to  indicate, 
the  title  is  that  of  a  district  of  country  rather  than  of  a  single  site. 

VaUei/  of  EI  ah. — The  valley  itself  is  well  known  to  be  the  great  valley 
rising  near  Hebron,  and  running  northwards  by  Keilah,  Nezib,  and 
Adullam  to  Shochoh,  and  thence  westwards  to  the  sea  by  Gath  and  Ashdod. 
The  Hebrew  "  Yalley  of  Terebinths  "  receives  the  name  of  "Wady  Siii-  in 
the  upper  part  of  its  course,  and  Wady  Sumt  (the  acacia)  in  the  lower, 
becoming  finally  a  deep  gully  under  the  name  of  Nahr  Svikereir.  Never- 
theless the  cause  of  its  original  title  is  still  traceable  in  the  number  of 
huge  terebinths  which  occur  along  its  course.  That  at  Adullam  I  have 
had  occasion  already  to  notice  ;  one  almost  equal  to  it  exists  south ;  near 
Tell  Zekaria  is  another  of  great  antiquity,  which  we  have  photographed. 
On  the  sides  of  the  tell  just  mentioned  are  others,  and  small  terebinths 
exist  on  the  low  hills  bounding  the  valley.  This  great  natural  division 
of  the  Shephelah  is  still  the  highway  from  Hebron  to  the  plain,  and 
seems  in  all  the  early  periods  of  Jewish  history  to  have  been  the  scene 
of  constant  fighting.  Holding  Gath  and  Shaaraim  the  Philistines  held 
the  key  to  the  plains,  and  a  strong  outpost  for  attack  upon  the 
Shephelah. 

There  is  a  point  with  regard  to  the  valley  which  has  always  been  con- 
sidered to  requii-e  investigation  on  the  spot.  Saul  camped  in  the  Emek, 
"  broad  or  deep  valley,"  whilst  between  him  and  the  Philistines  was  the 
Gai,  generally  translated  ravine.  The  valley  is,  however,  of  uniform 
breadth,  nor  does  a  gorge  of  any  kind  exist  in  its  lower  course,  as  the 
usual  interpretation  supposes  ;  the  derivation  of  the  latter  word  is,  how- 
ever, according  to  Dean  Stanley,  from  Gtli,  "to  break  out,  used  of 
water  bursting  forth."  It  may  be  very  well  applied,  therefore,  I  should 
suggest,  to  the  trench  or  glior  dug  out  by  the  winter  torrent.  This  bed, 
some  ten  to  twenty  feet  wide,  with  banks  over  ten  feet  high,  would  form 
a  natural  barrier  between  the  hosts,  and  a  formidable  obstacle  to  the 


inl  LIEUT.    CLAUDE    K.    CONDER's    REPORTS. 

flight  of  tlie  defeated.  It  was  in  tliis  that  David  found  the  five  smootk 
stones  of  the  brook  which,  according  to  tradition,  cried  out,  "By  us 
thou  shalt  defeat  the  giant."  The  gleaming  torrent  bed,  and  the  steep- 
water-worn  banks,  consist  of  pebbles  of  every  size  worn  smooth  by  the 
great  winter  brook  which  has  brought  them  from  the  hills. 

Shaaraim. — No  identification  has  ever  been  proposed,  I  believe,  for 
this  town.  Like  Shochoh,  it  belonged  to  Juclah,  and  was  evidently  east 
of  Gath.  In  the  topographical  list  it  occurs  next  after  Azekah.  The- 
Septuagint  version  of  our  text  renders  it  by  its  meaning  "the  two- 
gates,"  as  if  referring  to  the  gates  of  Gath.  The  Targum  of  Jonathan, 
ben  Uzziel  on  the  Ilagiographa,  however,  carefully  preserves  the  word. 
Shaaraim,  though  in  expression  "  gates  of  Ekron  "  in  the  same  verse 
it  replaces  the  Shaari  of  the  Hebrew  by  an  Aramaic  equivalent  meaning 
gates.  In  the  topographical  notice  (Josh.  xv.  36)  the  two  principal 
LXX.  versions  give  SctK-api'u  and  "Sapyapet^u,  which  naturally  suggests  to  one- 
who  attaches  importance  to  these  variations  the  identity  with  Tell 
Zeharia.  Such  a  position  for  Shaaraim  would  be  in  exact  accordance- 
with  the  site  projDosed  for  the  combat,  for  Tell  Zekaria  is  close  above 
the  south  bank  of  the  valley,  and  must  be  passed  in  escaping  to  Gath.. 
It  is  a  huge  hill,  with  steep  terraced  sides  and  caves ;  on  the  south  is  a 
sort  of  citadel  or  raised  terrace,  and  beneath,  in  the  valley,  is  a  fine 
ancient  well.  The  old  sites  in  this  part  of  the  country  bear  a  wonderful 
resemblance  to  one  another.  Keilah,  Adullam,  Shaaraim,  and  even 
Gath  and  Gezer,  might  be  described  in  almost  the  same  words.  Positions 
naturally  of  immense  strength,  they  show  in  their  terraces,  caves,  and. 
crumbling  mounds  the  traces  of  their  ancient  importance,  and  a  good 
water-supply  exists  in  each  case  near  these  cities.  Shaaraim,  if  in  the 
hands  of  Judah,  would  have  formed  an  important  outpost  against  Gath; 
but  though,  unlike  the  latter,  it  occui-s  in  the  lists  of  Joshua,  it  had  pro- 
bably fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Philistines,  who,  in  the  time  of  Saul^ 
seem  to  have  reached  the  plenitude  of  their  power. 

Gath. — As  regards  Gath,  it  is  only  necessary  to  say  that  the  require- 
ments of  the  narrative  seem  fully  met  by  the  Tell  el  Safi  site  advocated  by 
Dr.  Porter,  and  which  alone  fits  with  the  description  of  the  Onomasticon^ 
Gath  so  placed  guards  the  entrance  of  the  valley  of  Elah  into  the  j)lain, 
and  is  about  six  miles  from  the  scene  of  the  conflict. 

The  sites  thus  proposed  servo  considerably  to  elucidate  the  account 
of  the  battle.  Saul,  coming  down  from  the  hills  by  the  ancient  road_ 
from  Jerusalem  to  Gaza,  which  passes  near  Shochoh,  must  have  encoun- 
tered the  Philistines  very  near  the  great  bend  in  the  valley.  Thus  the- 
two  forces  divided  by  the  torrent  bed  are  placed  in  a  natural  relative 
position  :  Saul  on  the  east,  coming  from  the  east ;  the  Philistines  on  the 
ti'cst,  coming  froiii  the  west,  having  Shochoh  south  of  them  and  Shaaraim 
behind  them.  The  position  usually  assigned  north  and  south  has  no- 
such  strategical  significance  as  the  one  thus  advocated. 

The  photographs  of  Lieut.  Kitchener,  showing  on  the  one  hand  the 
sweep  of  the  valley,  its  broad  extent  of  cornfields,  flanked  with  low  hills- 


TJIE    SArEB    ATTACK.  195- 

of  rock  and  brushwood,  and  on  the  other  the  groat  hill  of  Shaaraim  and 
the  olives  and  terebinths  at  its  feet,  will  give  a  far  better  idea  of  tho 
scene  than  any  I  can  conve}''  in  words  ;  but  to  one  standing  on  the  spot 
and  looking  across  to  the  high  and  broken  line  of  the  hills  of  Judah, 
and  at  the  broad  vale  in  which  a  great  host  might  easily  have  encamped,, 
there  will  appear  to  be  a  perfect  fitness  in  tho  site  to  the  famous  events- 
occuiring  in  it, 

Claude  K.  Condek,  Lieut.  E.E., 

In  Commaud  Sin'vc)/  of  Palestine^ 


THE   SAFED  ATTACK. 

MouxT  Cakmel,  loth  Juhj,  ISTo. 

Beixg  placed  in  command  of  the  expedition,  owing  to  the  tem- 
porar}'  illness  of  Lieutenant  Conder,  I  write  by  hi.s  wish  to  inform  the- 
Committee  that  the  survey  is  at  present  entirely  suspended  in  consequence 
of  two  causes — tho  first  being  a  murderous  and  unprovoked  attack  on 
the  party  by  Moslem  inhabitants  of  Safed  (particulars  enclosed) ;  the- 
second  tho  gradual  spread  of  cholera  over  the  north  of  Palestine. 
Lieutenant  Condor  and  myself  consider,  under  these  circumstances,  that 
we  cannot  take  tho  responsibility  of  conducting  the  party  again  into  the 
field  till  a  very  severe  punishment  has  been  awarded  to  the  inhabitants 
of  Safed,  and  until  the  steady  advance  of  the  cholera  is  checked.  I  feel 
certain  that  neither  of  these  obstacles  will  be  removed  under  two. 
or  three  months. 

Dr.  Yarton,  who  is  at  present  in  attendance  on  Lieutenant  Conder,. 
with  Dr.  Chaplin,  and  other  medical  men,  predict  an  unusually  un- 
healthy autumn,  which  will  be  followed  by  the  two  or  three  months  of 
winter,  during  which  work  is  impossible. 

The  non-commissioned  officers,  though  ready  to  go  through  any 
amount  of  work  or  danger,  are  much  discouraged  at  the  prospect  of  an 
indefinite  delay  without  employment,  which,  in  my  opinion,  is  more 
trying  in  this  climate  than  work.  The  south  country  is  also  closed,  as 
the  Ai-abs  have  refused  to  lay  down  their  arms,  and  arc,  I  believe,  still 
engaged  vfith  tho  Government. 

Under  these  circirmstances.  Lieutenant  Conder  and  myself  both  con- 
fcider  it  our  duty  to  recommend  tho  Committee  to  break  up  the  expedition 
for  a  time,  and  recall  the  non-commissioned  officers,  em]3oweriug 
Lieutenant  Conder  and  myself  to  remain  as  long  as  the  legal  proceedings 
require  our  presence.  In  case  of  any  delay  or  difficulty  iir  obtaining 
justice,  we  feel  we  have  a  right  to  expect  that  the  Committee  will  give 
us  their  strongest  support.  Lieutenant  Conder  has  considered  it  his 
duty  to  report  the  facts  of  the  case  to  the  Deputy  Adjutant-General, 
Eoyal  Engineers.  He  has  telegraphed  to  Constantinople,  and  placed 
himself  in  communication  with  the  Consul-General  at  Beyrout. 


19G  THE    SAFED    ATTACK. 

Lieutenant  Coader  is  at  present  in  bed,  recovering  from  an  attack  of 
fever,  brought  on  by  the  severe  nature  of  tlie  wounds  on  the  head  he 
received  in  the  fight  at  Safed.  Five  of  our  servants  are  ill  in  their  beds, 
besides  one  in  hospital  at  Safed,  and  I  myself  am  still  suffering  from  the 
bruises  I  received  during  the  engagement.  The  non-commissioned 
officers  were  only  slightly  bruised. 

H.  H.  Kitchener,  Lieut.  E.E. 


Copy  of  Letter  to  the  Consul- General  of  Beyrout. 

Haifa,  lith  July,  1875. 

Sir, — I  have  to  request  your  interference  in  an  exceedingly  serious 
case  of  murderous  and  unjustified  assault  on  my  party  by  the  Moslem 
inhabitants  of  Safed,  who,  at  the  time  at  which  I  write,  are  still  un- 
punished. 

On  Saturday,  the  10th  July,  we  arrived  about  4  p.m.  at  Safed,  from 
"  Ei  Ba'ineh,"  and  erected  our  tents  on  a  piece  of  uncultivated  ground 
i;nder  olives  near  'Aiu  el  Beida,  north  of  the  Moslem  quarter.  A  number 
of  Moslems  became  spectators  of  our  proceedings.  A  small  English 
tent  was  being  erected  when  many  of  these  persons,  including  one  well 
-di'essed  in  a  turban  and  white  abba,  came  down  to  it  and  began  in  a 
very  insolent  manner  to  examine  it,  laying  their  fingers  on  everything 
and  behaving  with  marked  want  of  courtesy  and  respect.  I  am  informed 
■that  they  said  they  had  seen  "  many  dogs  like  us  before." 

A  ten-chambered  revolver,  hanging  on  a  tree  by  the  tent,  was  missed 
at  this  moment,  and  its  owner,  one  of  my  servants,  began  to  inquire 
whether  any  one  had  seen  it.     I  am  informed  that  the  leader  of  the 
Moslems  cursed  him  in  reply.     At  this  moment  I  came  out  of  my  tent, 
Avhere  I  was  resting,  and  heard  my  head  servant  address  this  man  with 
civility,  using  the  expression  hadrahuk,  and  telling  him  to  go  away,  as 
it  was  not  his  business.     I  heard  the  sheikh  reply  violently  with  impre- 
cations, and  saw  him  fling  two  or  perhaps  three  very  large  stones  at  my 
head  servant.     The  latter  did  not  reply  by  violence,  but  took  the  by- 
.standers  to  witness  that  an  unprovoked  assault  had  been  made  upon 
.him.     1  advanced  as  quickly  as  I  could  without  arms,  and  with  nothing 
in  my  hands.  Before  I  spoke  a  single  word  the  sheikh  seized  me  violentl}'- 
by  the  throat.     In  defence  I  struck  him  in  the  face  with  my  fist,  and 
.knocked  him  down.     lie  got  up  and  again  assaulted  me,  when  I  struck 
him  right  and  left,  and  cut  open  his  lip.     "When  on  the  ground  he  drew 
a  knife,  which  measures  half  a  foot  length  of  blade.     My  head  servant 
fortunately  saw  him  just  before  he  stabbed  me,  and  two  of  my  people 
took  it  away  from  him,  and  seized  him,  intending  to  retain  him  until  the 
.arrival  of  government  officials.     They  also  bound  him,  but  not  by  my 
order. 

The  sheikh  called ^out  many  times,  "Where  are  my  young  men?" 
{shehah),   and    some  of  those  who  were  with  him  ran  to  the  houses. 


THK    SAl'EU    ATTACK.  197 

A  crowd  collected  in  an  astonisbingly  short  time,  and  in  a  few  minutes- 
it  must  have  numboi'od  two  hundred  or  more  men. 

I  ordered  tlio  sheikh  to  bo  immediately  released,  but  ho  refused  at 
first  to  leaye  the  camp,  though  ho  subsequently  retired  for  arms.  Mean- 
while he  encouraged  his  people  to  kill  all  the  Christians. 

They  began  by  a  shower  of  enormous  stones  upon  our  party,  which 
only  numbered  fifteen  persons,  of  whom  two  were  ill  at  the  time. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener  and  myself,  supported  by  our  three  non-com- 
missioned officers,  none  having  any  firearms  or  other  offensive  weapon 
in  our  hands  or  about  our  persons,  endeavoured  to  calm  the  disturbance, 
and  to  separate  the  crowd  from  our  servants,  who,  infuriated  at  the 
treatment  I  had  received,  were  anxious,  in  spite  of  their  small  numbers, 
to  attack  the  Moslems.  The  five  Europeans  were  in  imminent  danger  of 
their  lives  from  the  falling  stones.  Whilst  thus  engaged,  Lieutenant 
Kitchener  was  seriously  injured  on  the  thigh  with  a  huge  stone. 
Corporal  Armstrong  and  Corporal  Brophy  less  severely  on  the  feet. 
We  restrained  both  parties,  and  entirely  jirevented  our  servants  from 
using  any  offensive  weapon,  though  many  of  them  were  struck  on  the 
head  and  body  with  stones.  As  soon  as  a  separation  had  been  made,  I 
ordered  all  my  party  into  the  tents,  to  prevent  aggravation  of  the  in- 
furiated mob,  who  were  heaping  every  species  of  blasphemous  epithet 
on  our  religion  and  on  the  Saviour.  The  natives  of  my  party  were  toa 
excited  to  obey  my  order.  I  went  out  in  front  and  threatened  the  mob 
with  heavy  future  punishment,  daring  them  to  stone  me,  but  they  had 
lost  their  senses  too  much  to  be  intimidated. 

At  this  moment  there  arrived  a  number  of  armed  men,  apparently  the 
sheikhs  of  the  quarter,  who  encouraged  the  crowd.  Of  these,  one  man 
had  a  large  scimitar  and  a  carbine,  another  a  battle-axe  ;  two  had  large 
clubs  [dahbus),  and  another  a  long  gun.  To  these  weapons  I  can  swear 
and  believe  there  were  many  more. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener  and  I  were  immediately  surrounded.  Three 
came  to  me  and  asked  with  curses  what  I  was  doing.  An  old  man 
thrust  his  battle-axe  violently  into  my  side,  but  I  did  not  like  to  strike 
him,  though  I  had  now  a  hunting  crop  in  my  hand.  I  told  them  they 
were  mad,  and  would  be  severely  punished  if  they  struck  an  Englishman. 
About  this  time  other  members  of  the  party  saw  a  gun  levelled  at  me 
five  yards  off,  but  fortunately  the  man's  hand  was  caught  before  he 
fired.  A  man  now  came  into  the  crowd  which  surrounded  me,  and  dealt 
me  a  blow  on  the  head  with  a  large  club  with  great  violence,  causing  two 
wounds  on  the  side  of  my  head,  covering  my  face  with  blood.  A  second 
blow,  directed  with  full  foi'ce  at  the  top  of  my  head,  must  inevitably  have 
brained  me  Lad  I  not  put  my  head  down  to  his  chest.  My  servants  gave 
me  up  for  dead.  The  blow  fell  on  my  neck,  which  ever  since  has  been 
so  stiff  and  swollen  that  it  is  impossible  to  turn  it  round.  The  rest  of  the 
party  saw  me  fall.  As  soon  as  I  got  up  I  dealt  this  man  a  blow  in  the  face 
•with  the  handle  of  my  whip  which  staggered  him,  but  my  whip  flew  out 
of  my  hand  and  left  me  entirely  unarmed.     I  must  inevitably  have  been 


^93  THE    SAFED    ATTACK. 

murdered  but  for  the  cool  and  prompt  assistance  of  Lieutenant  Ivitchcnor, 
■who  managed  to  get  to  me  and  engaged  one  of  the  club  men,  covering 
my  retreat. 

A  blow  descending  on  the  top  of  his  head  ho  parried  vith  a  cane, 
T\'bich  was  broken  by  the  force  of  the  blow.  A  second  wounded  his  arm. 
His  escape  is  iinaccountable.  Having  retired  a  few  paces  from  the  thick 
■of  the  fray,  I  saw  that  the  Moslems  were  gradually  surrounding  us, 
stealing  behind  trees  and  through  vineyards,  and  I  well  understood  thut 
in  such  a  case,  unless  the  soldiers  arrived  at  once,  we  must  all  die.  Many 
-of  the  servants  had  indeed  already  given  up  hope,  though  no  one  fled. 
I  gave  the  order  to  leave  the  tents  and  fiy  round  the  hill. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener  vras  the  last  to  obey  this  order,  being  engagtd 
in  front.  He  retreated  to  his  tent,  and  whilst  running  he  was  fired 
at,  and  heard  the  bullet  whistle  by  his  head.  Ho  was  also  followed 
for  some  short  distance  by  a  man  with  a  huge  scimitar,  who  subsequently 
wounded  with  it  more  than  one  of  our  people. 

Gaining  the  cover  of  some  trees,  we  stopped  on  a  bare  hill-side  to 
^consult,  and  ventured  back  to  the  broAV  to  reconnoitre.  At  this  moment 
the  soldiers  arrived  with  an  ofBcer,  and  the  Engliyh  Consular-Agent, 
Herr  Marcus  Cigal.  I  am  informed  that  all  the  offensive  weapons  were 
immediately  concealed,  the  stoning  and  blasphemous  language  ceased 
■at  once,  and  not  an  individual  of  the  crowd  remained. 

I  confine  this  report  to  the  actual  experience  of  myself  and  Lieutenant  . 
Xitchener.     The  evidence  of  the  rest  of  the  party  v,^as  taken  by  Herr 
Marcus.     The   more    serious  injuries  may  be    bricUy   summed    up    as 

iollows : — 

1.  Lieutenant  Conder :    Two  raw  w^umds  on  the    head,  and  violent 

swelling  from  a  blow  on  the  neck. 

2.  Lieutenant  Kitchener :    Bruise   covering   all    his    left    thigh,  and 

another  on  his  arm.     Both  still  very  painful. 
o  and  4.  Corporals  Armstrong  and  Brophy  :  Bruised  with  stones. 
■o.  Baud  (groom) :  A  large  raw  wound  on  the  side  of  the  head,  re- 
quiring to  be  sewn  up.     He  remains  very  ill  with  wounds  and 

fever  in  the  JeAvish  Hospital,  Safed,  and  when  I  last  saw  hiiu 

was  in  a  precarious'  condition. 
(3.  Takub  (cook)  :  Severely  beaten,  and  hit  in  the  side  and  on  back 

with  large  stones.     Appeared  to  be  dying. 
7.  Habib  (dragoman) :    Was  fired  at,   was  severely  hit   in  the  wind 

with  a  stone,  and  lay  on  the  tent  floor  incapable  of  defending 

himself.     He  received  many  other  blows. 
S.  Hussein  (muleteer) :  Received  Iavo  wounds  on  his  head  and  neck 

with  clubs  and  stones,  and  was  shot  at. 
9.  Hassan  Abeideh  (muleteer)  :    Struck  with    sticks  and  stones.     A 

violent  blow  with  the  scimitar  levelled  at  him  cut  the  tent  ropes 

in  two. 
The  rest  of  the  fifteen  were  all  more   or  less  injured  with  clubs, 
stones,   and  a  few  with  sword    cuts.     The   c.ily  wonder  is  that  more 


THE    AKABS    IN    I'ALESTINE.  190 

injury  was  not  done,  but  tliis  is  perhaps  due  to  the  conspicuous  dress 
of  the  Europeans,  especially  Lieutenant  Kitchener  and  myself,  who  wore 
■white  jackets,  and  stood  in  front  of  the  partj'. 

«**#♦** 
This  report  was  left  unfinished  by  Lieutenant  Conder  when  he  was 
taken  ill.     It  will,  I  think,  iuform  the  Committee  of  all  the  necessary 
particulars  of  the  conflict.     We  retired  next  day  to  lilejdel  Karum,  and 
on  Monday  arrived  here. 

H.  II.  KiTciiEXEE,  Lieut.  R.E. 


THE  AEABS   IN  TALESTINE. 

{Read  at  the  Royal  Institution  and  reprinted  from  '^  Ifacmillau^s 

Magaziiic.'''') 

The  labours  of  numerous  explorers,  and  especially  of  the  Palestine 
Exploration  Fund,  have  thrown  much  light  on  Biblical  archasology  and 
•topography,  and  many  memorials  and  souvenirs  have  been  found  which 
help  to  make  us  in  some  degree  familiar  with  the  old  world  of  Bible 
■times  ;  but  of  the  country  and  its  inhabitants,  as  they  are  at  present,  it 
is  not  too  much  to  say,  that  but  very  little  is  known,  especiallj^  as 
regards  the  light  that  may  be  thrown  by  them  upon  the  past.  It  is  to 
this  modern  Palestine — the  Palestine  of  the  Arab,  as  it  may  be  called — 
ihat  the  following  observations  refer,  and  they  have  been  made  in  the 
hope  of  showing  how  the  attentive  study  of  it  may  serve  to  light  up 
:and  explain  many  a  dim  and  misty  page  in  the  history  of  the  Palestine 
of  old. 

The  Biblical  texts  have  been  worked  at  by  successive  generations  of 
commentators,  until  all  that  could  be  got  from  them  has  been  extracted, 
and  the  periodical  return  of  certain  exegetical  combinations  shows  that 
the  series  is  complete,  and  the  question,  so  far  as  they  are  concerned,  ex- 
hausted. Next  to  the  important  facts  which  may  result  from  future 
•excavations,  there  are,  in  my  opinion,  two  things  required  to  lift  Biblical 
■archajology  out  of  the  vicious  circle  in  which  it  has  a  tendencj'  to  turn, 
•and  to  give  it  new  life — viz.,  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  writings  of 
the  various  Mohammedan  authors  in  the  original  Arabic  text,  and  an 
exhaustive  study  of  the  manners,  customs,  and  traditions  of  the  sedentary 
fellaheen  of  Judaja.  For  both,  a  knowledge  not  only  of  literary  Arabic, 
but  also  of  the  vulgar  tongue,  is  absolutely  necessary. 

Up  to  the  present  time  very  little  information  as  regards  Palestine  has 
been  derived  from  Arabic  historians  and  geographers ;  with  the  excep- 
tion of  four  or  five,  and  those  not  the  most  useful  for  our  purpose,  Ihey 
have  been  almost  entirely  neglected.  This  is  a  mistake,  for  they  contain 
a  whole  mine  of  valuable  indications  which  may  put  us  oa  the  path  of 
great  discoveries,  especially  of  the  topographical  kind,  bj'  adding  to  the 
•chain  of  traditions  the  link,  so  difficult  to  seize,  which  connects  the  actual 


200  THE    AKABS    IN    I'ALESTINE. 

names  witli  tlio  latest  evidence  of  the  authors  of  antiquity.  An  example- 
taken  from  my  own  experience  illustrates  this,  and  affords  a  striking 
contirmation  of  one  of  my  recent  discoveries  of  this  nature. 

Biblical  students  have  long  been  familiar  with  the  name  of  Gezer,  the 
city  whose  Canaanitekinglloram  was  defeated  by  Joshua,  and  which  be- 
came the  western  limit  of  the  territory  of  Ephraim.  Assigned  with  its 
suburbs  to  the  Levites  of  the  family  of  Kohath,  it  had  the  rank  of  a 
priestly  city,  and  its  primitive  inhabitants,  through  spread  by  the 
Israelites,  were  massacred  by  one  of  the  Pharaohs,  who  took  the  place 
and  gave  it  iu  dowry  to  his  daughter.  King  Sclomon's  queen.  The 
Hebrew  monarch  reconstructed  Gezer,  which  was  certainly  a  place  of 
great  strategic  importance,  as  is  shown  by  the  considerable  part  it  played 
during  the  struggles  of  the  Maccabees. 

Much  information  as  to  the  position  of  the  city  exists.  We  learn  from 
many  sources — the  Hebrew  books,  the  Apocrypha,  Josephus,  Eusebius, 
Jerome — that  it  was  situated  not  far  from  Beth-horon,  in  the  region  of 
Jabneh  and  Jaffa,  on  the  confines  of  the  territory  of  Azotus,  about  four 
Eoman  miles  from  Emmaus,  the  site  of  which  has  been  satisfactorily 
fixed  at  the  modern  Amwas.  It  is  rare  to  find  such  precise  indications 
of  the  position  of  any  Palestiue  city,  and  yet  the  identification  of  Gezer 
remained  up  to  1870  one  of  the  stumbling-blocks  of  commentators,  and  one 
of  the  lacuiice  of  Biblical  topography,  the  more  to  be  deplored,  since  in 
addition  to  the  interest  of  the  place  itself,  the  discovery  of  its  site  would 
give  the  key  to  the  junction  of  the  territories  of  Dan,  Judah,  and 
Ephraim.  Many  conjectures  have  been  hazarded.  Most  commentators, 
in  despair,  and  supported  by  a  superficial  resemblance  of  names — a 
mirage  which  too  often  deceives  explorers  not  familiar  with  Semitic- 
tongues— placed  Gezer  at  the  village  of  Yazoor,  west  of  Jaffa,  and  quite 
close  to  it :  and  though  both  philology  and  history  were  agreed  that  this, 
identification  could  not  be  sustained,  it  was  virtually  accepted,  no  exami- 
nation of  the  country  producing  any  better  solution  of  the  problem.  It 
was  my  privilege,  however,  to  succeed  where  others  had  failed,  and  that 
too  without  ever  having  seen  the  place. 

As  an  astronomer  finds  in  space  the  position  of  an  unseen  planet,  I 
marked  on  the  map  the  exact  spot  where  Gezer  would  be  found,  and  a 
subsequent  visit  only  confirmed  the  previous  conclusion.  Nor  was  this 
result  due  to  exceptional  penetration  or  sudden  inspiration.  It  occurred 
in  the  most  natural  way  in  the  world  ;  and  was  an  application  of  the 
method  just  indicate  1. 

In  reading  the  Arab  chronicler,  Mejr  ed  Deen,  a  writer  known  chiefly 
through  certain  very  incorrect  extracts  given  by  M.  du  Hammer  Purg- 
stall,  I  lighted  on  an  incident  which  took  place  in  Palestine  in  the  year 
900  of  the  Hegira.  The  chronicler  is  speaking  of  a  skirmish  between  a 
party  of  Bedaween  brigands  and  a  governor  of  Jerusalem  named  Jau 
Boolat,  in  the  district  of  Eamleh ;  and  iu  the  course  of  the  nairative  ho 
says — and  this  was  the  point  that  arrested  my  attention — that  the  crits- 
of  the  combatants  reached  as  far  as  the  village  of  Khulda  (now  well  known). 


THE    ARABS    IX    PALESTINE.  201 

and  were  distinctly  heard  at  another  village  called  Tell  el  Jczor — the  Hill 
or  Mount  of  Jci^er.  Now  the  word  Jezor  corresponds  exactly  with  tho 
Hebrew  Gezer,  especially  if  tho  initial  letter  is  pronounced  soft  as  in 
Egypt;  and  the  tract  of  country  was  just  the  one  in  which  to  look  for 
tho  lost  site.  But  unfortunately,  all  the  maps  that  I  consulted  were 
silent  on  the  place,  whose  existence  was  nevertheless  thus  positively 
asserted,  and  corroborated  by  an  Arab  geographer  of  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury of  our  era,  Yakut,  who  speaks  of  Tell  el  Jezer  as  a  strong  place  in 
the  district  of  Falestin — i.e.,  Ramleh.  On  consideration,  it  was  clear  that 
Tell  el  Jezer,  being  within  hearing  of  Khulda,  could  not  be  very  far  from 
that  place  ;  even  allowing  the  Bedaween  a  more  than  ordinary  power  of 
lungs.  I  therefore  set  to  work  within  a  limited  radius,  and  after  some 
search  discovered  my  Gezer  at  less  than  three  miles  from  Khulda,  close 
to  a  village  figuring  in  the  map  as  Aboo  Shusheh.  Here  I  found  the 
site  of  a  large  town  presenting  all  the  characters  of  a  stronghold,  and 
answering  to  every  one  of  tho  required  conditions.  But  it  was  not 
without  trouble  that  the  accuracy  of  my  calculations  was  thoroughly 
established ;  for  the  name  of  Tell  el  Jezer,  though  familiar  to  the 
inhabitants  of  Aboo  Shusheh,  of  which  village  the  tdl  forms  a  part,  was 
quite  unknown  to  the  people  of  Khulda,  their  neighbours,  to  whom  I  at 
Urst  addressed  myself.  But  just  as  I  began  to  despair  of  success,  an  old 
peasant  woman  told  me  that  it  was  at  Aboo  Shusheh  that  I  must  look  for 
Tell  el  Jezer. 

This,  as  I  may  almost  call  it,  accidental  discovery,  which  I  announced 
at  the  time  to  the  Academie  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles  Letfres,  and  which 
was  received  with  some  incredulity,  met  with  the  most  unexpected  con- 
firmation four  years  afterwards — viz.,  in  1874,  when,  on  revisiting  the 
spot  in  the  service  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  I  discovered  at 
Aboo  Shusheh,  in  the  exact  locality  I  had  fixed  upon  as  the  site  of  Gezer, 
bilingual  inscriptions  in  Greek  and  Hebrew  deeply  carved  upon  the  rock, 
ivith  the  Biblical  name  of  Gezer  luritteii  in  fall,  and  repeated  twice,  and 
marking  without  doubt  the  priestly  limit,  or  Sabbatical  zone,  which 
surrounded  the  place. 

It  is  needless  to  insist  upon  the  inappreciable  value  of  these  inscriptions, 
the  correct  reading  of  which  is  now  agreed  on  by  the  leading  savants 
both  of  England  and  France,  and  which  constitute  undoubtedly  one  of  the 
principal  monuments  of  Jewish  history.  It  will  be  sufficient  to  mention 
the  principal  gains  they  furnish  to  Biblical  knowledge.  They  enable 
us,  first,  to  know  exactly  what  was  the  Sabbath-day's  journey  of  the  New 
Testament ;  secondly,  to  establish  in  a  decisive  manner  the  position  of  the 
.city  which  was  the  dowry  of  Pharaoh's  daughter  ;  and  thirdly,  to  fix  the 
boundaries  of  Dan,  Ephraini,  and  Judah.  And,  more  than  this,  they 
justify  in  a  most  unexpected  manner  the  use  of  the  inductive  method 
hitherto  pursued  in  Biblical  topography,  and  supply  a  written  authori- 
tative tcstimonj'  which  may  serve  to  throw  great  lighten  other  identifica- 
tions obtained  by  the  same  method. 

P 


202  THE   AKAHS    l^'    PALESTINE. 

This  one  example  is  enongli  to  sliow  liow  fav  a  single  line  of  a  tliirtl- 
rate  Arabic  vrriter  maj'  lead  us. 

But  it  is  not  Arabic  texts  only  that  must  be  consulted  in  order  to 
advance  the  study  of  the  Bible,  it  is  even  more  important  to  examine  the 
traditions  preserved  by  the  resident  fellaheen.  I  do  not  mean  by  this  a 
few  questions  put  to  stupid  and  suspicious  peasants  as  to  the  name  of 
village,  ruin,  or  valley,  but  close,  minute,  methodical  observations  of  the 
manners,  customs,  legends,  and  superstitions  of  those  peasants.  Inter- 
rogation is  in  Palestine  the  worst  of  all  possible  means  for  getting  at  the 
truth.  The  art  of  questioning  Arabs  consists  in  knowing  when  to  shut 
your  mouth  and  keep  your  eyes  and  ears  open — listening  so  as  to  draw 
them  onto  tell  stories,  and  thus  gradually  extracting  information,  while 
carefully  abstaining  from  asking  questions  calculated  to  suggest  ideas  to 
minds  so  credulous  and  so  easily  influenced. 

The  illustrious  Robinson  and  his  successors  often  made  the  happiest  use 
of  oral  traditions  for  topographical  purposes.  "We  must,  however,  bear  in 
mind  that  this  fount  of  information,  abundant  as  it  is,  if  drawn  upon 
daily  will  in  time  diminish ;  and,  what  is  more  serious,  that  its  purity  is 
often  troubled  by  the  suggestions  of  imprudent  travellers,  which  a  new- 
comer, inexperienced  in  the  character  of  the  natives,  is  liable  to  consider 
as  so  many  spontaneous  recollections  and  genuine  traditions.  If  to  thi^i 
source  of  error,  which  reminds  one  of  Antony's  mystification  by  Cleopatra 
when  ho  caught  a  salt-water  fish  in  the  fresh  waters  of  the  Nile,  we  add 
the  want  of  philological  knowledge  in  the  questioner,  of  which  many  a 
pleasant  instance  might  bo  cited,  it  is  easy  to  understand  that  unlimited 
and  exclusive  credit  must  not  be  accorded  to  information  acquired  by  a 
method  which  needs  peculiarly  delicate  handling.  There  is  something 
else  to  be  got  out  of  the  fellaheen  besides  a  mere  list  of  names  ;  and  it  is 
to  this  point  that  I  would  invite  the  attention  of  travellers. 

Few  countries  are  more  travelled  in  than  Palestine  ;  and  in  few  are  thg 
manners  and  customs  of  the  people  less  known.  We  m.ay  truly  say  that 
the  population  of  Oceania,  of  the  extreme  East,  of  Central  Asia,  of  India, 
of  Egypt,  and  even  of  the  Bedaweon  tribes  beyond  the  Jordan,  are  now 
more  familiar  to  us  than  that  of  this  little  corner  of  the  earth,  so  often 
trodden  by  European  travellers.  Tourists,  pilgrim?,  acd  savants  pour 
into  the  country,  but  all,  nearly  without  exception,  for  different  reasons 
neglect  to  notice,  and  to  reader  any  account  of,  the  only  thing  which  is 
entirely  fresh  and  untouched — the  natives  of  the  place.  The  reason  of 
this  may  chiefly  bo  found  in  the  mode  of  travelling  to  which  the 
European  is  condemned  in  Palestine.  Nearly  invariably  he  has  to  hand 
himself  over  to  the  mercy  of  the  inevitjiblo  dragoman,  an  obstructive 
animal,  peculiar  to  the  social  fauna  of  the  Levant,  and  combining  the 
functions  of  interpreter,  maltre  cVltutd,  guide,  and  courier,  whose 
acquaintance  ho  has  probably  already  made  in  Egypt.  There,  however, 
it  mattered  little,  for  not  even  a  dragoman  can  spoil  the  effect  produced 
by  the  splendour  and  magnificence  of  the  temples  and  tombs  of  the 
Phaiaohs.     But  while  on  the  banks  of  the  Mile  he  is  kept  in  his  place  as 


THE    ARABS    IX    rALESTINE.  205^ 

a  servant,  iu  S^'iia  lie  becomes  a  master  and  a  despot.  An  amusing 
picture  might  be  drawn  of  the  misfortunes  of  those  who  havo  become  the 
prey  of  these  gentry,  but  I  will  merely  mention  the  great  drawback  to 
their  presence — viz.,  that  it  hinders  all  direct  contact  with  the  peasants, 
and  has  the  effect  of  a  scarecrow  on  the  suspicious  people  whose  coufideuce 
is  of  supreme  value  to  the  investigator. 

The  Erank  traveller  passes  through  Palestine,  along  the  beaten 
track,  with  an  indifferent  glance  at  the  characteristic  mien  of  the  men, 
and  a  more  appro^ing  one  at  the  dignified  bearing  of  the  women  as  they 
Avalk  light  and  erect  beneath  their  heavy  loads.  He  notices,  too, 
perhaps,  the  picturesqueness  of  the  costumes  ;  and,  when  he  has  learnt 
from  his  dragoman  that  these  are  fellaheen  Arabs,  he  is  charmingly 
satisfied  with  the  completeness  of  his  information.  Little  does  he  suspect 
ihat  he  is  in  daily  companionship  with  a  race  which,  rude  and  rough  as 
it  is,  affords  the  historian  a  study  of  the  very  highest  interest. 

The  peasants  of  Judcea  are  commonly  said  to  be  Arabs ;  and  I  am 
willing  to  admit  that  they  are  so  in  the  sense  that  they  speak  Arabic. 
But  we  must  understand  what  is  meant  by  this  vague  and  deceptive  term 
which  is  applied  to  so  many  distinct  races  and  the  heterogeneous  remains 
of  so  many  peoples.  Since  the  predominance  of  Islam,  the  whole  s^'stem 
of  Semitic  nationalities  has  followed  the  irresistible  tendency  to  unity 
resulting  from  the  pressure  of  linguistic  conformity  and  political  neces- 
sity ;  and  all  its  numerous  divisions,  small  and  great,  have  j^oured  their 
waters  into  this  Arab  lake,  and  have  converted  it  into  an  ocean,  in  which 
every  confluent  loses  its  name.  Looking  at  this  immense  Arab  sheet, 
which  extends  beyond  our  sight  over  Asia  and  Africa,  we  may  well  say, 
"  It  is  a  sea,"  But  it  is  the  duty  of  science  to  inquire  into  the  origin  of 
this  collective  reservoir ;  and  to  track  to  its  source,  if  need  be  along  its- 
dry  bed,  each  one  of  its  tributary  streams. 

The  race  which  occupies  Juda3a,  especially  its  mountainous  part,  a 
sedentary  and  not  a  nomadic  one,  with  customs  of  its  own,  and  a 
language  full  of  peculiarities,  is  not,  as  I  have  before  had  occasion  to 
state,  that  of  the  nomad  hordes  who  came  from  Arabia  with  the  Caliph 
Omar,  and  who  are  for  the  most  part  settled  in  the  towns.  The  odd 
popular  prejudice  which  obstinately  believes  that  the  Mussulman  Arabs. . 
who  became  masters  of  Syria  after  the  defeat  of  the  Greek  troops,  took 
altogether  the  place  of  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  country,  and  are, 
in  fact,  the  people  whom  we  find  there  now,  cannot  be  too  strongly 
combated.  No  such  change  resulted  from  the  Mussulman  conquest,- 
and  it  is  important  to  insist  on  this  point  because  it  throws  a  remarkable 
light,  at  an  interval  of  more  than  2,000  years,  on  the  conquest  of  Canaan 
by  the  Bent  Israel,  or  "  Children  of  Israel,"  as  they  are  called  iu. 
Deuteronomy. 

The  Mussulman  Arabs,  who  founded  their  empire  on  the  ruins  of  the 
Byzantine   and    Persian    kingdoms,    intentionally   left    untouched   the- 
civil'sation  which  they  found  already  installed  and  in  use.     They  only 
added  one  thing — a  dogma— or,  to  use  a  less  positive  term,  a  religious.- 


204  THE    AKABS    IX    TALESTIXE. 

entliusiasm :  and  while  strong  enough,  to  tuke  everytliiDg,  were  at  the 
same  time  wise  enough  to  destroy  nothing.  Conquest  was  to  them  a 
means  of  gaining  easily  at  the  point  of  the  sword  the  power  of  sharing  in 
the  enjoyment  of  wealth  and  prosperity  which  if  left  to  themselves  they 
could  have  made  no  use  of.  They  carefully  abstained  from  meddling  with 
the  complex  institutions  of  the  Lower  Empire.  Mastei's  of  the  marvel- 
lous, and  to  them  incomprehensible,  mechanism  whose  fascinations  had 
excited  their  envy,  these  historically  recent  races  and  their  successors 
declined  to  touch  a  spring  which  they  were  incapable  of  regulating,  and 
thus  the  great  pendulum  set  in  motion  by  the  impulses  of  Rome  and 
Byzantium  peacefully  continued  its  oscillations  under  the  Caliphate,  and 
still  continues  them,  marking  with  gradually  diminishing  force  the 
already  numbered  hours  of  the  Empire  of  the  East. 

Arab  civilisation  is  a  mere  deception — it  no  more  exists  than  the 
horrors  of  Ai'ab  conquest.  It  is  but  the  last  gleam  of  Greek  and  Roman 
civilisation  gradually  dying  out  in  the  powerless  but  respectful  hands  of 
Islam.  A  civilisation,  be  it  remembered,  cannot  be  produced  spontane- 
ously, or  improvised,  any  more  than  can  a  patrimony ;  it  is  the  here- 
ditary accumulation  of  living  forces — a  treasure  framed  by  the  hoarding 
of  ages,  which  a  robber  may  take  in  a  moment  and  dissipate  in  a  day, 
but  which  his  whole  life  would  be  insufficient  to  create.  But  the  Arab 
conquerors,  iiarvenus  though  they  were,  without  a  history  and  without  a 
past,  respected  everything — administration,  science,  and  arts — only 
turning  everything  to  their  own  profit.  They  even  went  so  far  as  occa- 
sionally to  grant  the  privileged  holders  of  this  intellectual  monopoly  a 
concession,  which,  to  the  army,  enlightened  only  by  the  flame  of 
fanaticism,  must  have  cost  much — viz.,  a  truly  admirable  religious 
liberty. 

The  basis  of  all  finance  being  the  revenue  of  the  soil,  it  is  the  first 
business  of  a  conqueror  to  reassure  the  vanquished  by  allowing  those 
who  have  always  cultivated  the  ground  to  continue  doing  so.  And  this 
the  Mussulman  conquerors,  who,  as  regards  agriculture,  knew  no  soil 
but  the  sand  of  the  desert,  and  no  tools  but  the  point  of  the  lance,  with 
rare  good  sense  did.  They  retained  in  Syria  the  cultivators  of  the  land 
in  the  same  way  that  they  retained  the  cultivators  of  arts  and  of  know- 
ledge. This  arrangement  was  acquiesced  in  more  readily  by  the  peasantry 
than  by  the  townspeople,  though  the  latter  made  but  a  faint  show  of 
resistance.  In  fact,  the  whole  population  accepted  by  a  large  majority, 
not  only  the  language  of  their-  conquerors,  which  was  somewhat  akin  to 
their  own  Semitic  dialect,  but  also  their  religion,  in  which  they  saw  a 
slight  but  attractive  resemblance  to  their  own  vague  Christianity. 

Of  this  phenomenon,  however,  a  still  earlier  example  may  be  cited  in 
the  history  of  Palestine.  For  who  were  the  peasants  whom  the  Mussul- 
mans found  on  their  entrance  into  Judsea,  and  who  have  become  the  fel- 
laheen of  our  days  ?  Were  they  Jews  ?  The  wars  of  extermination  waged 
by  Vespasian,  Titus,  Trajan,  and  Hadrian,  and  the  persecutions  of  the 
Christian  emperors,  left  not  one  stone  upon  another  of  either  political  or 


TIIF.    .\i:\.rs    IN-    PALESTIXE.  205 

etlinic  Judaism  ;  they  made  it  a  tahuhi  ram,  and  cast  tlio  J'hris  to  the  four 
winds  of  heaven.  Jewish  tradition,  properly  so  called,  is  for  ever  lost  in 
Palestine;  and  all  the  Jews  now  found  there  have,  without  exception, 
come  to  the  country  at  a  comparatively  recent  date.  Were  they  Greeks  ? 
We  know  for  certain  that,  during  the  period  that  elapsed  between  the 
dispersion  of  the  Jews  and  the  appearance  of  the  Arabs,  the  villages  of 
Judoea  were  occupied  by  a  population  speaking  a  Semitic  dialect.  If, 
then,  these  peasants  were  neither  Jews  nor  Greeks,  what  were  they  ? 
I  answer  that  their  origin  may  be  traced  to  a  far  earlier  period,  and  that 
if  we  examine  into  the  question,  we  shall  find  very  strong  proof  that  the 
Mohammedan  conquest  was  almost  the  literal  repetition  of  the  more 
ancient  invasion  of  Joshua.  The  analogy  between  the  two  events  is  very 
striking ;  in  both  we  have  a  people  conquered  and  enslaved  bj"- 
masses  pouring  in  from  nearly  the  same  regions,  and  impelled  by  the- 
same  necessities. 

Nomads  like  the  first  Mussulmans,  and  imbued  like  them  with  the- 
irresistible  force  of  religious  conviction,  the  Israelites  burst  over  the- 
Promised  Land,  attracted  by  its  natural  wealth  and  by  a  civilisation,  the- 
existence  of  which  may  be  inferred  from  the  r>iblical  writings.  In  some 
parts  of  the  country  they  speedily  obtained  a  footing,  though  in  others 
they  encountered  a  more  obstinate  resistance  than  the  Mussulmans  did, 
the  federative  system  of  the  Canaanites  lending  itself  better  to  a 
prolongation  of  the  strife,  and  the  political  conditions  being  different. 

The  problem  of  the  permanent  occupation  of  the  country  received  the 
same  solution  as  in  the  later  invasion  ;  the  chief  thing  in  both  cases 
being  to  secure  the  proper  cultivation  of  the  ground.  This  fact  has  led 
to  the  remark,  in  itself  a  just  one,  that  the  Mosaic  legislation  was 
founded  on  agriculture.  But  shepherds  could  not  have  transformed 
themselves  in  a  single  day  into  agriculturists ;  they  must  at  first  have 
made  those  who  understood  it  produce  for  them  the  fruits  of  the  land 
which  they  had  divided  into  tribe  territories  and  family  fiefs.  It  is  true 
that  they  expelled  from  the  country  certain  turbulent  clans  who,  not- 
withstanding their  forced  submission,  for  a  long  time  exorcised  on  the 
intruders  a  pressure  not  unsalutary ;  and  who  finally,  with  character- 
istic elasticity,  came  back  after  the  disappearance  of  the  Jews  to  the 
places  whence  they  had  been  driven.  But  the  new  occupants  were 
obliged,  whether  they  wished  it  or  not,  to  allow  the  bulk  of  the  primitive 
inhabitants  to  remain  in  the  cotintry ;  and  the  precautions  of  all  sorts 
taken  by  the  Jewish  lawgiver  to  prevent  the  vanquished  and  the  con- 
querors from  mixing,  lest  the  religious  belief  of  the  Jew  should  suffer  by 
the  contact,  is  itself  a  proof  that  they  lived  together  side  by  side.  That 
the  aborigines,  after  troubling  the  religion  of  Israel  a  long  time  by  their 
pagan  superstitions,  should  end  by  adopting  it,  and  by  being  mingled 
though  not  confounded  with  their  conquerors,  was  natural  enough  ; 
and  opinions  are  still  divided  as  to  which  of  these  two  races,  allied  in 
speech,  abandoned  its  own  dialect  and  adopted  that  of  the  other. 

The   union   was,    nevertheless,   not   so   complete    as   to    prevent  the 


206  THE   ARABS    IN   PALESTINE. 

Assyrians  from  oaaiiy  picking  out  for  deportatiou  the  families  of  pure 
Israelite  race ;  and  thus  depriving  the  country  of  its  foreign  aristocracy, 
while  they  left  on  the  soil  the  serfs  by  whose  labour  it  could  be  made  to 
render  tribute.  For  great  empires  did  not  carry  on  war  for  the  barren 
pleasure  of  destruction  (a  pleasure  insufficient  even  for  barbarians),  but 
to  augment  their  wealth ;  and  it  is  evident  that  such  partial  coloni- 
sation as  that  of  Samaria  would  have  been  insufficient  to  repeople 
Palestine. 

The  unstable  amalgam  of  races  which,  on  the  return  from  exile, 
endeavoured  to  reconstitute  itself  into  a  nation  and  even  acquired  some 
cohesion  under  the  energetic  rule  of  the  Hasmoneans,  could  not  escape 
fulling  to  pieces  when  brought  into  contact  with  Greek  inflaences.  The 
Hellenizing  spirit  against  which  those  who  were  Jews  by  descent  and 
conviction  had  to  contend,  and  which  found  partisans  even  among  them, 
marks  the  commencement  of  this  dissociation.  It  made  continual 
progress  under  the  Herods,  and  was  completed  when  the  very  name  of 
Jew  was  struck  out  of  the  bock  of  nations  by  the  hand  of  Rome.  Gra3C0- 
Roman  paganism  had  only  to  show  itself  in  Syria  to  be  accepted  and 
loved.  Endowed  with  a  plastic  tolerance  which  embraced  with  astonish- 
ing ease  the  religious  forms  of  other  nations,  sometimes  pouring  itself  into 
their  moulds,  sometimes  melting  down  their  monstrous  idols  and  re- 
making them  after  its  own  images,  this  paganism — this  extra-biblical 
monotheism  of  antiquity — brought  with  it,  to  those  who  welcomed  it 
with  rapturous  submission,  but  one  reforming  element,  that  of  a33thetics  ; 
it  exacted  but  one  sacrifice,  that  of  ugliness  ;  imposed  but  one  discipline, 
that  of  pleasure,  and  one  dogma,  that  of  taste;  and  introduced  but  one 
revelation,  that  of  the  beautiful.  Full  of  consideration  for  the  religions 
which  accepted  its  seductions,  it  exercised  no  violence  except  upon  those 
which  resisted  them.  The  ancient  Syrophoenician  divinities,  to  adopt  the 
term  used  in  the  Gospels,  willingly  consented  to  inhabit  temples  of 
exquisite  architecture,  whore  the  onlj'  conditions  of  entrance  were  a 
Greek  costume,  and  the  assumption  of  one  of  the  many  names  and  attri- 
butes in  the  rich  pantheon.  Then  it  was  that,  under  the  stimulating- 
action  of  the  breeze  from  Greece  and  Italy,  the  dried-up  flora  of  Semitic 
mythology  burst  into  a  thousand  new  perfumes  and  colours.  Palestine 
had  a  large  share  in  this  reawakening,  and  from  Dan  to  Beersheba 
regenerated  polytheism  soon  obscured  the  very  recollection  of  the  austere 
law  of  Jebovah. 

The  political  triumph  of  Christianity  crushed  this  growth.  The  laud 
where  the  seed  of  the  Crucified  Sower  had  so  marvellously  fructided ; 
where  grew  the  first  ear  -of  that  corn  which  was  to  be  multiplied  infi- 
nitely, and  to  furnish  the  religious  needs  of  the  world  for  centuries  with 
the  bread  of  tho  Spirit ;  the  nursery  of  a  creed  whose  cradle  was  a  tomb, 
and  whose  flag  a  gibbet — this  little  land  became  the  object  of  a  si^ccial 
adoration,  a  kind  of  topolatry,  when  the  Church  mounted  with  Oon- 
■stantine  the  throne  of  the  Caesars,  and  assumed  the  imperial  diadem, 
after  having  worn  so  long  the  martyr's  crown. 


THE    APvAL'S    IX    i'ALESTIXE.  207 

So  great  was  this  love  of  lioly  places,  and  so  passionate  tlie  desire  to 
expiate  the  cruel  mj'sterics  of  whicli  they  had  beeu  the  theatre,  that 
during  the  whole  Byzantine  period  Judiiea  was  overrun  by  monks,  and 
transformed  into  one  vast  convent.  Everywhere  local  paganism  had  to 
give  Way  to  Christ  returuiug  as  a  master  to  the  land  of  Llis  birth;  but, 
as  a  fiual  protest  against  the  persecution  to  which  they  submitted,  the 
pagans,  driven  out  from  their  temples,  now  transformed  iuto  churches, 
took  refuge  in  the  schisms  and  heresies  of  which  Syria  was  always  the 
grand  manuf;vcturer. 

At  this  troubled  period,  while  the  country  was  agitated  by  the  conflict 
between  the  new  propaganda  and  the  old  beliefs,  a  new  element  appeared 
on  the  scene.  Islam  is  in  fact  a  form  of  Christianity,  most  schismatic, 
most  heretical  if  you  will,  but  still  Christianity,  for  many  a  sect  of  so- 
called  Christians  differs  more  than  Mohammedanism  does  from  certain 
established  axioms  of  Christianity.  The  new  dogma.  Christian  in  doctrine, 
Jewish  in  ritual,  made  up  of  laws  and  regulations  suited  to  the  wants  of 
wandering  Arab  tribes,  owed  its  escape  from  the  ignominious  extinction 
which  befell  similar  sectarian  creeds,  to  certain  political  causes.  The  secret 
of  its  wonderful  success  was  that  it  placed  itself  in  opposition  to  Byzantium, 
and  became  the  heart  and  soul  of  the  struggle  against  official  Christi- 
anity. This  it  was  that  gave  it  strength  and  life,  and  enabled  it  to  rally 
to  its  side  those  popuhitions  who  had  only  renounced  paganism  and 
accepted  Chi-istianity  under  compulsion,  and  who  welcomed  the  Mussul- 
man conquest,  and  the  supremacy  of  the  faith  of  Islam,  as  a  means 
of  protesting  against  the  politico-religious  tyranny  from  which  they  had 
suffered. 

These  Koofars—a.n  appellation  derived  from  theirjiving  in  Kefrs,  the 
Arabic  for  villages,  just  as  the  similar  term  -pac/ani  is  derived  from  the 
Latin  ^«^i' — would  have  returned  to  their  old  heathen  creeds  when  once 
withdrawn  from  the  Christian  yoke  ;  but  on  this  point  the  Mussulmans 
were  inflexible ;  they  tolerated  the  Christians  and  the  Jews  as  being 
their  own  spiritual  forefathers,  but  they  had  inherited  against  the  pagans 
the  implacable  hatred  which  animated  Christianity,  and  which  utter 
extermination  could  alone  satisfy. 

Eesigned  Mussulmans  under  the  Mussulman  rule,  bad  Christians  under 
the  Christian  rule,  after  having  been  fervent  pagans  and  mediocre  Jews, 
the  land-tilling  mountaineers  of  Judtea,  sons  of  the  soil  and  the  rock, 
are  ready  to  become  afresh  whatever  their  masters  of  to-morrow  may 
demand,  if  only  they  are  allowed  to  remain  on  the  land.  It  is  this  extra- 
ordinary attachment  to  the  soil  which  has  made  and  still  makes  them 
willing  to  endure  everything  rather  than  leave  it. 

If  this  race  has  thus  been  able  to  resist,  or  rather,  to  survive  conquest ; 
if  this  stratum  of  humanity  has  been  unchanged  by  the  other  strata 
which  have  been  laid  upon  it,  a  fortiori  has  it  been  little  effected  by  the 
many  ephemeral  invasions,  the  human  deluges,  which  have  overrun 
Palestine  from  time  to  time.  The  wave  swept  away  everything  that  tried 
to  stop  it,  but  could  make  no  impression  on  this  impermeable  stratum 


208  THE    AEADS    IN   PALESTINE. 

over  whicli  it  ran  foaming,  and  which  emerged  intact  as  soon  as  it  had 
jiassed.  The  invasion  which  most  resembled  a  conquest,  and  at  one 
moment  threatened  to  reverse  the  destinies  of  Palestine,  was  the  occupa- 
tion of  the  Crusaders ;  but  it  was  too  shortlived  to  have  any  effect  on  the 
Arab  ways  of  thought  and  feeling  already  impressed  upon  the  people. 
It  merely  left  here  and  there  what  maybe  called  an  anthropological  trace 
of  its  passage  ;  and  the  yellow  hair  and  blue  eyes  which  sometimes  even 
at  the  present  day  the  astonished  traveller  may  see  beneath  a  Bedaween 
kefeeyeh  or  a  fellah  turban,  are  the  sole  legacy  of  the  Crusader  to  the 
i:)eople  of  Syria. 

I  have,  therefore,  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  the  fellaheen  of 
Palestine,  taken  as  a  whole,  are  the  modern  representatives  of  those  old 
tribes  which  the  Israelites  found  settled  in  the  country,  such  as  the 
Canaanites,  Hittites,  Jebusites,  Amorites,  Philistines,  Edomites,  &c.  In 
what  proportion  these  various  tribes  are  now  represented,  and  whether 
they  were  preceded  by  a  still  older  autochthonous  population — Ankim, 
Horites,  &c.,  are  questions  which,  in  the  existing  state  of  science,  it 
would  be  useless  to  enter  into.  But  though  this  race,  or  rather  conglo- 
meration of  races,  which  may  be  designated,  for  want  of  a  better,  by  the 
vague  title  of  pre-Israelite,  still  survives  beneath  its  Mohammedan 
exterior,  it  has  not  remained  uninfluenced  during  the  lapse  of  centuries 
by  the  many  events  and  circumstances  that  have  happened  in  Palestine. 
Each  successive  change  in  the  social  and  political  condition  of  the  country 
has  more  or  less  affected  it  in  various  ways ;  and  we  must  not  be  sur- 
prised, when  studying  the  fellaheen,  at  finding  Jewish,  Hellenic, 
Eabbinic,  Christian,  and  Mussulman  reminiscences  mingled  pell- 
mell  and  in  the  quaintest  combinations,  with  traits  which  bring  us 
back  to  the  most  remote  and  obscure  periods  of  pre-Israelite  existence. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  sift  this  farrago,  and  determine  to  what  epoch 
each  part  belongs ;  the  more  so  because  chronology,  the  perspective  of 
history,  is  as  entirely  ignored  and  even  hated  by  the  popular  mind,  as 
was  ordinary  perspective  by  the  primitive  artists,  and  the  difficulty  is 
increased  by  the  fact  that  the  same  tradition  has  often— like  those  re- 
stamped  coins  which  are  at  once  the  joy  and  the  despair  of  numismatists 
— received  impress  after  impress  from  the  successive  coiners  who  have 
left  their  effigies  on  Palestine. 

Although  criticism  is  at  present  unable  thoroughly  to  analyse  these 
complex  products,  we  must  not  cease  collecting  them,  remembering  that 
all  the  changes  in  a  tradition  are  in  themselves  the  surest  proof  of  its- 
antiquity  and  of  its  spontaneous  development.  It  may  be  that  in  ascer- 
taining the  difference  between  the  written  story  and  the  legend  we  may 
be  able  some  day  to  calculate,  by  a  sort  of  ideal  triangulation,  how  far 
they  are  both  from  the  truth.  Meanwhile  science  is  fortunate  in  having 
ascertained  the  fact  that  there  still  exists  in  Palestine,  not  only  some 
remains  of  the  old  Semitic  polytheism— as  I  urged  six  years  ago  in  the 
Revue  de  V Instruction  Puhliqiie,  and  which  no  one  will  deny  now— but 
also  that  there  are  relics,  still  to  be  recognised,  of  Biblical  tradition^ 
just  as  in  our  fairy  tales  are  found  fragments  of  the  Aryan  mythology. 


TllK    AlIAliS    IX    I'ALESTINE.  209 

The  astonishing  way  in  which  the  peasants  have  preserved  the  names 
of  places  is  a  good  instance  of  this,  and  is  also  a  proof  in  favour  of  the 
argument  that  they  themselves  are  unchanged.  It  is  worthy  of  remark 
in  passing  that  the  etJtnic  name — that  is,  the  name  by  which  the  hilmhit- 
ants  are  known,  and  which  is  derived  from  the  locality — is  very  often 
more  archaic  in  form  than  the  name  of  the  place  itself.  There  are  many 
examples  of  this  interesting  fact  which  may  prove  very  useful  in  testing 
the  accuracy  of  proposed  identifications. 

The  tenacity  with  which  old  religious  customs  have  been  kept  np  is 
another  remarkable  circumstance.  Not  only  have  the  fellaheen,  as- 
Eobinson  conjectured,  preserved  by  the  erection  of  their  Mussulman 
l-vhhchs,  and  their  fetishism  for  certain  large  isolated  trees,  the  site  and 
the  souvenir  of  the  hill  sanctuaries  and  shady  groves,  which  were  marked 
out  for  the  execration  of  the  Israelites  on  their  entry  into  the  Promised 
Land ;  but  they  pay  them  almost  the  same  veneration  as  did  the 
Canaanite  l-oojfars,  whose  descendants  they  are.  These  onakoms,  as- 
Deuteronomy  calls  them,  which  Manasseh  rebuilt,  and  against  which 
the  prophets  in  vain  exhausted  their  invectives,  are  word  for  word, 
thing  for  thing,  the  Arabic  mal-ams,  whose  little  white-topped  cupolas- 
are  dotted  so  picturesquely  over  the  mountain  horizon  of  central  Judaja. 

In  order  to  conceal  their  suspicious  origin,  these  fellah  sanctuaries- 
have  been  placed  under  the  protection  of  the  purest  Mohammedan 
orthodoxy,  by  becoming  the  tombs  or  shrines  of  sheylxlis,  iceli/s,  and 
nehi/s — elders,  saints,  or  prophets — deceased  in  the  odour  of  sanctity. 
But  there  are  numerous  indications  of  their  true  origin  beneath  this 
simple  disguise.  For  instance,  the  name  given  to  them  is  often  the 
same  as  that  of  the  locality,  and  is  not  merely  a  simple  name,  but  a 
personification,  or  deification,  if  I  may  say  so,  of  the  place  itself ;  for 
many  legends  show  that,  in  the  eyes  of  the  peasants,  the  nehy  or  p^'ophet 
has  (jiven  his  own  name  to  the  place. 

This  close  connection  of  names  and  places  is  found  in  the  Phcenician 
and  Canaanite  mythology,  which  is  remarkable  for  the  number  of  its 
local  divinities,  and  it  helps  to  explain  why  Moses,  not  content  with 
ordering  the  destruction  of  the  pagan  sanctuaries,  insisted  upon  the 
abolition  of  the  names.  A  methodical  search  for  these  malcams  is,  there- 
fore, of  the  greatest  importance,  because  their  names  will  enable  us  to 
fix  the  site  of  cities  of  which  not  only  the  ruins,  but  the  very  remem- 
brance has  disappeared. 

Another  point  of  religious  resemblance  is  the  worship  of  female  divini- 
ties which  we  know  was  common  among  the  Canaanites,  and  is  still 
pi-actised,  many  modern  kubbehs  being  consecrated  to  women.  In 
certain  cases  there  is  duality :  the  wely,  or  the  neby,  being  venerated 
in  conjunction  with  a  woman,  who  p>asses  generally  for  his  sister  or 
his  daughter.  This  relationship,  originally  conjugal,  which  has  been 
changed  by  the  Mussulmans  into  one  of  consanguinity,  ofters  an 
equivalent  of  the  sexual  symmetry  of  those  Phreuician  couples  so 
clearly  brought  to  light  by  M.  de  Togiie. 


210  THE    AEAliS    IX    TALESTIXE. 

Many  of  these  sacred  places  are  open  to  the  sky,  and  nearly  sur- 
rounded by  a  wall  of  stone — a  veritable  Jiarara.  Others  are  in  natural 
■or  artificial  caverns.  One  evening,  for  instance,  I  was  most  positively 
refused  permission  to  stable  my  horse  in  a  grotto  consecrated  to  Sheykh 
Madkur,  because  the  wely  would  infallibly  have  shown  his  displeasure 
by  killing  the  beast.  The  Aboo  N'sair  venerate,  not  far  from  Mar  Saba, 
a  great  stone — Hajar  ed  Dawiiere — which  they  say  was  once  metamor- 
l^hosed  into  a  camel  in  oi'der  to  carry  across  the  desert  the  father  of 
their  race.  This  practice  of  worshipping  an  animated  stone — the  hetyle 
— is  confirmed  by  certain  modern  practices  analogous  to  those  formerly 
in  use — e.g.,  the  liturgic  unction  which  is  still  performed  with  henna  over 
the  porch  of  a  Icuhheh,  the  fellaheen  touching  the  lintel  respectfully,  and 
asking  the  wely  for  destoor — i.e.,  permission  to  enter.  Some  even  avoid 
profaning  the  threshold  by  stejiping  over  instead  of  on  it,  like  the  wor- 
shippers of  Dagon  Avhcn  entering  his  temple. 

These  rustic  sanctuaries  are  crowded  with  rude  ex-voto  offerings ;  and 
the  sacred  trees,  loaded  with  rags  tied  to  their  branches  by  pious  hands, 
iire  familiar  to  every  traveller  in  Palestine.  In  the  kuhhehs  are  placed 
iighted  lamps,  a  practice  alluded  to  in  the  sixth  chapter  of  the  Book  of 
Bai'uch  :  while  the  various  points  on  the  surrounding  hills  whence  the 
viaJcam  is  visible  are  marked  by  mesluildds,  small  pyramids  of  stone  which 
are  the  mergamas  (acervi  Mercurii)  of  Proverbs. 

The  fellaheen  attribute  to  these  local  divinities  a  supernatural  power 
oIl  working  miracles  altogether  contrary  to  the  principles  of  Islam.  Not 
only  do  they  adore  but  they  dread  these  holy  personages,  and  have  for 
them  that  horror  saar  which  is  the  mark  of  true  religious  adoration.  A 
viaJiam  is  a  place  of  inviolable  sanctity.  No  one  would  dare  to  touch  a 
thing  or  jDerson  on  its  sacred  soil.  An  infidel  may  sleep  there  in  perfect 
safety,  provided  he  does  not  break  through  any  of  the  required  religious 
observances.  I  have  often,  when  travelling,  for  the  sake  of  economy, 
without  tent  or  baggage,  taken  advantage  of  this  prerogative,  and  ex- 
perienced, after  a  long  and  fatiguing  day,  the  delicious  sensation — from 
an  archaeologist's  point  of  view — of  passing  the  night  on  the  bare  but 
holy  floor  of  one  of  these  Arab  sanctuaries,  haunted  and  guarded  by  the 
.shades  of  the  Canaauite  Baals  and  Ashtoreths. 

But  the  best  proof  of  the  religious  character  of  this  feeling,  and  of  the 
•deep  hold  it  has  upon  the  fellaheen,  is  to  be  found  in  the  oaths  most  com- 
monly used  by  them.  The  word  Allah  (God)  is  for  ever  on  their  lips,  and 
the  formula  "  iva  haiat  Allah,"  based  upon  the  Hebrew  ha'i  Elohim,  is 
used  to  attest  truth  or  falsehood  without  the  slightest  hesitation.  They 
swear  fluently,  and  perjure  themselves  without  scruple,  by  the  light,  by 
the  life  of  their  souls,  by  their  heads,  by  the  heads  of  their  companions, 
hj  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem  [Ilaram  esh  Bhereef),  by  the  SaJchra,  or  sacred 
Tock  on  which  stood  the  altar,  &c. ;  oaths  which  were  lavished  with  equal 
prodigality  by  the  Jews,  and  bitterly  censured  by  our  Lord.  But,  and 
this  is  the  remarkable  point,  if  we  wish  to  bind  them  by  a  serious  oath, 
it  is  sufficient  to  make  them  take  it  on  their  local  sanctuary,  and  then  it 
is  extremely  rare  to  find  them  faithless  or  bearing  false  witness. 


THE   AK.VBS    IN    TALESTIXE.  _  211- 

Many  otlier  significant  facts"  might  be  brought  forward ;  such  as  the 
propitiatory  sacrifices  made  by  the  feUahoen,  the  ceremonies  attending 
which  seem  borrowed  from  the  Pha?nician  ritual;  their  superstitions 
about  the  moon;  the  amulets,  magical  hands,  the  eyes  of  Osiris  in 
Hebron  enamel,  made  after  the  method  of  the  Phoenician  glass- 
workers  ;  their  fetes,  their  parables,  their  tales,  their  old  songs  in 
strange  Arabic,  the  peculiarities  of  their  dialect,  in  which  the  vocalisa- 
tion strangely  resembles  the  Masoretic  punctuation  of  Hebrew,  &c. 
But  I  will  pass  on,  without  dwelling  upon  these,  to  one  or  two  ex- 
amples of  what  may  be  called  veritable  echoes  of  the  Bible. 

Here  is  the  history  of  Samson  as  it  is  told  to-day  at  Sara,  Ain  Shemcs, 
and  Artoof,  that  is  to  say,  on  the  very  scene  of  the  exploits  of  that  hero : — 
Aboo  Meizar,  called  by  some  Abool  Azein,  but  known  to  all  under  the 
name  Shamshoun  el  Jebbar,  originally  of  Sar'a,  and  brother  of  a  certain 
Neby  Samet,  whose  monument  is  shown  in  those  parts,  was  purblind. 
In  the  Rumeyleh,  the  old  name  of  a  part  of  the  city  of  Ain  Shemes,  stood 
a  church.  Aboo  Meizar  said  to  his  compatriots,  "  What  will  you  give 
me  if  I  destroy  the  church  and  kill  the  Christians  ?"  "  The  quarter  of 
the  revenue  of  the  country,"  they  replied.  Upon  this  Aboo  Meizar  went 
down  to  the  Eumeyleh,  entei'ed  the  church  where  the  Christians  were 
assembled  at  prayer,  and  crying,  "  Ya  Eabb  !"  (O  Lord  !)  gave  a  great 
kick  to  the  column  Avhich  supported  the  edifice.  Down  it  fell,  burying 
beneath  its  ruins  Aboo  Meizar  and  the  Christians.  The  inhabitants  of 
Sar'a  came  to  look  for  his  body,  and  easily  recognised  it  because,  as  he 
had  told  them  would  be  the  case,  he  was  stretched  on  his  back,  while  all 
the  Christians  lay  face  downwards.  His  maJnim  stands  on  the  very  spot 
at  Sara  where  they  btiried  him  ;  and  the  Sheyhk  attached  to  its  service, 
who  resides  at  Beit  Atab,  still  receives  a  quarter  of  all  the  olives  grown 
between  Deir  Eban  and  Ain  Shemes — indeed  a  fellah  who  once  refused 
to  pay  these  additional  dues  is  reported  to  have  pressed  blood  instead  of 
oil  from  his  olives  : — while  it  is  even  now  a  common  saying  among  the 
old  people  of  the  village  that  "  between  Sar'a  and  Bayt  el  Jemal  was 
killed  Shamshoun  el  Jebbar."  It  may  be  remarked,  in  passing,  that 
this  saying,  if  compared  with  the  verse  in  the  book  of  Judges  which 
places  the  tomb  of  Samson  between  Zorah  and  Eshtaol,  would  tend 
to  fix  the  site  of  the  latter  city,  hitherto  undiscovered,  at  Bayt  el 
Jemal.  Another  fragment  of  this  same  legend  has  lighted  on  the  head 
of  a  certain  Neby  Hosha,  venerated  at  Eshou  not  far  from  Sar'a.  This 
neby,  born  at  Bayt  Nabala,  being  one  day  pursued  by  a  troup  of  his  foes 
the  KoofFars,  took  refuge  at  Eshou,  and  crying,  "It  is  here  that  I  am 
doomed  to  die,"  sat  down,  threw  his  ihrcan  over  his  shoulder,  and  expired. 
A  wooden  sabre,  with  which  he  is  said  to  have  slaiu  his  enemies,  is  still 
■shown  at  the  maJcam  at  Eshou.  This  story  may  be  compared  with  an 
incident  in  the  travels  of  a  Jewish  pilgrim  of  the  middle  ages,  Isaac 
Chelo,  who  saw  at  Sar'a  the  tomb  of  Samson,  where  they  still  preserved 
the  ass's  jawbone  with  which  he  killed  the  Philistines. 

Turn  next  to  the  modern  legend  in  which  are  embodied  confused  but 


212  THE    ARABS    IX    TALESTI^TE. 

undoubted  traces  of  the  taking  of  Jericho  by  Joshua,  and  the  standing 
still  of  the  sun.  It  varies  in  many  curious  ways  from  the  Bible-story ; 
but  the  following  is  the  pith  of  it  as  told  to  me  in  the  plain  of  Jericho: — 
Not  far  from  the  site  of  the  City  of  Palms  are  the  ruins  of  the  City  of 
Brass,  so  called  because  it  was  once  surrounded  by  seven  walls  of  brass ; 
and  a  little  farther  off  is  the  maham  of  the  Imam  Ali,  son  of  Aboo  Taleb, 
a  sanctuary  open  to  the  sky,  and  the  object  of  extraordinary  veneration, 
in  the  surrounding  country.  This  city,  then  belonging  to  the  Kooffars, 
was  besieged  by  the  Imam  Aboo  Taleb.  Mounted  on  his  horse  Mei- 
moon,  he  made  the  round  of  the  city  and  overthrow  the  seven  walls 
of  brass  one  after  another  by  blowing  iipon  them.  Then  began  a 
terrific  combat,  and  as  the  day  was  drawing  to  a  close,  and  the  in- 
fidels were  about  to  profit  by  the  darkness  in  order  to  escape,  the  Imam 
Ali  cried  out  to  the  sun,  "  Return  upon  thy  steps,  O  thou  blessed  one !" 
Immediately,  with  the  permission  of  the  Most  High,  the  sun,  which  was 
about  to  set  behind  the  mountain,  came  back  to  the  east ;  whereupon 
the  Imam  Ali  ordered  his  servant  Eblal,  who  at  that  moment  was  on 
the  opposite  mountain,  at  the  foot  of  which  is  now  situated  the  maJcani, 
to  sound  the  call  for  the  morning  prayei",  and  proceeded  to  complete  the 
rout  of  the  pagans  with  great  carnage,  and  to  utterly  destroy  their  city ; 
those  who  escaped  the  slaughter  being  annihilated  by  wasps.  Since  that 
time  the  two  mountains  which  figure  in  the  story  bear  respectively  the 
names  of  the  Mountain  of  the  Return,  and  the  Mountain  of  Eblal  the 
Muezzin. 

Lastly,  listen  to  the  tragic  history  of  the  Levite  of  Ephraim  and  his 
wife  at  Gibeah.  This  is  how  it  was  told  me  by  an  old  fellah  on  the  very 
place  itself,  which  is  still  called  Jaba  : — A  Cliristian  of  Bethlehem  was 
on  his  way  with  his  wife  or  his  daughter  to  Tayyibeh,  and  stopped,  as 
night  was  beginning  to  fall,  to  sleep  at  Jaba.  While  they  slept  certain 
men  of  the  town  came  to  the  house  and  violated  the  woman,  who  was 
found  dead  in  the  morning.  The  Christian  cut  the  corpse  into  two 
pieces,  and  sent  one  to  Tayyibeh,  and  the  other  to  Mukhmas,  to  the 
people  of  his  own  religion.  These  rose  immediately.  One  band  came 
from  the  east,  the  other  from  the  west.  The  first,  pretending  to  fly, 
drew  the  people  of  Jaba  out  of  their  town  ;  and  thus  caught  between 
the  two  hosts,  they  were  all  slaughtered.  The  massacre  took  place  in 
the  plain  called  El  Merj  fil  Moonka,  between  Jaba  and  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Wady  Bab  esh  Shab.  To  this  day  the  wheat  grows  to  a 
great  height  on  this  accursed  spot,  but  produces  no  grain. 

These  examples  of  what  may  be  called  phantoms  of  the  past  are 
enough  to  show  how  much  the  peasant  of  Palestine,  in  preserving  his 
own  identity,  has  done  for  the  past  history  of  liis  race  and  nation.  But 
living  side  by  side  with  this  obstinately  conservative  peasant,  there  is, 
paradoxical  as  it  may  appear,  a  class  yet  more  conservative  who  defend 
even  more  vigilantly,  and  guard  with  greater  attachment  the  ancient 
forms  and  beliefs — I  mean  the  women.  This  curious  circumstance  has 
often  been  remarked  in  other  countries,  but  nowhere  is  it  more  strongly 


THi;    ARABS    I\    PALESTINE.  213 

marked  than  in  Palestine.  There  the  women  have  eontiuued  to  be  the 
depositaries  of  old  memories  which  yon  would  vainly  seek  for  among  the 
men.  They  are  indeed  behind  their  husbands  by  several  centuries:  and 
the  disdain  with  which  a  fellah,  if  you  speak  to  him  of  certain  curious 
customs  among  the  women,  replies,  with  a  shrug  of  his  shoulders, 
"  Shouijhl  nisouun  !'"  (women's  affairs),  is  itself  enough  to  show  how 
true  this  is. 

It  would  be  extremely  interesting  to  examine  closely  these  daughters 
of  Canaan,  to  study  their  special  customs,  their  funeral  dances,  their 
marriage  and  mourning  songs,  their  prejudices,  their  peculiar  legends, 
their  habitual  forms  of  expression,  and  a  variety  of  other  matters,  down 
to  the  details  of  their  toilet,  which  Isaiah  denounces  as  the  arsenal  of 
idolatry.  Besides,  it  is  among  the  women — in  the  often  charming 
patterns  with  which  they  tattoo  themselves;  in  the  simple  paintings 
with  which  their  pious  hands  love  to  decorate  the  walls  of  the  sacred 
monuments  ;  in  the  marvellous  embroidery  of  their  veils  and  robes ;  in 
their  elegant,  shield-shaped  dishes,  made  of  coloured  and  twisted  straw  ; 
in  the  forms  of  the  vessels  for  water  and  grain,  the  fabrication  of  which 
has  retained  their  monopoly ;  in  the  patterns  of  their  jewels  and  their 
painted  boxes,  which  they  have  perpetuated  religiously  in  the  bazaars 
by  refusing  to  buy  any  other  kind — that  we  shall  find  what  artistic  traces 
yet  remain  of  a  people  who  never  really  possessed  any  art  but  of  the  most 
rudimentary  kind. 

Ample  indeed  is  the  bar  vest  which  one  might  hope  to  reap  upon  this 
feminine  soil.  But  unfortunately  the  explorer  has  to  encounter  the 
almost  insurmountable  obstacle  of  sex.  Nothing  is  more  difficult  for  a 
European  than  to  associate  in  the  slightest  degree  with  the  fellah 
woman,  although  they  do  not,  like  the  w^omen  of  the  towns,  cover 
their  faces  with  a  veil,  but  merely  draw  their  long  blue  sleeve  over 
the  mouth.  It  is  no  question  of  modesty  or  morality ;  these  are  senti- 
ments which  have  always  been,  and  are  still,  but  little  known  in  the 
East.  It  is  rather  an  instinctive  feeling  of  mistrust  towards  a  stranger, 
than  any  shyness  of  him  as  a  man.  And  yet  they  do  not  seem  to  avoid 
him  designedly ;  they  will  often  readily  render  him  small  services,  and 
address  him  as  "  my  brother,"  and  will  willingly  enter  into  conversa- 
tion in  certain  cases;  but  let  him  make  the  slightest  attempt  to  put 
any  question,  or  betray  ever  so  discreet  an  inclination  to  get  behind 
the  scenes,  they  take  fright  at  once  at  a  curiosity  which  they  do  not 
understand,  and  their  confidence,  gained  for  a  moment,  takes  wing 
like  a  frightened  bird.  It  requires  a  woman  to  approach  this  wild 
flock ;  and  a  European  woman  prepared  to  penetrate,  without  the  aid 
of  an  interpreter,  into  the — what  shall  I  say  ? — the  harem  of  their 
ideas  and  their  traditions,  would  carry  off  a  load  of  scientific  plunder 
far  more  precious  than  anything  to  be  found  in  the  uninteresting 
seraglios  of  Constantinople  and  Cairo. 

There  are  in  certain  corners  of  the  globe  races  which  have  had  the 
unenviable  privilege  of  undergoing  no  change,  not  even  for  the  better. 


214  THE    SITE    OF    HIPPOS. 

These  the  historian  would  like  to  preserve  for  his  own  purposes,  in  their 
archaic  integrity,  as  fields  of  study,  if  not  of  experiment,  and  as  a  kind 
of  laboratory  in  which  he  could  observe  at  leisure  the  phenomena  of 
human  evolution.  But,  unfortunately,  or  perhaps  fortunately,  sucli- 
day-dreams  are  always  destined  to  be  upset  by  the  progress  of  civili- 
sation, which  everywhere,  sooner  or  later,  sweeps  away  the  ruins  of 
the  past  to  make  room  for  the  future.  Palestine,  so  long  spared,  i& 
already  undergoing  the  common  lot.  A  strong  current  of  immigration 
from  central  Europe  has  for  some  time  set  in  upon  it,  and  a  few  years, 
wil]  do  what  centuries  have  not  been  able  to  effect. 

There  is  no  time  to  be  lost.  Already  the  first  note  of  menace  has  been 
sounded,  and  a  projected  railway  from  Jaffa  to  Jerusalem,  warns  us  to» 
make  haste  and  accomplish  the  laborious  task  of  exploration,  and  perfect 
a  complete  inventory  of  the  historic  and  scientific  treasures  of  this  unique 
country,  before  it  has  been  deprived  of  every  relic  and  memorial  of  the- 
past.  It  will  be  too  late  when,  on  the  spot  where  the  cry  of  Rachel 
mourning  for  her  children  still  lingers,  we  hear  in  mocking  echo  the- 
shrill  scream  of  the  railway  whistle,  and  the  loud  shout  of  ''Bethlehem  t 
Dix  minutes  (Varret !  Les  voyageiirs  ][iour  la  ]\[er  Morte  chavgent  de- 
voiiure!" 


THE    SITE    OF    HIPPOS. 

By  C.  CLEKilO^-X-GANNEAU. 
(From  the  licvue  ArcheoJogique.) 

I  HAVE,  on  several  occasions,  insisted  on  the  importance  of  reading- 
Arabic  literature  in  the  interests  of  Biblical  topography.  I  havo  been 
enabled  to  i^rove  the  utility  of  this  study  by  discoveries  of  importance,* 
and  to  show  that  it  not  only  offers  a  method  of  control,  but  also,  in 
certain  cases,  a  jjoiiit  de  dcjjurt  for  real  discoveries. 

I  have  now  to  offer  a  new  fact  establishing  the  importance  of  the  geo- 
graphical information  furnished  by  oriental  texts.  It  concerns  a  place- 
outside  the  limited  area  of  my  own  researches — another  reason  for  advanc- 
ing it,  because  it  will  be  easy  for  the  first  traveller  who  explores  the- 
shores  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee  to  verify  my  suggestion  on  the  spot. 

The  Decapolis,  connected  with  the  gospel  narrative  by  three  jDassages 
only  (Matt.  iv.  25 ;  Mark  v.  20,  and  vii.  31)  is  the  least-known  part  of' 
Palestine.  "We  are  neither  agreed  upon  the  general  limits  of  this  dis- 
trict, frequently  mentioned  by  profane  authors,  nor  on  the  very  names- 
of  the  ten  cities  which  composed  it — "  in  quo  non  eadem  omnes  obser- 
vant," as  Pliny  says. 

There  are,  however,  some  as  to  which  there  is  no  doubt  at  all.  Among 
these  is  Hij^pos.  Hijipos,  according  to  Eusebiua  and  Jerome,  formed, 
with  Pella  and  Gadara,    the   centre  of   this  privileged    confederation,, 

*  By  tlii«  means,  for  instance,  I  found  the  royal  Canaanito  city  of  Gezer.. 


•THE    SITE    OF    IIll'I'OS.  2  1  ;> 

w'bich  ap  ears  to  have  been  a  special  kind  of  nohvork  matter  extending 
over  distinct  provinces,  rather  than  a  province  by  itself.  "  "Aurr;  cWi^. 
7/  eirl  rfj  Ufpaia  K6i,ueV?)  ajxrpl  t))v  'Ittttoi'  Ka\  UeWav  Kol  TaSdpav'^  (Onomasticon). 
Pliny,  in  his  cnumeratii^i  of  the  cities  of  the  Dccapolis,  names  Hippos 
between  Gadara  on  the  one  hand,  and  Dion  and  PcUa  on  the  other, 
placing  it  with  Julias  on  the  east  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee.  Ptolemy  men- 
tions it  between  Capitolias  and  Abila.  Josephus  says  that  Hippos  was 
thirty  stadia  from  Tiberias,  and  the  Onoma,sticoa  places  it  beside  a 
fortress  called  Apheka. 

It  would  bo  useless  to  recall  the  very  brief  history  of  this  city,  to 
which  numismatists  attribute  those  imperial  Greek  coins  bearing  tho- 
singular  designation  of  ANTinXEHN  TriN  nP02  innn.  M.  de  Saulcy 
supposes  that  this  legend  belongs  to  a  Mount  Hippos,  placed  by 
Ptolemy  in  company  with  another  Mount  Asalamos,  Alsadamos,  or 
Asalmanos,  near  the  Desert  of  Arabia,  and  that  a  city  of  the  same- 
name  was  built  upon  the  slope  of  the  mountain.* 

Perhaps  this  singularity  may  be  indirectly  explained  by  the  passage 
of  Stephen  of  Byzantium  relating  to  Gadara — "  a  city  of  Coole  Syria 
which  is  also  called  Autioch  and  Seleucia."  Wo  should  be  tempted  to- 
apply  these  words  in  jiart  to  Hippos,  especially  when  we  remember  that 
the  destinies  of  the  two  neighbouring  cities  seem  to  have  been  closely 
allied,  and  that  Josephus  qualifies  them  as  Greek  cities,  taken  from  the 
rule  of  Herod  Archelaus,  and  annexed  to  Syria  after  receiving  their 
freedom  from  Pompey,  and  being  temporai-ilj'  handed  over  to  Herod  the 
Great.  Anyhow  it  is  certain  that  Hippos  was  of  sufficient  importance- 
to  give  its  name  to  a  district,  Hippene,  which  bordered  on  Galilee. 

A  long  time  ago  attention  was  called  to  the  connection  between 
Hippos  and  Haifa,  the  town  of  Carmel.  Lightfoot  was  the  first  to  find 
Hippos  in  the  Sousitha  of  the  Talmud.  The  principal  Talmudic  passages,, 
collected  by  Neubauer,  show  us  Sousitha  inhabited  by  pagans,  and  often.- 
mentioned  with  Tiberias ;  the  two  cities  ojiposite  to  each  other  and 
separated  by  the  lake,  were  enemies.  A  rabbi  identifies  the  Tob  of  the 
Bible  (Judges  xi.  3),  and  consequently  the  Tobion  of  Maccabees  (1  Mace. 
v.  13),  with  the  environs  of  Sousitha. 

Not  only  do  remarkable  topographic  coincidences  connect  Hippos  with 
Soubitha,  but  there  is  also  a  striking  etymological  affinity.  Sousitha  is 
naturally  derived  from  sous,  a  horse  :  so  that  the  Semitic  name  has  the 
same  signification  as  the  Greek.  This  signification  seems  to  have  been 
long  known,  for  the  ruins  of  Hippos  represent  a  horse,  winged  or  not. 

Opinions  as  to  the  site  of  Hippos  are  divided.  Some  place  it  at  Kalafc 
el  Hosn  near  Feik  or  Fik,  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Lake  of  Tiberias,, 
and  identify  the  same  Fik  with  the  Apheka  of  the  Onomasticon  ;  others 
incline  to  Khirbet  es  Samra,   a  little  more  to  the  south,  and  nearer  the 

*  "  Numismati'pie  de  la  Terre  Sainte, "  pp.  344,  345.  In  reality  Jlonnt  Hippo.-; 
is  placed  by  Ptolemy  near  Judxea,  that  is,  far  away  from  Mount  Alsalamos  ;  its 
position,  G8'  10'  32",  is  nearly  that  attributod  to  Hippc,  the  city  of  Ccele  Sjana 
or  the  Dccapolis,  68°  32'  30". 


216  THE    SITE    OF    HIPPOS. 

Jordan.  A  third  opinion,  represented  by  Riess,  considers  Sousitha 
and  Hippos  as  two  different  cities,  and  identifies  the  first  -with  the 
similarly  named  ruins  of  El  Shusheh  or  Abu  Shusheh,  to  the  north-west 
of  the  Lake  of  Tiberias. 

The  question  is  complicated :  here  is  a  fact  which  will  help  us  to 
simplify  it. 

It  is  furnished  by  a  certain  Ibn  Khordad  Beh,  Director  of  the  Posts 
of  the  Khalifat  in  the  fourth  century  of  the  Hegira,  who  left  behind  him 
an  interesting  taUeaa  of  the  provinces  submitted  to  his  administration, 
under  the  title  of  "  Book  of  Roads  and  Provinces."  This  valuable  text, 
much  ill-treated  by  copyists,  was  edited  with  rare  ability  by  M.  Barbier 
de  Meynard. 

After  describing  a  route  which,  starting  from  Damascus,  connects 
Keswe,  Jasem,  Fik,  and  Tiberias,  the  chief  place  of  the  Jordan,  distant 
respectively  twelve,  twenty-four,  twenty-four,  and  six  miles,  the  author 
enumerates  in  this  part  of  the  empire,  thirteen  districts,  the  Jordan, 
Tiberias,  Samaria,  Beisan,  Fahl  (Pella),  Hawim,  Nablus,  Jadar,  Abel, 
Sousya,  Akka,  Kedesh,  and  Sur  (Tyre). 

Sousya  is  the  literal  equivalent  of  the  Talmudic  Sousitha  ;  the  slight 
difference  in  the  termination  is  insignificant ;  it  may  even  be  purely 
graphic  and  consist  in  a  single  displacement  of  diacritic  points,  which 
every  student  in  Arabic  will  understand.  Nevertheless  Yakut,  in  his 
reat  geographical  dictionary,  citing  this  city  as  belonging  to  the  dis- 
trict of  Jordan,  gives  this  orthography,  which  is  besides  perfectly 
acceptable  and  confirmed  by  the  Kamus. 

The  context  suflaciently  proves  that  we  are  in  the  same  region  with 
Sousitha,  and  the  topographic  agreement  is  as  satisfactory  as  the  phonetic 
resemblance. 

The  certain  existence  of  this  Arabic  form,  Sousya,  permits  us  at  once 
to  put  aside  the  proposed  connection  of  Sousitha  with  Abu  Shusheh  (the 
man  with  the  tuft),  a  vulgar  name  which  might,  as  it  did  at  Gezer,  mask 
some  important  locality,  and  lead  to  the  solution  of  the  still  unsettled 
question  of  Capernaum. 

But  there  is  more  :  not  only  the  Sousya  of  Ibn  Khordad  Beh  corresponds 
with  Sousitha,  but  it  is  presented  under  conditions  which  assimilate  it 
entirely  with  Hippos,  and  it  supplies  the  gap  which  separated  the  Syro- 
Greek  from  the  Talmudic  city. 

We  have  seen,  in  fact,  that  ancient  documents  frequently  associate 
Hippos  with  Gadara  and  Abila.  Well,  the  Arabic  text  groups  together 
Sousya,  Jadar,  and  Abel.  On  the  other  hand.  Hippos  was  the  centre 
of  a  district  meationed  by  Hippene,  which  is  the  district  (Koura)  of 
Sousya  d'Ibn  Khordad  Beh. 

The  same  passage  shows,  besides,  that  in  the  fourth  century  of  the 
Hegira,  Gadara,  which  now,  according  to  travellers,  bears  the  name  of 
Umm  Keis,  still  preserved  its  original  name,  and  it  is  probable  that  a 
careful  search  on  the  spot  would  establish  that  although  fallen  into 
disuse,  it  has  not  ceased  to  exist. 


to 


THE    SITE    OF    HIPPOS.  217 

The  same  accident  must  liave  happened  to  Sousya-IIippos,  The  true 
name,  without  being  forgotten,  may  be  hidden  by  another  vulgar 
appellation  ;  and,  for  my  own  part,  I  believe  that  a  conscientious  investi- 
gation will  enable  us  to  find  a  Ivhirbet  Sousya,  whether  at  Es  Samra,  or 
at  Kaliit  el  Hosu,  or  at  some  other  place.  When  we  find  it,  we  shall  be 
able  to  place  there  the  enigmatic  Hippos. 

Besides,  the  Hebrew  word  sous  (horse),  which  gave  birth  to  Sousitha- 
Hippos,  is  not  so  strange  to  Arabic  as  might  be  supposed.  There  is 
the  well-known  term,  sa't's  (groom),  the  origin  of  which  is  clear.  Then, 
I  have  found  in  the  environs  of  Lydda,  an  Arabic  locution  still  employed 
in  the  technical  language  of  certain  old  camel  drivers,  to  signify  a 
track,  in  distinction  to  a  metalled  road,  a  way  practicable  only  to  camels. 
One  is  tank  er-fs'!f,  the  other  tarlh  es  sehane.  The  word  se'isanc,  which 
you  will  find  in  no  lexicon,  is  the  plural  of  a  disused  singular,  evidently 
coming  from  the  root  sous.  It  is  to  be  noted,  in  passing,  that  the  appella- 
tion, tank  cr-r'slf,  indicates  in  general  the  existence  of  a  Roman  road. 

I  cannot  terminate  this  note  without  touching  upon  a  delicate  point 
introduced  into  the  question  by  Reland.  This  scholar,  apropos  of 
Hippos,  and  in  the  hope  of  getting  some  etymological  light  to  bear  upon 
the  problem,  quotes  a  curious  passage  of  Pliny,  speaking  of  a  certain 
family  oi  crustacece.  He  says:  "In  Phenice  litKtls  vocantur,  tanta3 
velocitatis  ut  consequi  non  sit."  "  In  Phoenicia  there  are  certain  crabs, 
called  horsemen,  so  rapid  that  they  cannot  be  caught."  Eeland  had 
under  his  eyes  another  reading  A i'^jjjoe,  which  he  regarded  as  a  trans- 
lation of  iTTTTot,  to  judge  by  the  connection  which  he  endeavours  to  make 
with  our  word  Hippos. 

I  do  not  know  which  is  the  true  reading  :  in  any  case,  it  seems  to  me 
that  PHny  has  only  translated  a  passage  of  Aristotle,  in  which  the  same 
word  occurs  :  "  riepl  Se  ti)V  ^oiviK-qv  yivovTai  eV  rw  aiyiaXw  ovs  Ka\ovaiv  'nnri7s 
Sia  rh  ovTus  raxfocs  deiv,  wcrre  /utj  paSiov  eivai  (rax^ois)  KaraXaduf." 

However  that  may  be,  it  would  appear  that  in  Phoenicia  the  crabs 
were  called  horsemen,  or  horses,  by  reason  of  their  extraordinary  rapidity. 
The  last  simile  would  be  the  more  logical.  Thus  a  group  of  crustacece 
is  mentioned  by  Pliny  under  the  name  of  lions. 

But  why  does  not  Pliny  use  the  Latin  c<^uifes,  instead  of  the  Greek 
equivalent  ?  "Was  'iinrui  or  'nnrus  a  local  idiom  of  Greek  used  on  the 
Phoenician  shore  ;  or  does  it  conceal  a  phonetic  transcription  of  a 
Phoenician  word  ?  If  so,  although  this  is  not  likely,  the  city  of  Haifa, 
the  Hepha  of  the  Talmud,  presents  itself  to  the  mind  with  this  strange 
coincidence,  probably  fictitious,  that  Gaba  of  Carmel,  identified  by  some 
with  Heipha,  is  called  by  Josephus  the  "  city  of  horsemen,"  toAjs  imreSiv. 
But  I  have  already  shown  that  Haifa  has  nothing  to  do  with  Hippos. 
If  Ave  admit  that  the  crabs  bore  a  Phoenician  name  signifying  ho7'se, 
what  could  that  word  be  ? 

The  Semitic  vocabulary  ofi'ers  us  an  embarrassing  choice.  The  Hebrew 
sous  occurs  in  the  name  of  a  Simeonite  city,  Ilasar  Sousa  (.Joshua  xv. 
ol),  or,  in  the  plural,  Hasar  Sousim  (1  Chron.  iv.  31). 

Q 


218  NOTES    OX    KUAD. 

Here  is  a  precedent,  particularly  if,  as  Fiirst  thinks,  following  a 
similar  train  of  derivation,  it  has  already  furnished  the  meaning  of 
swallow  in  Isaiah  xxxviii.  14,  transferring  this  idea  of  rapidity  from 
running  to  flj'ing.  The  word  is,  besides,  considered  Phccnician.  It  is 
found  in  the  name,  Abad-Sousim,  and  perhaps  in  that  of  Cabarsus 
^.=  K'phar  Sous?). 

If  the  word  sous  had  the  treble  sense  of  horse,  swallow,  and  crcih,  to 
which  of  the  three  does  Sousitha  belong?  The  Greek  translators  and  the 
numismatic  symbols  show  that  at  a  certain  epoch  the  most  general 
interpretation,  that  of  Iwrsc,  was  the  only  one  received.  But  this  ex- 
planation, certainly  the  most  natural,  need  not  be  taken  for  the  earliest 
and  truest.  We  may  hesitate  in  presence  of  the  passage  in  Pliny  : 
They  still  bring  to  the  market  of  Jerusalem  fresh-water  or  land- crabs 
which  abound  in  certain  points  of  the  Jordan  basin.  Must  we  admit,  if 
we  adopt  Eoland's  view,  which  certainly  seems  forced,  that  Hippos, 
situated  not  far  from  the  i-iver  and  on  the  borders  of  the  Lake  of  Tiberias, 
owed  its  name  to  the  presence  of  these  crabs  ? 


NOTES  ON  EUAD  (AEADUS)  AND  ADJACENT  PLACES 
IN  NOETHEEN  SYEIA. 

By  Geeyille  J.  Chestee,  B.A.,  Member  of  the  Royal 
Archgeological  Institute. 

Few,  if  any,  places  on  that  lonely  coast  of  Syria,  which  once  "  echoed 
with  the  world's  debate,"  excite  the  imagination  and  the  curiosity  of 
the  passing  voyager  more  powerfully  than  the  small  island  of  Euad,  the 
Arvad  of  the  Book  of  Genesis,  the  Aradus  of  the  Greek  period,  and  one 
of  the  most  ancient  historic  sites  in  the  world. 

The  whole  coast  of  Syria  is  remarkably  free  from  islets,  and  those 
which  exist  are  mere  uninhabited  skerries,  but  Ruad  is  not  only  an 
island  but  a  city ;  and  snch  it  seems  it  ever  has  been  ever  since  its 
foundation  by  Arvad,  the  son  of  Canaan.  Other  and  more  important 
Syrian  cities  have  risen  and  have  fallen  again,  and  of  some  scarce  even 
a  trace  remains;  but  this  island-city  of  the  sea  occupies  the  same 
space  it  occupied  of  old;  and  its  present  inhabitants,  a  fine  and 
courteous  race,  are  what  they  were  in  the  time  of  the  prophet  Ezekiel, 
viz.,  bold  and  skilful  mariners,  worthy  successors  of  those  who  aided  in 
navigating  the  ships  of  King  Hiram.  Their  profession  is  still  that  of 
the  sea,  and  they  are  counted  able  seamen,  fishermen,  and  divers  after 
the  sponge,  which  forms  their  only  article  of  commerce. 

Arvad  or  Aradus  was,  and  Euad  still  is  in  appearance,  very  much 
what  Tyre  was  before  Alexander  the  Great  joined  it  to  the  mainland  by 
his  long  artificial  causeway — a  city,  i.e.,  of  limited  extent,  but  occupy- 
ing the  entire  surface  of  a  small,  flat  island  of  solid  rock,  rising  but 


NOTES    ON    RUAD.  219 

sliglitly  above  the  waves.  But  in  point  of  beauty  of  situation  the  less 
celebrated  Avvad  far  surpasses  the  world-famed  city  of  Tyre.  The  view- 
thence  is  every  way  striking. 

In  front,  Arvad  looks  out  on  the  sea,  Avhose  deep  blue  waters  wash 
its  veiy  walls,  and  stretch  out  from  thence  to  Chittim  and  the  Isles  of 
Greece.  Behind  it  looks  on  Tartus,  or  Antaradus,  the  Tortosa  of  the 
middle  ages,  with  its  massive  castle  and  magnificent  church  ;  and  be- 
hind Tartus  on  a  cultivated  plain,  stretching  upwai'ds  to  quiet  hills  of 
graceful  outline.  To  the  left,  across  a  noble  bay,  Arvad  turns  towards 
Lebanon,  with  its  vine-clad  terraces,  its  stupendous  precipices,  its  deep, 
torrent-cut  gorges,  its  vast  fields  of  glistening  snow.  To  the  right  it 
looks  on  the  solitary  grandeur  of  Jebel  Okra,  the  seldom-visited  and 
little-known  Mount  Casius  of  the  ancients. 

Euad  lies  at  a  distance  of  less  than  two  miles  from  the  mainlaid, 
and  is  not  opposite  to  but  considerably  to  the  south  of  the  present 
Tartus.  The  cemetery  of  Antaradus,  however,  at  all  events  during  the 
Greek  period,  extended  southwards  along  the  coast,  and  a  lonely  Tel 
close  to  the  sea  still  farther  to  the  south,  may  mark  the  end  of  the 
]n-Gcincts  of  the  ancient  city  in  that  direction,  and  is  nearly  opposite  to 
Aradus. 

The  island  is  a  low  rocky  platform,  and  it  possesses  a  small  double 
harbour,  defended  by  rocks  and  ancient  moles  nj)on  them,  to  the  north- 
east, on  the  side,  i.e.,  towards  Tartus.  The  anchorage  here,  and  in  the 
channel  outside,  under  the  protection  of  the  island,  is  pretty  good,  and 
safer  than  most  upon  that  open  and  dangerous  coast. 

Modern  lluad  occupies  almost  entirely  its  ancient  site.  Along  the 
edge  of  the  harbour,  both  on  land  and  in  the  water,  are  strewn  about 
great  numbers  of  columns  of  grey  granite,  turned  black  by  age,  and 
which,  I  conjecture,  in  ancient  times,  formed  colonnades  and  open 
markets  during  that  later  period  when  Aradus,  as  distinguished  froni 
Arvad,  was  an  independent  state.  Similar  colonnades  seem  to  have 
existed  at  Tripoli,  Byblus,  and  Tyre.  Far  the  most  interesting  remains, 
however,  at  Ruad,  are  those  of  the  sea  walls,  which  belong  apparently 
to  a  far  earlier  epoch — to  that,  viz.,  of  the  siihsirudiutis  of  the  temples 
of  Baalbec,  and  to  the  megalithic  remains  of  Amrit.  The  immense 
stones  of  which  these  walls  are  built  seem  to  have  been  hewn  out  of  the 
rock  on  the  spot,  and  enormous  mechanical  power  and  great  skill  must 
liave  been  employed  to  get  them  out  of  their  original  bed  and  into 
their  present  position.  Some  of  the  stones  are  ten  to  twelve  feet  long-, 
by  seven  and  eight  high.  It  is  worthy  of  particular  remark  that  these 
great  stones  are  not  hcrdJed.  Four  only  have  deej)  grooves  cut  into> 
their  upper  surface  on  the  side  next  the  land;  of  these  grooves  three 
are  semicircular  and  one  square.  It  is  hard  to  conjecture  the  purpose 
of  these  indentations,  but  they  may  possibly  have  been  intended  as 
holdfasts  for  the  cables  of  ships.  In  one  or  two  places  are  vestiges  of 
rude  steps,  leading  upwards  to  the  top  of  the  walls.  The  two  largest 
fragments  of  the  existing  walls  are  on  the  western  side,  i.e.,  towards 


220  NOTES    ox    RUAD. 

the  open  soa.  They  are  set  on  a  platform  of  solid  rock,  cut  even  for 
their  reception,  and  are  of  four  or  five  courses  inside,  but  of  more 
towards  the  sea.  The  total  height  is  probably  between  thirty  and  forty 
feet.  In  places  the  interstices  are  filled  up  with  one  or  two  layers  of 
small  hewn  stones  of  coeval  antiqviity,  but  in  no  case  has  mortar  been 
anywhere  used.  In  one  place  a  great  oblong  ring  has  been  left  project- 
ing seawards  from  the  face  of  a  stone,  for  the  purpose,  doubtless,  of 
securing  the  cable  of  a  ship. 

Immediately  under  these  magnificent  fragments  of  ancient  masoniy 
is  a  narrow  terrace  of  levelled  rock,  washed  by  the  waves  and  over- 
grown with  seaweed,  and  this  again  descends  precipitously  into  the 
deep  sea.  Between  the  two  largest  remaining  fragments  of  wall,  at  the 
distance  of  only  a  few  yards  from  the  main  island,  but  divided  from  it 
by  a  deep  channel,  is  a  small  rocky  islet,  with  an  artificially  levelled 
surface,  designed  apparently  for  the  site  of  a  temple ;  and,  in  fact,  a 
Jocal  tradition  relates  that  one  actually  existed  on  the  spot. 

The  walls  of  Aradus  have  been  spoken  of  as  "  double,"  but  I  could 
discover  no  certain  evidence  of  the  fact.  They  seem  originally  to  have 
been  of  great  breadth,  and  the  circumstance  of  the  central  and  less 
durable  portions  having  been  washed  away  by  the  action  of  the  waves, 
has  apparently  given  rise  to  the  statement.  No  inscriptions  whatever 
exist  on  these  ancient  walls;  one  stone,  however,  is  pierced  with  two 
deep  cii'cular  holes.  Upon  a  rock  on  the  south-western  side  is  indented 
tlie  representation  of  an  object  resembling  a  gigantic  pastoral  staff. 
The  local  tradition  is  that  it  represents  and  commemorates  a  huge 
serpent  which  once  infested  the  island.  It  is  interesting  in  this  con- 
nection to  remember  that  some  of  the  Phojnician  coins  of  Aradus  bear 
impressed  upon  them  the  figure  of  a  human-headed  sei'pent,  which 
seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  forms  of  the  god  Dagon. 

On  the  south  side  of  Ruad  are  the  remains  of  several  houses  with, 
chambers  cut  in  the  solid  rock  and  left  isolated,  and  in  some  of  them 
are  a  few  shallow  niches  which  may  have  served  to  hold  lamps  or  the 
figures  of  household  divinities.  Some  of  these  rock-hewn  dwellings 
are  still  lined  with  plaster.  There  are,  likewise,  several  remains  of 
baths,  both  public  and  private,  and  one  of  these  is  lined  with  plaster, 
into  which  have  been  let  bits  of  red  pottery.  Within  the  walls  there 
seem  to  have  been  open  spaces  between  them  and  the  main  town.  Here 
the  rocks  were  smoothed  down  when  required,  and  the  fissures  were 
filled  in  with  water- worn  gravel,  pottery,  bits  of  marble  and  rubbish, 
which,  by  the  infiltration  of  water  charged  with  lime,  has  been  con- 
•vert-ad  into  a  mass  of  moi'e  or  less  solid  breccia.  As  in  some  places  the 
foundations  of  ancient  houses  exist  on  the  top  of  this  mass,  it  is  evident 
that  this  is  no  accretion  of  modern  times.  The  flat  surface,  however, 
acquired  by  the  means  just  described  seems  generally  to  have  been 
kept  open  for  locomotion  or  trafiic ;  no  unimportant  point  in  a  space 
so  limited  as  that  of  Aradus.  There  seems  to  have  been  no  spring  of 
fresh  water  in  Ai-vad,  nor  is  any  known  at  present.    The  whole  water- 


NOTES   OX    RUAD.  221 

siipply  is  drawn  from  ancient  cisterns  with  conical  roofs,  executed  in 
the  solid  rock,  and  of  these  there  are  said  to  be  no  less  than  fonr 
hundred.     Dr.  Porter,  following  some  earlier  writer,  speaks  of  several 
Greek  inscriptions  beginning,  "  The  Senate  and  the  People  of  Aradus." 
These  no  longer  exist  in  situ.    I  was  assured  they  were  only  four  in 
number,  and  that  they  had  been  carried  off  to  France.     I  noticed,  how- 
ever, two  uninscribed  altars,  one  of  black  granite  near  the  harbour,  and 
the  other  of  white  limestone,  on  the  verge  of  the  burying-ground.     An 
interesting  discovery  has   recently  been  made  of  very  minute  silver 
Pha3nician  coins.     These  are  of  several  types,  of  which  the  one  most 
easily  deciphered  has,   obv.  a  male  head,  and  rev.  a  (sea  ?)  tortoise. 
M.  Peretie,  the  eminent  numismatist  of  Beyrout,  to  whom  some  of  these 
minute  pieces  had  been  brought,  believing  that  they  were  found  in  the 
harbour,  conjectured  that  they  were  intended  to  be  thrown  into  the 
water  by  departing  mariners  as  a  propitiatory  offering  to  the  deity  of 
the  sea.     I  was  assured,  however,  on  the  spot  that  they  were  never 
found  in,  but  only  on  the  brink  of  the  harbour,  and  a  place  was  pointed 
out  on  the  edge  of  the  cemetery,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  island, 
where  several  had   recently  been  discovered.     M,  Peretie's  conjecture 
may,  perhaps,  therefore  need  correction.  I  saw  similar  minute  Phoenician 
coins  which   have  recently  been  found  near  the  Mina  of  Tripoli  at  a 
point  where  the  sea  has  encroached  upon  the  land.     It  may  suffice 
here  to  remind  the  reader  of  the  equally  small  copper  coins  of  the  lower 
empire  known  to  collectors  as  "  Minima"  which  are  supposed  by  some 
to  have  been  used  to  throw  among  the  populace  on  occasions  of  popular 
rejoicing.     Altogether  the  ancient  coins  of  Aradus  form  an  interesting 
series.     Besides  coins  of  Alexander  the  Great,  of  Persian  Satraps,  of 
Egyptian  Ptolemies,*  and  of  several  Roman  emperors,  there  are  several 
types  of  Aradian  money  in  silver  and  copper  which  pertain  to  the  place 
as  an  independent  city.     Of  these  the  most  important  are  the  large 
bilingual  silver  coins,  of  which  a  considerable  number  has  recently  been 
found  near  Jebeil.     They  bear  obv.  the  veiled  and  turreted  head  of  a 
woman,  impersonating  the  city  of  Ai-adus;  rev.  a  victory  within  a  crown 
of  leaves  with  the  legend  APAAinN  and  a  date  in  Greek,  and  in  addition 
one  or  more  Phoenician  characters.     Another  type  in  silver,  also  in- 
scribed APAAinN,  with  obv.  a  bee,  and  rev.  a  deer  in  front  of  a  palm- 
tree,  seems  to  be  copied  from  that  of  well-known  coins  of  Ephesus. 
Many  other  coins  in  silver  and  copper  have  Phoenician  inscriptions  only, 
and  most  of  them  bear  on  the  rev.  the  prow  of  a  ship— a  type  appro- 
priate enough  for  the  coins  of  an  island  city.     One  has  on  the  obv. 
Dagon,  the  fish-god,  and  another,   already  alluded  to,  a   serpent   or 
serpentine  fish  with  a  human  head. 

Having  approached  Ruad  from  Beyrout  and  Tripoli  by  sea,  I  pre- 
pared to  return  by  land,  and  accordingly  crossed  over  to  Antaradus, 

*  Some  of  the  Ptolemaic  coins  inscribed  A  P  may  perhaps  belong  to  Arsinbe, 
or  Crocodilopolis,  the  present  Medinet  Habon,  the  capital  of  tlie  Fyoum. 


222  NOTES    ON    RUAD. 

Tortosa,  or  Tavtus,  a  place  still  containing  many  remains  of  interest, 
although,  perhaps,  none  of  very  remote  antiquity. 

The  chief  building  here  is  the  castle — an  immense  structure  of 
massive  drafted  masonry,  witli  an  outer  wall  and  square  flanking  towers 
beyond,  descending  into  a  wide  artificial  ditch  cut  in  the  rock  outside, 
except  on  the  side  next  the  sea,  where  the  main  castle  walls  abut  upon 
the  beach.  Although  portions  of  the  wall  may  belong  to  an  earlier 
period,  I  much  doubt  whether  the  structure  generally  dates  back  to  a 
time  anterior  of  the  Crusades.  At  all  events,  it  is  a  grand  mistake  to 
conclude  that  a  building  is  of  "Phoenician"  work  simj^ly  because  its 
stones  are  bevelled.  The  undoubtedly  ancient  walls  of  Arvad  and  the 
monuments  of  Amrit,  as  has  already  been  remarked,  are  not  drafted, 
and  the  same  observation  holds  good  of  the  vast  substruction  and  tho 
celebrated  Trilithon  at  Baalbec.  It  is  true  that  the  guide-books  tell  us 
that  King  Solomon  bevelled,  but  it  admits  of  the  gravest  doubt  whether 
any  of  the  drafted  stones  in  the  walls  of  the  Haram  area  at  Jerusalem 
belong  to  any  period  earlier  than  that  of  Herod.  That  the  Romans 
drafted  is  true,  witness  part  of  the  Porta  Maggioi'e  at  Rome  and  other 
buildings  there  and  in  Syria,  but  then  no  less  certainly  the  Arabs 
drafted,  and  the  Crusaders  drafted.  So  also  did  the  builders  of  the  late 
mediaeval  walls  of  Nuremberg,  so  did  the  Medicean  Italians,  so  also  at 
the  present  day  do  the  Christian  Maronites  of  Batrun.  Drafting, 
therefore,  or  bevelling,  upon  which  some  lay  so  much  stress,  is,  as  the 
test  of  the  date  of  a  building,  a  very  insecure  guide.  Bearing  this  caution 
in  mind,  I  should,  on  the  whole,  imagine  that  the  castle  of  Tartus  is  in 
the  main  a  building  of  Crusading  times,  incorporating  in  some  places, 
and  built  on  the  lines  of  walls  of  earlier  construction,  many  of  whose 
Rtones  have  been  used,  and  their  di-afting  in  other  cases  imitated  for 
the  sake  of  uniformity.  The  castle  in  form  approaches  a  square,  and 
is  of  vast  extent,  enclosing  within  its  walls  a  large  village  with  an  open 
pZrtce  in  the  centre.  The  principal  gateway,  which  was  anciently 
approached  by  a  bridge  over  the  ditch,  which  at  this  point  assumes 
the  appearance  of  a  ravine,  is  on  the  north-east  side,  and  close  to  the 
sea.  Within  this  gate-tower  in  the  outer  wall  is  a  lofty  Gothic  hall, 
with  a  groined  roof  of  stone.  Another  vaulted  hall,  within  the  main 
castle,  is  of  still  larger  dimensions,  and  has  the  vaulting  of  the  ro  f 
^ringing  from  elegant  Corinthianising  capitals  or  corbels,  and  in  one 
instance  from  the  head  of  a  crowned  king.  One  of  the  most  curious 
features  about  the  castle  of  Tartus  is  the  extraordinary  number  of 
masons'  marks  which  exist  upon  the  stones  which  compose  the  walls, 
iind  of  which  similar  specimens  are  found  upon  the  castle  of  Jebeil. 
These  marks  appear  to  be  of  two  kinds,  those,  viz.,  which  are  formed  by 
a  blunt  instrument  being  punched  into  the  stone,  and  those  which  are 
incised  by  some  sharp  tool.  Of  these,  the  former  appear  to  me  to  be 
far  the  more  ancient.  It  is  highly  desirable  that  copies  should  be 
made  of  similar  marks  upon  other  ruins  in  Syria,  in  order  that,  by 
comparison,  a  correct  opinion  may  be  formed  concerning  them.    Mean- 


NOTES    0.\    RUAD.  223 

while  tlie  fiicfc  that  some  of  them  resemble  Phceniciau  letters,  and  that 
others  rcsemlh  Greek  monograms,  on  coins  of  Philip,  Alexander  the 
Great, .  Alexander  ^gus  and  the  Ptolemies,  should  by  no  meaus  be 
taken  as  conclusive  that  they  belong  to  so  early  a  pei-iod.  At  the  same 
time,  it  is  proper  to  remember  that  undoubted  Pha-nician  characters 
exist  on  the  lower  part  of  the  magnificent  walls  of  Tarragona.  In 
the  case  of  Tartus,  as  also  of  Jebeil,  some  of  the  marks  are  plainly  Arab 
and  others  of  Christian  origin. 

The  cathedral  which  stands  outside  the  walls  of  Tartus  to  the  south- 
east of  the  town  is  a  very  noble  building,  and  in  a  most  extraordinarily 
perfect  state  of  preservation.  Its  plan  displays  a  lofty  nave  and  aisles, 
separated  by  tall  but  massive  piers,  with  columns  with  Corinthianising 
capitals.  The  west  front  has  a  pointed  doorway,  with  a  large  threefold 
window  above  it,  of  which  the  third  light  is  above  and  between  the 
other  two.  Seen  from  within,  nothing  can  be  more  perfect  than  the 
proportions  of  this  noble  triplet.  On  either  side,  at  the  Avest  end  of 
each  wing  or  aisle,  is  an  elegant  lancet  window,  with  a  small  square 
window  above,  the  southernmost  lancet  having  its  moulding  on  the 
left  side  ending  in  a  sculptured  lion.  Over  the  great  western  entrance 
is  a  large  slab  of  red  granite.  The  church  consists  of  four  bays  besides 
the  sacrarium,  each  of  which  is  separated  externally  by  a  massive 
square  buttress.  The  east  end,  which  ends  inside  in  three  majestic 
apses,  has  each  apse  square  outside,  those  to  the  north  and  south,  to- 
gether with  two  vaulted  sacristies,  being,  as  it  were,  enclosed  in  two 
square  towers,  which  do  not  rise  higher  than  the  roof.  The  roof  itself, 
which  Dr.  Porter,  who  does  not  seem  to  have  visited  the  place,  most 
strangely  describes  as  '*  entirely  gone,"  is,  on  the  contrary,  intact.  It  is 
of  vaulted  stone,  and  into  the  lower  part  of  its  curve  small  square- 
headed  windows  have  been  cut — a  very  unusual  feature.  In  each  bay 
of  the  side  aisles  is  one,  and  in  some  instances  two,  lancet  windows. 
The  south  door  is  ornamented  with  a  rich  moulding.  The  characteristic 
of  this  noble  church,  whose  dimensions  are  said  to  be  130  feet  long  by 
93  wide,*  is  simple  grandeur,  and  its  condition  is  such  that  it  might  at 
any  moment  be  used  for  Christian  worship.  The  Muslims  have  recently 
run  up  a  wretched  little  minaret  over  the  north  aisle,  and  have  placed  a 
paltry  pulpit  of  wood  opposite  the  remains  of  that  of  stone  which  once 
adorned  the  nave,  but  with  these  insignificant  exceptions  all  is  as  it 
was.  It  is  matter  for  regret  that  with  such  noble  models  for  imitation 
as  are  presented  by  this  and  some  other  mediseval  ecclesiastical  build- 
ings in  Syria,  such  a  mean  and  abortive  structure  should  have  been 
put  up  as  the  Anglican  church  at  Jerusalem. 

To  the  north  of  Tartus,  at  a  distance  of  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
from  the  walls,  is  a  small  nrina,  or  harbour,  with  a  few  ancient  stones 
lying  about  on  the  low  rocks,  which  scarcely  serve  to  shelter  it  from 
the  open  sea.     On  an  isolated  rock  is  a  vaulted  building,  apparently  a 


*  .See  Murraj'"s  "  C!ukle  to  Syria. 


22-i  NOTKS    ON    RUAD. 

store-liouse  of  CrusadiBg  times.  In  this  neigliboiirliood  are  sevei-al 
tombs  liewn  in  the  rock  which  probably  belonged  to  the  early  Phoenician 
inhabitants,  but  the  cemetery  of  Greek  and  Roman  times  was  on  the 
sandy  ground  south  of  the  town,  and  this  still  yields  many  interesting 
objects  of  antiquity.  Several  fragments  of  sciilpture  were  offered  to 
me  for  sale.  One  of  these  was  a  draped  torso  of  good  style,  and  I  was 
sorry  to  be  obliged  to  leave  behind  a  head  carved  in  limestone  with  a 
decidedly  Egyptian  cast  of  countenance,  and  with  the  usual  Egyptian 
head-dress.* 

At  the  distance  of  about  an  hour  and  a  half  south  of  Tartus  are  the 
ruins  of  Amrit,  formerly  Marathus,  the  remains  of  which  are  of  extreme 
importance,  and  ought  to  be  carefully  explored,  planned,   and  photo- 
graphed.    Unluckily  my  visit  had  been  preceded  by  heavy  rains,  which 
had  so  flooded  the  neighbourhood  as  to  prevent  a  close  approach  to  two 
of  the  existing  monuments.     The  first  object  of  interest  was  an  arti- 
ficially scarped  rock  to  the  left  of  the  track.     This  rock  presents  a 
principal  face  with  two  projecting  wings.     In  the  front  are  three  round- 
headed  entrances  to  tombs,  the  entrance  to  a  tomb  on  either  side  being 
square.     About  a  mile  farther  to   the  south   is   a  curious    excavated 
enclosure,  cut  in  the  solid  rock  to  the  depth  of  about  ten  feet,  but  slop- 
ing down  from  the  south  northwards,  the  north  side  of  the  court,  if 
such  it  may  be  termed,  being  altogether  open.     In  the  midst  of  this 
excavated  area  a  platform  has  been  left  of  natural  rock,  upon  which  is 
erected  a  shrine  of  four  great  stones,  of  Avhich  the  uppermost  is  of 
larger  size  and  ornamented  with  a  rude  overhanging  cornice.     Within 
is  a  stone  bench  or  seat,  apparently  for  the  ancient  divinity  of  the 
place,  like  those  in  many  Egyptian  grottoes,  as,  for  instance,  at  Gebel 
Silsileh,  but  I  could  not  get  exactly  in  front,  as  the  enclosure  was  fuU 
of  water,  and  my  horse  got  engulphed  in  a  bog  in  my  endeavours  to 
reach  it. 

Half  a  mile  farther  south,  on  the  left  of  the  track,  are  a  series 
of  monuments,  which,  in  point  of  interest  and  curiosity,  vie  with  the 
most  celebrated  structures  in  Syria.  These  are  four  tombs,  or  rather 
four  sepulchral  monuments,  which  stand  near  the  edge  of  a  ridge  of 
gi-ey  rocks  running  parallel  with  the  sea,  and  not,  as  Dr.  Porter  asserts, 
"in  the  desolate  plain."  The  first  of  these  monuments  consists  of  a 
pedestal  formed  of  a  single  vast  stone,  upon  which  are  placed  two  others 
which  taper  upwards,  the  upper  one  having  a  conical  top.  The  whole 
structure  forms  a  kind  of  rude  obelisk  between  thirty  and  forty  feet 
high.  Close  by  stands  a  second  monument  of  similar  but  somewhat 
lower  dimensions.  Upon  a  huge  pedestal  stands  another  stone,  which, 
at  somewhat  more  than  half  its  height,  decreases  in  size,  and  then  again 
decreases  nntil  it  ends  in  a  rounded  top.  Just  below  the  apex  and  again 
below  the  shoulder  there  is  a  battlemented  moulding,  and  the  four 

*  Just  outside  the  North  Gate  are  the  remains  of  some  ancient  baths  close  to 
the  sea. 


NOTES    OX    RUAD.  225 

<'orners  of  the  pedestal  below  are  sculptured  to  represent  the  fore  parts 
of  as  many  lions.  These  curious  and  weathorbeaten  sculptures  belong, 
doubtless,  to  a  very  remote  period,  and  may  be  regarded  with  great 
probability  as  the  most  ancient  in  Syria.  Still  farther  to  the  north  are 
two  more  monuments.  One  of  these  resembles  in  its  form  the  second 
already  described,  but  it  is  considerably  smaller.  The  other  is  a  struc- 
ture in  the  form  of  a  sarcophagus,  but  covering,  not  the  tomb  itself,  but 
the  entrance  to  a  tomb,  which  is  approached  by  a  square  aperture 
hcAvn  in  the  rock  beneath  its  southern  extremity.  On  the  sides  of  the 
ridge  upon  which  these  remarkable  monuments  stand,  the  rocks  are 
scarped  and  quarried  in  every  direction,  and  in  one  place  I  perceived 
the  indications  of  an  ancient  road  cut  in  the  rock. 

Still  farther  south,  to  the  right  of  the  path,  is  another  interesting 
building,  which,  at  the  time  of  my  visit  could  not  be  entered,  as  it  stood 
in  a  pond  of  deep  water.  It  is  a  kind  of  square  tower,  built  of  vast 
unbevelled  stones,  and  surmounted  by  a  bold  cornice.  In  the  midst  of 
the  eastern  side  is  a  square  aperture  or  door.  Hard  by  was  another  and 
somewhat  similar  structure  standing  on  higher  ground,  but  now  a  heap 
of  ruins.  On  a  hill  considerably  to  the  rigbt  I  observed  another  large 
square  structure  of  stoue,  which,  however,  in  very  stormy  weather,  and 
with  a  march  of  eleven  hours  before  me,  I  was  unable  to  visit.  Not  a 
human  habitation  now  exists  amidst  these  relics  of  the  past  nor  around 
the  once  populous  precincts  of  Ain  el  Haiyeh.  Yet  the  lower  ground  is 
ploughed  in  places  by  the  Bedouins,  who  dot  the  neighbouring  plain 
with  their  black  tents,  and  on  the  rocks  are  fed  numerous  flocks  of  sheep 
and  goats.  The  almost  crimson  colour  of  the  soil,  especially  where 
turned  up  by  the  numerous  moles,  contrasted  beautifully  with  the  green 
springing  corn,  and  the  grassy  places  were  literally  bejewelled  with 
innumerable  wild  flowers.  The  country  around  is  studded  with  an 
immense  number  of  Tels,  which  would  doubtless  repay  a  visit  as  mark- 
ing the  sites  of  ancient  and  long-forgotten  towns. 

On  my  way  back  to  Beyrout,  betweeujTripoli  and  Batrun,  I  passed  some 
ancientremains  which  may  deserve  mention,  as  IcanTfind  no  notice  of  them 
elsewhere.  These  remains  consist  of  the  ruins  of  what  was  apparently 
a  small  temple,  situated  on  lofty  ground,  commanding  a  tine  view  of  the 
sea  and  of  the  Eas  of  Enfeh  far  below.  Two  niches  in  the  outer  wall  are 
of  curious  construction.  Upon  a  basement  are  placed  two  upright 
stones,  which  are  flat  -within,  but  externally/ are  cut  out  so  as  to  form 
recesses  or  niches,  the  two  upright  stones  being|in  both  cases  surmounted 
by  a  single  large  one.  In  the  fields  hard  by  lie  many  sculptured  stones, 
a  rude  piece  of  a  frieze,  and  a  huge  circular  J  stone  with  a  shallow  basin 
cut  in  its  upper  surface,  and  designed  apparently  for  an  altar.  In  the 
road  is  a  cistern  hewn  in  the  rock.  The  place  is  named  Ard  Zacroon. 
On  a  still  higher  point,  a  little  to  the  south,  are  some  other  vestiges  of 
ancient  buildings. 

The  town  of  Jebeil,  formerly  Gebal  and  [afterwards  Byblus,  offers 
many  objects  of  antiquarian  interest.     A  good  deal  of  drafted  masonry 


226  NOTES    ON    IIUAD. 

exists  about  the  haiboiir,  where  also  the  immense  number  of  prostrate 
granite  columns,  ■wliicli  lie  about  in  all  directions,  testify  to  tlie  splendour 
of  the  colonnades  wbich  once  adorned  the  spot.  The  picturesque  castle, 
still  jjartly  occupied  by  the  Tru-kish  garrison,  is  built  throughout  of 
bevelled  stones,  some  of  which  are  incised  with  masons'  marks  like  those 
at  Tarlus.  Its  plan  exhibits  a  lofty  central  keeji,  surrounded  by  a 
massive  wall  with  square  towers  at  each  angle,  of  which  one  is  plainly 
of  later  work  than  the  rest.  That  the  whole  is  a  reconstruction  is 
evident  from  the  fact  that  columns  and  portions  of  carved  friezes  of 
earlier  buildings  are  worked  into  the  basement  of  the  walls.  The  build- 
ing may  jirobably  be  ascribed  to  the  Crusaders.  The  keep  is  entered  by 
a  square-headed  doorway  of  drafted  masonry  (which  indeed  is  employed 
throughout),  and  above  it  is  the  segment  of  an  arch  composed  of  three 
stones.  The  material  employed  is  partly  yellow  limestone  and  partly 
conglomerats  or  pudding-stone.  In  an  outbuilding  a  Greek  inscription 
has  been  built  into  the  wall,  and  close  by  a  staircase  leads  down  into  a 
passage  which  is  said  to  end  only  at  the  sea.  In  the  garden  of  a  cottage 
south-east  of  the  town  several  remains  of  Eoman  time  have  recently 
been  brought  to  light.  Among  them  I  noticed  four  altars,  one  iu  perfect 
preservation  and  with  its  four  "  horns  "  complete,  a  votive  niche  with  its 
figure  wanting,  but  bearing  an  cijc  sculptured  in  relief  in  the  pediment, 
and  two  mutilated  inscriptions,  one  in  memory  of  a  Roman  soldier  and 
the  other  dedicated  to  a  certain  Fortunatus.  The  principal  Maronite 
Church  of  Jebeil  is  a  large  and  handsome  Gothic  structure.  It  has  three 
apses  with  a  round-arched  window  in  each.  In  the  front  is  a  pretty  rose 
window.  Over  the  north  door  is  a  Cufic  inscription,  and  outside  it  a 
beautiful  Baptistery,  of  which  one  side  leans  upon  the  church.  It  exhibits 
a  dome  supported  by  four  pillars,  and  the  lofty  pointed  arches  above  are 
enriched  with  exquisitely  varied  chevron  mouldings.  In  the  yard  outside, 
covering  tombs,  are  two  beautifully  carved  fragments  of  Greek  sculpture  in 
white  marble.  At  the  distance  of  about  an  hour  and  a  half  from  Jebeil,  and 
about  half  an  hour  from  the  Nahr  Ibrahim,  I  made  a  somewhat  interest- 
ing discovery.  This  was  a  cave  to  the  left  of  the  road,  within  which 
rude  benches  have  been  cut  in  the  rock.  I  found  here  great  quantities 
of  hard  breccia  like  that  discovered  by  Dr.  Tristram  near  the  Nahr  el 
Kelb,  and  comi^osed  of  an  immense  quantity  of  flint  flakes  worked  by 
hand,  bones  and  teeth  of  animals,  and  sea  shells,  the  occupants  of  which 
had,  without  doubt,  been  used  as  food  by  the  primitive  inhabitants  of 
the  cave.  The  teeth  were,  I  believe,  those  of  the  ox.  I  was  informed 
that  the  place  is  named  AsforojeJi.  In  this  connection  it  will  bo  proper 
to  mention  a  discovery  recently  made  at  Beyrut.  "While  waiting  for  the 
steamer  at  Jaffa  I  purchased  of  a  young  American  of  the  United  States 
a  beautifully  worked  lance-head  of  flint  which  he  had  picked  up  on  the 
Eas.  On  arriving  at  Beyrout  I  took  advantage  of  the  late  extraordinary 
heavy  rains  to  visit  the  spot,  which  is  situated  in  the  midst  of  the 
accumulation  of  blown  sand  which  occupies  the  highest  portion  of  the 
Eas.     No  time  could  have  been  more  propitious  for  the  purpose,  as  the 


AKAI3IC    AND    HEBREW,  227 

rains  had  in  many  places  washed  the  sand  entirely  away  and  exposed 
the  hard,  dark-red  marl  beneath,  and  such  an  opportunity  may  not 
occur  again  for  years.  I  found  that  this  marl  was  in  places  strewn 
with  flakes  of  flint,  amongst  which  I  discovered  a  beautiful  leaf-shaped 
lance  and  two  saws,  shaped  out  of  yellowish  flint.  Half  a  mile  to  the 
south-east  of  this  spot  I  came  on  another  place  of  the  same  kind,  where, 
if  possible,  the  flint-flakes  were  even  more  numerous  than  in  the  flrst. 
In  subsequent  visits  I  picked  up  two  carefully  worked  lance-heads,  some 
more  saws,  and  two  larger  implements.  That  these  flint  implements 
were  made  on  the  spot  is  plainly  evident,  for  I  discovered  at  least 
eight  little  mounds  where  the  flint-workor  had  sat  chipping  at  his 
manufacture.  These  spots  abounded  with  large  flints,  as  well  as  in  flakes 
and  more  perfect  specimens.  It  is  to  be  feared  that  these  interesting 
mounds  will  be  speedily  reburied  in  sand.  Besides  the  relics  of  the 
prehistoric  period,  this  site  abounds  in  Remains  of  later  epochs  and 
people.  Great  quantities  of  fragments  of  broken  glass  of  various 
colours  are  strewn  about  in  all  directions,  and  belong,  apparently,  both 
to  Grceco-Phoenician  and  Eoman  times.  To  the  latter,  also,  may  be 
referred  the  numerous  tessera)  and  pieces  of  green  Egyptian  porphyry, 
verde  antico,  and  other  precious  and  now  extinct  marbles,  which  are 
always  signs  of  occupation  by  wealthy  people.  I  found  also  a  small 
Phoenician  and  a  small  Roman  coin  in  copper.  M.  Peretie,  I  under- 
stand, has  obtained  numerous  coins  from  the  same  place. 

WoTE. — Since  writing  the  above  I  have  seen  the  Rev.  Henry 
Maundrell's  "Journey  from  Aleppo  to  Jerusalem,"  1697;  Second 
Edition,  1707.  He  gives  an  interesting  account  of  his  visit  to  Amrit 
(he  did  not  cross  over  to  Ruad),  tolerably  correct  engravings  of  the 
two  principal  towers,  and  a  plan  of  the  sepulchral  chambers,  now 
closed  up,  which  he  found  underneath  them. 


AEABIC  AND  HEBEEW. 

I  WOULD  call  attention  to  the  manner  in  which  many  modem 
Arabic  words  may  differ  from  the  Hebrew  or  Aramaic,  just  as  do 
modern  Spanish  words  from  the  Latin.  Thus  we  have  in  Latin  and 
Spanish  respectively  : — Porous,  puerco  ;  Bono,  bueno ;  Bos,  Buey ; 
Capillulus,  Cabelluelo  ;  Cornu,  cuerno  ;  Tempus,  tiempo.  And  we  have 
in  Hebrew  and  Arabic : — Socho,  Shuweikeh  ;  Saphir,  Sawafu,  &c.  Fol- 
lowing on  this  track  we  obtain  from  Luweireh,  Loreh ;  Dawaimeh, 
Dumeh  ;  Suweimeh,  Sumeh  ;  Kawassimeh,  Kassimeh  ;  Hawara,  Hara, 
&c.  No  doubt  there  are  many  known  differences  in  European  languages 
which  may  be  found  to  apply  also  to  Hebrew  and  Arabic.  I  have  to 
suggest  that  a  few  simple  rules  on  this  subject  might  be  arrived  at 
which  woiild  aid  the  explorer  in  rapidly  making  a  tentative  cxamica- 


228  NICHES    FOR   SKULLS. 

tion  of  any  Aiabic  'word  in  order  to  test  its  likeness  to  the  Hebrew  or 

Canaanitish. 

Charles  "Waiuien. 
IStb  June,  1875. 


NICHES  FOR  SKULLS. 

'2nd  Aiic/ust,  1875. 
In  reference  to  Lieutenant  Gender's  opinion  that  the  pigeon-hole 
niches  at  Masada  were  for  skulls,  I  may  mention  a  recent  example 
which  I  saw  in  the  island  of  Samos.  A  small  Greek  church,  built 
about  twenty  years  ago,  had  on  each  of  the  two  bay  sides  six  such 
niches.  Each  contained  a  skull  and  crossbones — an  extraordinary  sight. 
These,  \1  was  told,  were  in  honour  of  the  founders  of  the  church.  The 
other  bones,  as  is  common  among  the  Asiatic  Greeks  in  burial,  had 
been;  destroyed  by  quicklime.  Whether  this  is  in  any  degree  a  vestige 
•of  cremation  may  be  worth  investigation.  While  a  Turkish  village  is 
surrounded  by  numerous  tombs,  giving  rise  to  the  vulgar  error  of  the 
decay  [of  the  population,  a  Greek  village  of  the  same  or  larger  size 
5vill  not  show  any  beyond  the  very  small  graveyard. 

Hyde  Clarke. 


PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION   FUND. 


Patron— THE     QUEEN. 


^arterly    Statement 

FOR   1876. 


LONDON : 
PUBLISHED  A.T  THE  SOCIETY'S  OFFICE,  9,   PALL  MALL  EAST, 

AND   BY 

RICHARD  BENTLEY  &  SON,  8,  NEW  BURLINGTON  STREET. 


INDEX. 


'Aak,  141 

Aana,  142 

Aaruna,  90 

Abala,  143 

Abar,  143 

Abel  Meholah,  15 

Abira,  94,  144 

Acre,  The  Trial  at,  7 

Adjai,  80 

'Ai,  93 

'Aina,  141,  144 

'Ainini,  84 

Ajmes,  145 

Akadla,  144 

Akara,  143 

'Akbara,  144 

Akidu,  94 

Aksakaba,  84 

Aksaph,  76 

Aksep,  97 

Aleppo,  Hebrew  Manuscripts  at,  55 

Altar  on  Ebal,  191 

Amashna,  96 

'Araekii,  144 

American  Expedition,  Tlie,  47 

Ani,  143 

An  Kenamu,  144 

'Ansu,  93 

Anuath,  67 

Anuheru,  141 

'Aphla,  141 

Apht(en),  142 

Aphuken,  142 

Arana,  96 

Ashushen,  142 

'Astalatu,  96 

Asor,  72 

Atamm,  97 

Atara,  94,  143 

Atsion,  84 

'Awertab,  194 

Badia,  144 
Bamai,  93 
Bar,  141 
Baratu,  144 
Bartu,  94 
Batna,  95 
Beithsheal,  82 
Berk(na),  145 
Bet  Anata,  144 
Betariph,  72 
Bethar,  12 
Betheked,  73 
Bethelia,  15 


Bethsarisa,  68 

Betoffiuea,  71 

Bet  Shara,  144 

Bezek,  69 

Caphar  Gainala,  16 

Ceperaria,  71 

Chasbi,  15 

Ohoba,  71 

Cofer-Marlou,  79 

Conder,    Lieut.,    On    Early  Christian 
Topography  in  Pa- 
lestine, 11 
„  ,,       Eock-cut  Tombs,  17 

„  ,,       Address  at  Manches- 

ter, 32 

Conference  at  the  Scientific  Apparatus 
Loan  Exhibition,  153 

Cozeba,  70 

Dapour,  80 

Diocletianopolis,  11 

Djaraou,  75 

Ed,  The  Altar  of,  28 

Emmaus,  172 

Enani,  66 

Etam,  The  Rock,  175 

Fathoura,  72 

Fenekhu,  90 

Garob,  70 

Geba  of  Horsemen,  15 

Geneth  Asnah,  141 

Gerizim,  190 

Geuta,  90 

Graves  without  Chambers,  19 

Habatza,  142 

Ham,  145 

Hamath,  78 

Harkara,  144 

Harkatu,  144 

Harnemata,  80 

Hasta,  ?2 

Hatzara,  96 

Hazor,  77 

Hemut,  94 

Heshbu,  141 

Hiklaim,  143 

Horar,  143 

Ibl'amu,  141 

Ihmam,  142 

Ilatu,  144 

Iphu,  142 

Irtah,  142 

Iskar,  197 

luluta,  90 

Jacob's  Well,  162 


IV 


INDEX. 


Jah  .  .  and  Matamim,  78 

Jelden,  82 

Jenetu,  142 

Jerusalem,  Discovery  at,  9 

Tomb  at,"  61 
Joshua's  Tomb,  192 
Juhem, 90 
Kaana,  96 
Kalamon,  20 
Kamata,  9-4 
Kaphuta,  144 
Kasuna,  97 
Kebatua(n),  140 
Kebau,  145 
Kefr  Aziz,  70 
Keneb,  91 
Kenetu,  143 
Kenneratu,  96 
Kenut,  142 
Kerara,  143 
Keramen,  144 
Keret  Sennau,  94 
Keriathaal,  82 
Keriath  Anab,  80 
Kethu  (na),  93 
Khaouretsa,  81 
Kiliimna,  141 
Kokim  Tombs,  18 
Latau  'Araka,  141 
Lauza,  96 

List  of  the  Birds  collected  for  the  Pales- 
tine Exploration  Fund  by  the  Survey 

Party  in  Palestine,  200 
Luten,  142 
Maaza,  142 
Madna,  95 
Mageddo,  82 
Makata,  96 
Makerphut,  143 
Maklatu,  144 
M'arama,  94 
Maramam,  143 
Mashala,  97 
Masonry  Tombs,  151 
Meeting  of  General  Committee,  110 
Mejdel,  142 

Merrill,  Letter  from  Rev.  Selah,  177 
Moabite  Stone,  The  Sha^ie  of  the,  181 
Mountain  of  the  Scape-goat,  On  the,  164 
Mount  Ousor  and  Mount  Ikama,  77 
Nekebu,  141 
Nekhai,  84 
Netopha,  69 

Note  by  Capt.  Warren,  8 
Note  on  the  Arabs  in  Palestine,  S 
Notes  on  the  Language  of  the  Native 

Peasantry  in  Palestine,  132 
Note  on  Various  Jewish  Traditions  as 

to  the  Place  where  Messias  should  be 

born,  98 
Notes  from  the  Memoir,  149,  167 


Notes,  General,  3,  57,  107,  160 
Notes  on  Masonry,  197 

Numana,  143 

Odulam,  81 

Onomasticon,  The,  13 

Ophrah,  197 

Ouati,  84 

Ousorniara,  84 

Pa  Hurah,  96 

Pakaikna,  76 

Palestine  before  Joshua,  87,  140 

„        The  Fertility  of  Ancient,  120 
,,        The  First  Traveller  in,  74 

Paris  Geographical  Exhibition,  9 

Qodesh,  80 

Raba(na),  94 

Rabau,  143 

Eabbatu,  144 

Rahebu,  87 

Ranama,  142 

Raphia,  85 

Ras  Ketes,  141 

Rehobroth,  84 

Rock-sunk  Tombs,  19 

Roebuck,  The,  152 

Rohob,  82 

Roma,  16 

Royal  Geographical  Society,  Letter  to 
the,  154 

Ruten,  89 

Samaritan  Topography,  182 

Salim,  72 

Sarana,  95 

Sati,  90 

Sats  .   .  aal,  84 

Semana,  97 

Sestsou,  83 

Shapira  Pottery,  99 

Shechem,  192 

Shem'anau,  94 

Shemesadmah,  141 

Shenama,  97 

Side  Loculi  Tombs,  18 

Sozuza,  12 

Stone  of  Foundation,  23,  62 

Suka,  142 

Survey,  Proposed  Tests  for  the,  66 

Taanak,  140 

Tamena,  79 

Tamesku,  94 

Taphu(nu),  144 

Tebuh,  93 

Tobler,  Letter  from  Dr.,  103 

Tsidphoth,  81 

Tubi,  95 

Tuti(na),  94 

Tzafza,  145 

Tzella,  145 

Umm  el  Amud,  The  Synagogue  of,  22 

Yajur,  70 

Zartha,  144 


y 


THE 


PALESTINE    EXPLORATION    FUND: 

A  SOCIETY  FOR  THE  ACCUJILVTE  AND  SYSTEMATIC  INVESTIGATIOX  OF 
THE  ARCHAEOLOGY,  THE  TOPOGRAPHY,  THE  GEOLOGY  AND  PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY,  THE  MANNERS  AND  CUSTOilS,  OF  THE  HOLY  LAND, 
FOR   BIBLICAL   ILLUSTRATION. 


HEE 


PATRON  : 
MAJESTY    THE 


QUEEN. 


COMMITTEE : 
*ARCHBISHOP   OF   YORK,  President. 


Dk.  H.  W.  Aclan]),  F.R.S. 

Rev.    W.    Lindsay    Alex- 
ander, D.D. 

Rev.  Henry  Allon,  D.D. 

The     President     of     the 
American  Association 

Amhurst  Tyssen  Amhurst, 

Esq. 
*Capt.   Andeeson,  R.E. 

Rev,  Joseph  Angus,  D.D. 

Duke  of  Argyll 

T.  Farmer  Baily,  Esq. 

Rev.  JosephBarclaYjLL.D. 

James  Bateman,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Rev.  Canon  Birch 
♦Samuel  Birch,  Esq.,  LL.D. 

Rev.  H.  M.  Butler,  D.D. 

Marquis  of  Bute 

Archbishop  of  Canterbury 

Earl  of  Carnarvon 

T.    Chaplin,    Esq.,    M.D., 
lion.  Sec.  for  Jerusalem 

Bishop  op  Chester 

Dean  of  Chester 

Dean  of  Christchurch 

Lord  Alfred  Churchill 
*J.  D.  Grace,  Esq. 

John  Cunliffe,  Esq. 

Duke  op  Devonshire 

Earl  Ducie 
*W.  Hepworth  Dixon,  Esq. 
♦Professor  Donaldson 

Lord  Dufferin 
*F.  A.  Eaton,  Esq. 

S.  Jackson  Eldridge,  Esq., 
Bey7-out 

Bishop  of  Exeter 

Rev.  F.  W.  Fauras,  D.D. 

James      Fergusson,     Esq., 
F.R.S. 

A.  Lloyd  Fox 

H.  W.  F'reeland,  Esq. 

5a?tA;ers— Messrs.  Coutts  and  Co., 


Rev. 
Rev. 
Rev. 
Sir 


M.  Clermont-Ganneau 

F.  Waymouth  Gibiss,  Esq., 
C.B. 

Rev.  C.  D.  Ginsburg,  LL.D. 

Cyril  C.   Graham,  Esq. 
*James  GlaisheKjEsq., F.R.S. 

Samuel  Gurney,  Esq. 

H.  A.  Harper,  Esq. 

Rev.  J.  C.  Harrison 

A.     J.     Beresford     Hope, 
Esq.,  M.P. 

Dr..JosephD.Hooker,F.R.S. 

Holman  Hunt,  Esq. 

Gen.  Sir  Henry  James 

Lord  Lawrence 

Right  Hon.  A.  H.  Latard 

F.  Leiqhton,  Esq.,  R.A. 

Gener.al  Lefroy 

Lord  Henry  Lennox 

Professor  Hayter  Lewis 

Dean  of  Lichfield 

Ambrose  L.  P.  DeLisle,Esq. 

Sakuel  Lloyd,  Esq. 

Bishop  of  London 
*WiLLiAM  Longman,  Esq. 

John  MacGregor,  Esq. 

Master       of       University 
College,  Oxford 

Rev.  Samuel  Martin 

Henry  Maudsl.a.y,  Esq. 

Edward  Miall,  Esq.,  M.P> 

Sir  Moses  Montefiore,  Bt. 

Noel  Temple  Moore,  Esq., 
H.B.M.  Consul,  Jerusalem 

Samuel  Morley,  E.sq.,  M.P. 

Rev.  J.  Mullens,  D.D. 

John  Murray,  Esq. 

Sir  Charles  Nicholson,  Bt. 

Professor  Owen,  F.R.S. 

Sir  S.  Morton  Peto,  Bt. 

Professor  E.  H.  Palmer 

Bishop  of  Peterborough 

f59.  Strand.     The  Union  Bank  of 


Herr  Petermaxn 
Rev.  E.  H.  Plumptrk 

J.    L.   PoRTERj   LL.D. 
Charles  Pritchard 
Prof.  Pusey,  D.D 
Henry      Rawlinsoit, 
K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 
Rev.  Profes.sor  Rawlinsok 
Henry  Reeve,  Esq. 
Marquis  of  liiPON 
Bishop  op  Ripon 
Earl  Russell 
Dr.  Saxdkeczky' 
Viscount  Sandon 
•M.  De  Saulcy 
Lord     Henry     J.     M.     D. 

Scott,  M.P. 
Earl  of  Shaftesbury 
William  Smith,  Esq.,LL.B. 
Siii  G.  Gilbert  Scott,  R.A. 
W.      Spottiswoode,      Esq., 

F.R.S. 
Captain  R."W.Stewart,R.E. 
Rev.  John  Stoughton,  D.D- 
Viscount      Stratford      i>k 

Redcliffe 
Duke  »f  Sutherland 
Rev.  a.  W.  Thorold 
William  TippiNG,EsQ.,M.r. 
*Rev.       Canon       Tristrah-., 

LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
*W.  S.W.  Vaux,  Esq.,  F.R.S- 
The  Count  de  Vsouk 
*Captain  Warren,  R.E. 
Dean      of      Vv'^estminstei^ 

F.R.S. 
Duke  of  Westminster. 
Rev.  George  Williams,  B.I). 
*M A Jou Wilson,  R.E.,  i\K.S. 
George  Wood,  Esq. 
Bishop  of  Winchester 


London,  Charirig 


Cross  Braiieh,  66,  Charing  Cross. 

Treasurer — *Walter  ^Iorrison,  Esq. 

Hon.  Secretaries — *Eev.  F.  W.  Holland,  and  *George  Grove,  Esq.,  LL.D. 

Acting  Secretary — Walter  Bhsa^'T,  Esq.     Office,  9,  Pall  Mall  East. 

*  Member  of  the  Executive  Committee. 


r;.IGIITH     THOUSAND. 


OUR  WORK  IN  PALESTINE 


la  this  book  will  be  fotxnd  not  only  a  complete  account  of 
the  work  of  the  Committee  to  the  commencement  of  the  Survey, 
but  the  reasons  of  the  work  a,nd  the  aims  of  the  future.  It  is 
published  at  the  lowest  possible  price,  and  will  be  added  to  from 
time  to  time. 


Crown  8ro.     350  |);;       With  Fifty  Illustrations.     Price  2>s.  Qd. 


THIRD    EDITION. 

THE  RECOVERY   OF   JERUSALEM. 

PRiCE    ONE    GUINEA. 


BENTLEY  &  SON,  8,  NEW  BUELINGTON  ST.,  W. 


TEEASUEEE'S  STATEMENT. 

The  income  of  1875  shows  a  gratifying  increase  on  the  subscriptions  of  preceding 
years.  Those  of  1873  and  1874  were  respectively  (from  donations  and  subscrip- 
tions only)  £3,170  12s.  4d.  and  £3,382  9s.J10d.  That  for  1875  is  £3,971  9s.  9d. 
This  is  the  hirgest  amount  yet  received,  and  the  steady  increase  may  fairly  be 
taken  to  show  the  growth  of  interest  in  the  objects  of  the  Fund.  The  year  began 
with  a  heavy  debt  of  £1,440  19s.  Sd.  against  a  balance  of  £378  8s.  Id.  It  finishes 
with  a  debt  of  £1,081  14s.  lid.,  against  fwhich  must  be  placed  a  balance  o;' 
£321  16s.  lid.  Tlie  position  of  the  Society  is  therefore  improved  by  £300. 
Since  the  beginning  of  the  current  year  a  further  sum  of  £250  has  been  paid  off 
from  the  unpaid  accounts ;  and  at  the  present  date  (March  28)  the  Society  i:s 
liable,  after  deducting  current  balance,  to  no  [more  than  £300,  a  position  niucli 
better  than  we  have  held  for  the  last  three  years. 

The  Publications  of  the  Fund  realised  last  year  the  sum  of  £128  17s.  9d.  This 
includes  a  small  amount  from  the  sale  of  "  The  Recovery  of  Jerusalem."  The 
major  portion  is  derived  from  the  sale  of  "Our  Work  in  Palestine."  There  is 
also  some  demand  for  tlie  Quarterly  Statements.  The  amount  received  from 
Lectures  shows  a  great  falling  off,  but  this  is  due  to  the  resignation  of  Mr.  St. 
Clair  in  August  last,  just  before  the  commencement  of  the  lecture  season,  so  that 
the  receipts  under  this  head  are  those  for  half  the  year  only.  The  Photograpli 
balance  for  the  ilrst  time  shows  a  profit — viz.,  of  .£36  10s.,  the  amount  of 
^18  15s.  2d.  shown  in  last  year's  Balance  Sheet  as  balance  of  cost  of  stock  in  hand 
being  now  cleared  off,  so  that  future  sales  will  be  no  longer  burdened  witli  a 
balance  of  debt. 

The  Expenditure  under  the  head  of  Exploration  consists  of  ^2,773  14s.  9d.  This 
*ium  represents  all  the  expenses  of  the  exploring  party  until  their  return  in  the 
autumn,  with  their  pay  until  the  end  of  the  year,  their  passage  home,  and  the 
expenses  entailed  on  them  by  the  attack  at  Safed,  and  their  consequent  stay  at 
Carmel  to  attend  the  trial,  with  medical  expenses  due  to  the  injuries  received. 
Under  the  head  of  printing  fall  the  expenses  of  the  Quarterly  Statement.  The 
heavy  postage  is  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  nearly  5, 000  of  these  Statements 
are  sent  out  each  quarter  by  post  to  subscribers. 

The  subdivision  of  expenditure  is  as  follows : — 

Exploration    ... 

Printing  and  Lithography 

Advertising 

Office,  including  Rent,  Salaries,  and 

Sundries... 
Posta.ge  

The  office  expenses  are  raised  above  those  of  last  year  by  an  increase  of  salaries 
necessarily  incurred  by  the  increased  office-work.  The  payment  of  all  officers 
employed  by  the  Committee  monthly  instead  of  quarterly  made  also  a  slight 
diflerence  for  the  year.     In  tlie  Notes  will  be  found  a  statement  of  the  actual 

current  expenses. 

(Signed)  W.  MORRISON, 

Hon.  Treasurer. 


70 '15  per  c 

ent 

9-8 

1-375  ,, 

15-55   „ 

3-125  „ 

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LIST    OF   DONATIONS   AND    SUBSCRIPTIONS, 

DECEMBER  28TH,  TO  MARCH  2STH,  1876. 


a  denotes  Annual  Subscriber. 


J,*  If  any  omission  or  mistake  be  observed  in  the  following  lists,  the  Secretary  will  be  very  glad 
to  be  iuformed  of  it,  ami  will  rectify  the  en-or  in  the  next  Quarterly  Statement 


■aRev.  H.  Adcock 

aRev.  T.  S.  Aldis 

«Rev.  "W.  Armstrong  

Lodge    of  Antiquity,    per    S. 

Tomkins,  Esq 

«The  Misses  Badcock  

«Miss  Bancroft 

«Rev.  Dr.  Barclay    

rtRev.  F.  R.  Barker 

«Dr.  Barlow  

«Rev.  W.  H.  Barlow    

rtR.  S.  Bartlett,  Esq 

«Rev.  A.  C.  W.  Bean  

«Miss  Beaufort 

«Rev.  C.  D.  Beckford 

aRev.  W.  R.  Bell 

aH.  F.  Bell,  Esq 

aJ.  Bernard,  Esq 

«Jas.  Berry,  Esq 

«Rev.  T.  Blackburne    

fl-Robert  Blake,  Esq 

«Rev.  W.  H.  Blamire  

«C.  Graham  Blatchley,  Esq.   ... 

aR.  Blair,  Esq 

aRev.  C.  E.  Blencowe 

aRev.  W.  Bilton  

«Mrs.  Birkbeck 

«.J.  W.  Bogg,  Esq 

aMiss  S.  Bourne    

aRev.  D.  J.  Boutflower    

«J.  Bowi'OD,  jun.,  Esq 

a  J.  H.  Bracken,  Esq 

«Miss  Bracken  

«Rev.  E.  H.  Bradley    

aJno.  Brash,  Esq 

aW.  B.  Brayshay,  Esq 

«Henry  Brown,  Esq 

aMrs.  Comisli  Brown  , 

«Rev.  John  Brooke  

oF.  P.  Brown,  Esq 


'    £   s. 

0  10 

1  1 
0  10 


21 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
0 

1 
1 
1 

2 


0 
0 

1 
1 
1 
1 

5 
1 
1 

1 

0  10 

1    1 

0  10 

1  1 
1    1 

0  10 

1    1 

0  10 

1    1 

1  0 

2  0 
1  1 
0  10 
0  10 

1  1 
1    1 

3  3 

0  10 

1    1 

0  10 

1    1 


d. 
6 
0 
6 

0 
0 
G 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
6 
0 
6 
0 
0 
6 
0 
6 
0 
0 
0 
0 
6 
6 
0 


aRev.  F.  G.  Burnaby  

«J.  H.  Buxton,  Es([ 

oJno.  R.  Byrom,  Esq 

aRev.  R.  Callender  

rtMrs.  R.  Callender  

aJ.  Carrick,  Esq 

a^V.  M.  Carr,  Esq 

aRev.  W.  H.  Chambers  

aMiss  Chambers    

aRev.  W.  Champernown 

aRev.  G.  Christian  

i;ffj.  Chapman,  Esq 

'aMiss  Carruthers  

aW.  J.  Church,  Esq 

aMiss  Clendinning    

aG.  Clark,  Esq 

Lord  Clermont 

aC.  C.  Clifford,  Esq 

aMiss  Mary  Clode 

aRev.  H.  B.  Clough 

aMrs.  Cornish   

aJ.  L.  Cover,  Esq 

Miss  M.  A.  Corrie  (a£l  Is.). 

aMiss  G.  Corrie 

aG.  M.  Cockin,  Esq 

aRev.  J.  J.  Oort    

aHenry  Courtice,  Esq 

«G.  C.  Courthorpe,  Esq 

aH.  Courtney,  Esq 

aW.  Cole,  Esq 


0    aDr.  Colby. 


aJ.  D.  Crace,  Esq 

aG.  B.  Crewdson,  Esq.... 
aMrs.  A.  H.  H.  Corsbie 

a  J.  E.  Cooper,  Esq 

ff General  Cracklow    

G.  C 

aRev.  Dr.  Culross 

aRev.  L.  G.  C.  Cure    ... 
aRev.  T.  Dalton    


£  s. 

d. 

2    0 

0 

5  0 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

1   1 

0 

1   1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

.( 

1   1 

0 

1   1 

0 

1   1 

0 

1   1 

0 

0  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

1   1 

0 

0  10 

6 

6  6 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  2 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  2 

0 

5  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

LIST   OF   SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


«Rev.  G.  W.  Dalton 

K.   Damon,  Esq.,   proceeds  of 

Lecture  - 

f/Edward  Davies,  Esq 

«W.  R.  Davies.  Esq 

f/Rev.  W.  H.  Davy 

aMajor  Deedes  

«Miss  E.  Devenish    

aRev.  W.  AY.  Dickenson 

aG.  D.  W.  Digby,  Esq 

Major  Ditraras  («10s.  6d.) 

aC.  G.  Dobbs,  Esq 

rtS.  H.  Dodgson,  Esq 

ftRight  Rev.  Bishop  of  Dover... 

aMrs.  Tyi-whitt  Drake 

rt Edgar  A.  Drummond,  Esq.  ... 

aMrs.  Dyott  

reRev.  Dr.  Eadie    

«Rev.  Jno.  Edmoud,  D.D 

rtRev.  W.  J.  Edwards 

iliss  Ellison 

«W.  Farrer,  Esq 

«Rev.  AV.  Farrer  

<^rRev.  A.  R.  Faussett  

rtMrs   Hester  Fen  wick 

a  Airs.  Gerrard  Forsyth     

«Rev.  R.  AV.  Fiske    

«Rev.  S.  T.  Fowler 

«Rev.  G.  E.  Fox    

«J.  H.  Fox,  Esq 

aRev.  AV.  S.  Fowler 

aRev.  F.  H.  Freeth 

oE.  AV.  Fry,  Esq 

AV.  L.  F 

aJ.  Gadsby,  Esq 

rt Alessrs.  Gall  and  Inglis 

rt Aliss  Garratt    

aAIrs.  Garnett    

ftJIrs.  George,  sen 

rtAIrs.  German   

rtRev.  AV.  Gibb 

rtRev.  J.  Godson  

«Mrs.  G.  A.  Goddard 

A.  F.  Govett,  Esq 

aRev.  A.  Gray  

rtRev.  R.  Green 

rtAIiss  Julia  Greene  

rtAIiss  Grove  

rtRev.  Canon  Haddock 

R.  Hanbury,  Esq 

rtMrs.  Hancock 

«J.  Hankinson,  Esq 

Rev.  J.  H.  Harris  («£1  Is.)  ... 

aAIiss  0.  Hardy 

rtRev.  J.  H.  Harrison  

rtMrs.  AA''.  Ma und}'- Harvey 

rtMiss  L.  Heath    

rtRev.  S.  Hebditch   

rtLord  C.  A.  Hervey 

6 


£  s. 

d. 

1  1 

0 

3  5 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  2 

0 

10  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  2 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  5 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

100  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

10  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

10  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

4  4 

0 

1  0 

0 

1   1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

6 

1   1 

0 

aRev.  J.  Hewetson  

a  A.  A.  Heywood,  Esq 

aRev.  S.  Highton 

aRev.  Melsup  Hill    

aj.  Hilton,  Esq 

aHiram  Hitchcock,  Esq 

aMiss  A.  M.  Hoare  

aS.  K.  Hodgson,  Esq 

aRev.  Jas.  Holme 

aMrs.  E.  T.Holland    

aRev.  C.  H.  Hole 

aRev.  J.  H.  Hooper 

aC.  G.  Hopkinson,  Esq.  ... 

aMiss  A.  Hunter  

aMiss  Hutchinson    

aJ.  R.  Hutchinson,  Esq.... 

1  J.  J 

I   "Iota" 

1  E.  Johnson,  Esq 

jaVen.  Archdeacon  Jacob... 

[aL.  Jaques,  Esq 

aMrs.  C,  Kemble  

aMrs.  Kiln 

aAV.  King,  Esq 

aRev.  Jno.  Kinross 

aJno.  Kirkpatrick,  Esq.  ... 

aR.  L.  Kirby,  Esq 

aCol.  Kitchener 

I  aMrs.  Knapi^ing    

aRev.  T.  Ladds 

aG.  Lawrence,  Esq 

aHenry  Leask,  Esq 

aAV.  J.  Le  Cooq,  Esq 

jaC.  H.  S.  Leicester,  Esq. 
!aAV.  H.  Leighton,  Esq.    ... 

jaRev.  H.  Lewis 

!aG.  P.  Leycester,  Esq.     ... 

aMiss  Lindsay  

laAV.  Long,  Esq 

aMrs.  Lorrimer 

:aA.  Lupton,  Esq 

aRev.  J,  Lyon  

aLuke  Mackey,  Esq 

aAV.  B.  Maingay,  Esq 

aT.  W.  Mansh,   Esq 

aMiss  Martin 

aE.  Symous  Martyn,  Esq. 

«Rev.  Jno.  Matthewson  .. 

aJ.  McKinnell,  Esq 

aR.  Mullings,  Esq 

aC.  H.  Millar,  E.sq 

aE.  Millar,  Esq 

i  aMiss  E.  Mitchell 

aAIrs.  J.  Lloyd  Morgan  .. 

aRev.  J.  H.  Moore  

aH.  H.  Morrish,  Esq 

ffRev.  Geo.  AV.  Mullins    .. 

aD  Murray,  Esq 

aRev.  Vernon  Musgrave  .. 


£  s.  d. 
10  0 
5  5  0 
0  5  0 
110 


1     1 
0  10 


1     1 

1     1 


0     0 
0     0 


0 
0 
0 


0  10     0 


0  10     6 


1  1 
1  1 
1    1 

10     0     0 

0  10  0 
2     0     0 

1  1 

1  1 

2  2 

0  10  0 
2  2  0 
10     0 

1  1  0 
0  10 

1    1 

0  10 

1  1 
1    1 

0  10 


0 
0 
0 


0 
0 
0 


0  10     0 


1    1 
1    1 

1   10 

1    1 


0 
0 
0 

(» 

0 
0 
0 
0 

0 


0  10     0 

1  1     0 

0  10  « 
0 
0 
0 
0 

5     0     0 

2  2 
2     2 

1  0 


0 
0 
0 

0  10     () 
10     0 

0  10     0 

1  1     0 
1     1      0 


10     0 


LIST   OF   SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


«J.  H.  Neilson,  Esq 

aBishop  of  Nelson    

a  J.  R.  Norton,  Esq 

rtGen.  F.  J.  Nuthall 

«M.  A.  Obert,  Esq 

«Rev.  G.  D.  W.  Ommanncy 

G.  C.  Orral,  Esq 

«Rev.  J.  N.  Palmer 

Miss  Peache 

oD.  M.  Peebles,  Esq 

E.  Pewtress,  Esq 

aAlex.  Peckover,  Esq.,  per.. 

«J.  H.  Plowes,  Esq 

«Rev.  C.  Potchett    

aRev.  R.  L.Pratt 

Rev.  Canon  Prescott    

«Rev.  R.  W.  Pritchard   

reRev.  F,  D.  Pritt 

aRev.  E.  S.  Prout 

aRev.  W.  H.  B.  Proby   

«Rev.  J.  J.  Purcell  

«W.  H.  Rawson,  Esq 

«Mrs.  W.  H.  Rawson  

aLady  Katherine  Raymond... 

aW.  R.  Reeves,  Esq 

aRev.  A.  M.  Rend  ell    

aRev.  T.  Rigaud  

aRev.  Philpin  de  Riviere 

aMissM.  Roberts  

nRev.  D.  D.  Robertson    

aJ.  N.  Robertson,  Esq 

aDixon  Robinson,  Esq 

aGeorge  Robinson,  Esq 

aDr.  Rogers  

aMrs.  Rouse 

aC.  J.  A.  Rumbold,  Esq.     ... 

aW.  Sandy,  Esq 

aT.  Scarborough,  Esq 

aMiss  Emily  Secretan 

aMiss  Shennan  (collected)   ... 

aRobert  L.  Smith,  E.sij 

aLady  Smith 

aCol.  E.  Smyth 

aR.  J.  Snape,  Esq 

aT.  Sopwith,  Esq 

N.  M.S 

aRev.  G.  Studdert    

aUr.  Taylor    

aMiss  Taylor 

J.  D.  Thomas,  Esq 

n  Rev.  Archer  Thompson 

aMrs.  Wyndham  Tufnell 

aRev.  W.  Twiss  Turner  

aRev.  S.  S.  Unwiu  

aDr.  J.  Vaughan  

aW.  S.  ^Y.  Vaux,  Esq 


£    s. 

d. 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  0 

0 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

100  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

2  2 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  0 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  13 

6 

1  0 

0 

2  0 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  12 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  15 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

2  2 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

aRev.  W.  Vincent    

Henry  Wagner,  Esq 

Miss  Wakeham  (a£5  5s.) 

aJ.  E.  Wakefield  

aRobert  Walters,  Escj 

aCapt.  W.  Ward,  K.A 

I  Capt.  Warren,  ii.E.  (proceeds 

of  Lecture)   

aWilson  Waterfall,  Esq 

aJ.  H.  Watson,  Esq 

aG.  F.  Watts,  Esq 

aA.  B.  Webber,  Esq 

aRev.  J.  C.  Wharton    

a  J.  J.  Wheeeler,  Esq 

aRev.  J.  0.  Whitehouse  

aJ.  R.  Wigham,  Esq 

aRev.  F.  E.  Wigrana 

aSir  R.  Wilbraham  

aCaptain  Williams,  R.E 

aRev.  W.  W.  Willson 

aRev.  E.  Wil.son  

aW.  A.  Wood,  Esq 

aMiss  Woodward  

aT.  Woodruff,  Esq 

aMrs.  Baring  Young    

aYorkshire  Prov.  Grand  Lodge, 

N.  and  E.    Ridings     

aN.  and  E.  Ridings  Prov.  Grand 

Chapter    

Per  Rev.  A.  F.  Forbes  :— 

Rev.  G.  Whitmore 

G.  Howard  McLean,  Esq 

Mrs.  Griffiths  

Rev.  F.  Corbet    

Lord  Wrottesley 

Rev.  A.  T.  Pelham    

Earl  of  Dartmouth 

Edward  Cheney,    Esq 

Rev.  R.  H.  More    

Rev.  F.  Hotham 

Mrs.  Brasier    

Earl  of  Bradford 

Rev.  H.  T.  O'Eorke   

W.  Lay  ton  Lowndes  

R.  H.  Boycott 

Charles  Cooper,  Esq 

J.  N.Miller,  Esq " 

aMiss  Vickers    

aJIiss  Wasey 

Per  Rev.  T.  C.  Henley  :— 

Rev.  F.  W.  Pierson    

Mrs.  Finn,  on  account:  — 

Jan.  19 

March  25 

Per  Messrs.  Williams  and  Deacon, 
per  Rev.  J.  W.  Carr  


£ 

1 

10 
110 

1 


1  0 

0  0 

f)  0 

1  (> 

0  0 


1    1 


1 

1 
1 
1 

10     (J 

1 
1 
1 

5 

1 
1 

10    i; 

10     0 

1 

10 
2 
1 


1  0 

1  0 

0  0 

1  0 
10  0 

0  (I 

1  0 
10 

0  0 

0  0 


0  0 

1  0 
1  0 

10  fi 

0  0 


0     0 


1    1 


40 
110 


0     0 
0     0 


110 


LIST    OF   SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


LOCAL  SOCIETIES. 


ABERDEEN. 


March  24.— Pa- cheque    £16 


'    fj^W'itli  tlie  following  list : — 

T^Iisses  Gow,  London    

]Jo.,  per  Mr.  Singer 

j\rr.s.  Maelnre '. 

.lolm  Smith,  Es(] 

John  Morrison,  Es([ 

ilrs.  Macpherson 

Do.         (second  sub.)     .... 

]'ev.  H.  Cowan 

<  leo.  Thompson,  Esq 

A\^  Henderson ,  Esq 

Alex.  Nicol,  Esq 

JohnF.  White,  Esq 

Alex.  Simpson,  Esq.     

W.  Yeals,  Esq 

P.  Eplemont,  Esq 

) !  eo.  Jamieson,  Esq 

A.  Stroriach,  Esq 

W.  Hunter,  Esq 


£1     1 
1     1 

0  10 

1  () 
(I  10 
0  10 
0  r> 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 

0  5 

1  0 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 


J.  Chalmers,  Esq 

J.  Aiken,  Esq 

J.  A.  IMurray,  Esq. 
Andr.  Murray,  Esq. 

W.  Smart,  Esq 

C.  Chalmers  

J.  Marr,  Esq 

Professor  Ogston  ... 
Mrs.  John  Crombie 
Alex.  F.  Moir,  Esq. 
G.  F.  Duthie,  Esq. 


Collector's  commission  16s.  6d. 
Postages  draft,  &c.  ...    2s.  6d. 


0 
6 


£0  10  9 
0  10  6 
0  5 
0  10 
0  10  6 
0  10  0 
110 
110 
0  10  6 
0  10  0 
0     5     0 

£17    2     0 


0  19     0 


£16    3     0 


ARBROATH. 
Feb.  17.— By  cash £10  IC 


.\lexander  Gordon 

David  Corsar  

William  Salmond  and  Sons. 

Andrew  Lowson 

James  Shanks     

D.  Eraser  and  Sons    

Balfour  and  Cumming 

A.  Nicol  and  Co 

Fras.  Webster    

James  Muir 

W.  K.  Macdonahl 

William  RoUo    

J.  M.  McBain 

W.  Salmond  


£1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

(i 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

Rev.  F.  Mudie 
George  Yule    .. 


W.  Briggs 

Rev.  J.  Chalmers 

George  Lyon  

Alex.  Ferguson  ... 
G.  W.  Laird   


R.  W.  Phillip I     0 

A.  Petrie,  sen 

Geo.  Sturroek 

H.  Paterson    

D.  Leslie 


J.  Lumgair 

W.  J.  Anderson. 


£0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

AYR. 


Jan.  3.— By  ca.sh  £5     8     0 

Subscriptions  to  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  1875  : — ■ 


Miss  Aytoun  

D.  Currie    

Campljell  Douglas 
Rev.  Dr.  Dykes . , 

John  Flint  

General  Lennox.. 


£0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 


10 
5 
10 
10 
10 
10 


John  Murdoch    ... 
I R.  D.  Murdoch  . . 
James  McMnrtrie 
5Ir.s.  Macneille   ... 
Miss  MeTa;r£cart... 


611 


0  10 

6 

1  1 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  10 

0 

8 


LIST   OF    SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


BELFAST. 


March  IS.— By  cash 


£6 


AVni.  Ewart,  Esq 

"\Vm.  Q.  Ewart,  Esq.     ... 

L.  M.  Ewart,  Esq 

Charles  Thompson,  Esi|. 
"\V.  E.  Crothers,  Es<[.     .. 


£1  0 
1  0 
1  0 
0  10 
0  10 


Airs.  Montgomery . 
Charles  Druitt    .... 

Miss  Druitt 

Mrs.  Warnock    .... 


£0  10 

fi 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

G 

0  10 

G 

BIRKENHEAD. 
March  27.— By  cheque   £20     0     0 


With' the  following  list :  — 

Jan.  19.— Col.  Y.  King  

Feb.  15.— Eev.  C.  I.  Stephen... 

,,      Rev.  Canon  Feilden 

,,      Rev.  P.  E.  Robin    ... 

24. — Miss  Thompson  

.,      W.  Williamson,  Esq. 

28.— S.  Stitt,  Esq 

,,      James  Irvine,  Esq.  ... 


£1     0     0  !,Feb.  28.— B.  Darbyshire,  Esq... 
0     5     0  I  Mar.  3.— P.  A.  Williams,  Esq. 
,     11. — The  Misses  Harrison 

,      ,,      H.  Bell,  Esq.,  jun 

,      ,,      H.  Scott,  Esq 

,     1(>. — E.  Perrin,  Esq 

,     18.— Rev.  M.  Fearnley  ... 


0 

10 

6 

2 

2 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

10 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

£1 
0 
1 
1 


0  10 

1  1 
0  10 


0 
0 
0 
0 
6 
0 
0 


BISHOP'S  AVALTHAM. 
Feb.  IS.— By  cash  £2  12     6 

BRIGHTON. 
Jan.  3. — Miss  Gainsford £1     1     0 

BROADSTAIRS. 

Jan.  15.— By  cash .^0     17  6 

Miss  Brown    £0  10     0 

Rev.  J.  H.  Carr 0     5     0 

Mrs.  Howard 0     2     G 

BURNLEY. 

March  15.— By  cash £2     7     0 

Rev.  C.  L.  Reynolds     £  1     1  0 

Mr.  F.  J.  Grant    0  10  6 

L.  W.  Reynold.?,  Esq 0  10  6 

Mr.  Strange    , 0     5  0 

CANADA  :  TORONTO. 
Jan.  24.— By  ca.sh  £51  11     3 

1874.  1875. 

Dols.  Dols. 

Chief  Justice  Draper 5  5 

C.  S.  Gzursbi,  Esq 5  5 

T.  S.  Steyner,  Esq 5  5 


LIST  OF   SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


1874. 
Dols. 
Lieut. -Col.  Motiatt    5 

D.  H.  Adams 3 

Eev.  R.  V.  Clementi     5 

Hon.  A.  Vidal    5 

Rev.  E.  Rogerson 5 

Chief  Justice  Hagarty  5 

Hon.  W.  McMaster 5 

Rev.  Provost  Whitaker 5 

Professor  Wilson    5 

C.  Robinson,  Esq 5 

A.  McL.  Howard,  Esq 5 

Rev.  J.  Broughall 5 

Rev.  L.  Taylor  3 

Hon.  J.  Ferrier  5 

E.  H.  Dobell,  Esq 5 

Hon.  B.  Flint    5 

Hon.  A.  Morris 5 

Hon.  J.  Aikins  5 

Hon.  J.  S.  Geddes 5 

J.  Edwards 

J.  Beard 

J.  Reynolds,  Esq 5 

Rev.  J.  Hebden 

Hon.  D.  L.  Macpherson  5 

Hon.  Geo.  Allan    a 


1875. 
Dols. 

5 

3 

5 

.'> 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

o 


5 
5 


3 
3 


5 
5 


■n  T " 


-.«.    i 


CORK. 


Jan.  5. — T.  Duncombe,  Es(i 


£0     2 


DARLINGTON. 
Jan.  1.— By  cash £37     4     0 


Rev.  T.  E.  Hodgson,  1874  and 
1875,  at  10s.  6d 

Mr.  T.  L.  Pratt,  1875  

Mr.  Whitfield,  1874 

Mr.  Goddard,  1874,  1875,  187(j, 
1877,  1878,  at  10s.  6d 

Mr.  Grieveson,  1875 


1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

10 

6 

o 

12 

6 

0 

10 

6 

|Mr.  Deighton,  1875  

.Mr.  Arthur  Pease,  1875    I  10 

Mr.  C.  R.  Fry,  1875 I     1 

'Mr.  J.  W.  Pease,  M.P.,  1875  ...   '     5 
]Mr.  E.  Backhouse,  M.P.,  1875     '     5 

Mrs.  G.  Pease,  1875 j  10 

'Mr.  S.  Elton,  1875    0 


-f  0  ■.  2 
0 

1 

0 
0 
0 


0 
0 
0 
0 

0- 


DUNFERMLINE. 


March  22. — By  clKque 


With  the  following  list : — 

Thomas  Alexander,  Esq |  £1     0 

(Jeorge  Birrell,  Esq }     0  10 

Rev.  James  Brown    .. 
Robert  Donald,  Esq. 
John  Duncanson,  Esq, 
Rev.  Andrew  Graham 
John  Landale,  Esq 


0  10 

1  0 
0  10 
0  10 


0 
10 


Daniel  Laniond,  Esq ^     0 

Jame  Macfarlane,  Esq I     0  10 

AVilliam  Matthewson,  Esq j     1     0 


£15     4     (» 


Messrs.  W.  and  J.  Maclaren  . . . 

Rev.  Alex.  Mitchell 

Rev.  Daniel  Maclean    

David  Russell,  Esij 

Henry  Reid,  Esq 

John  Ross,  Esq 

William  Reid,  jun..  Esq 

Patrick  F.  Soutar,  Escj.  (1875-6) 
Andrew  Wallace   Esq 


£0  10 

G 

0     2 

6 

0  10 

G 

1     0 

0 

1     0 

0 

0  10 

G 

0     5 

0 

2     2 

0 

2     0 

0 

10 


LIST    OF    SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

EASTBOURNE. 

Dec.  31.— By  cash    £5 

Very  Rev.  H.  R.  Alder  £l     1  0 

F.  C.  S.  Roper,  1874  and  1875...     2     2  0 

Rev.  H.  R.  Whelpton 1     1  0 

Dr.  Bransby  Roberts  0  10  6 

W.  Routledge,  Es(i 0  10  (3 


FARNHAM. 

Jan.  24— By  casli  £0     4 

Feb.  5.— Rev.  G.  E.  Fox 


0  10 


^Irs.  Knight  

]\Ir.  K.  Bacon    

Mr.  G.  Slomau  

Rev,  F.  £.  Utterton 


£1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

Mr.  G.  Curling  >  £1     1 


Mrs.  A.  Steven  

J.  H.  Knight 

Rev.  C.  Hankey  (don.). 


0  10 

1  1 
0  10 


FAVERSHAM. 
March  2.— By  cash   £5     16 


Mr.  J.  A.  Anderson,  jun. 

ilr.  H.  Anderson 

Mr.  B.  Adkins  

Mr.  C.  Bryant    

Jlr.  H.  E.  Coulter 

Rev.  C.  E.  Donne 

Mr.  F.  F.  Giraud  

Mr.  S.  Higham 

Miss  Jones  

Mr.  R.  J.  Hilton  

Mr.  P.  Neame    

Mrs.  Rigden  


;o 

5 

0 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

2 

6 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

2 

6 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

10 

0 

Mr.  W.  E.  Rigden 

Mr.  R.  "Watson  Smith 

Mr.  L.  Shrubsole  

Mr.  C.  Smith 

Mr.  J.  Tassell    

Mr.  J.  Warren  

Mr.  R.  Wyles 


Paid  for  advertisine; 


£0 

5 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

2 

6 

0 

10 

6 

0 

5 

(» 

0 

2 

6 

0 

5 

0 

£5 

6 

6 

0 

5 

0 

£5 

1 

6 

GREENOCK, 

March  3.— By  cash   £39     0     0 

List  of  subscribers  for  year  ending  31st  December,   1875,   per  Donald  MacDonald, 
Hon.  Local  Treasurer  : — 


James  Morton,  Esq 

Alexander  Qurrie,  Esq. 

Duncan  Shaw,  Esq 

Archibald  Adam,  Esq 

John  Erskine,  Esq 

James  Stewart,  Esq 

John  Macgregor,  Esc| 

John  C.  Hunter,  E.sq 

Colin  S.  Caird,  Esq 

^Vm.  McClure,  Esq 

Alexander  Ferguson,  Esq.    . 

T.  0.  Hunter,  Esq 

Thomas  Prentice,  Esq 

John  M.  Hutcheson,  Esq.    . 

Graham  Brymner,  Esq 

Robert  Little,  Esq 

Alexander  Scott,  jun.,  Esq. 

^V.  B.Paul,  Esq 

John  Paul,  Esq 


£3 
2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


3     0 


2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

Edward  Blackraore,  Esq 

John  R.  Allison,  Esq 

Donald  MacDonald,  Esq 

Mrs.  Andrew  Carmichael 

Robert  Binnie,  Esq 

Samuel  F.  Nicol,  Esq 

Matthew  Hill,  Esq 

J.  H.  Carmichael,  Esq 

Thomas  Carmichael,  Esi| 

G.  R.  McDougall,  Esq 

Wm.  Letham,  Esq 

D.  D.  Adamson,  Esq 

Rev.    Alex.    Walker,    Millport, 

Cumbrae 

John  B.  Crawhall,  Esq.,  London 
John  Marquis,  Esq.,  Liverpool 
George     Elder,     Esq.,     Knock 

Castle,  Wemyss  Bay 

James  Miller,  Esq. ,  Rothesay  . . . 


£1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  1 

0 

1  0 

0 

1  0 

0 

u 


LIST   OF   SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


HULL. 
Feb.  21.— By  cash  £26  10     0 


J.  P.  Bell,  M.D £110 

T.  Carrick  110 

Colonel  Francis 1     1     0 

Eev.  E.  Jackson    1     1     0 

l!ev.  Canon  Musgi-ave  1     1     0 

J.  Pyburn,  M.D 110 

William  Sissons , 110 

J.  E.  Wade 110 

Mrs.  Wilson   110 

R.  G.  Smith   1     1     0 

Eev.  J.  Deck 110 

EcT.  J.  E.  Clapham 110 

J.  M.  Hamilton 110 

Eev.  J.  Byron,  M.A 0  10     6 

MissE.  Bromby     0  10     6 

E.  J.  Cook 0  10     6 

C.  Copland 0  10     6 

Eev,  J.  EUani    i     0  10     6 

•G.  Hardy [     0  10     6 

J.  H.  Hill  0  10     6 

T.  Holden  I     0  10     6 

W.  J.  Lunn    '     0  10     6 


Eev.  Dr.  Mackay  ... 

G.  Myers 

W.  Parker  , 

H.  Soulsby 

Mrs.  Stamp    

Eev.  W.  T.  Vernon 

Mr.  Wake   

Samuel  Watson   

Eev.  G.  Wilkinson 

T.  Bach  

J.  S.  Elsworth    

M.  W.  Clarke     

A.  Pickering  

Mr.  Middlemiss 

Miss  Eadford 

J.  S.  Cooper    

J.  F.  Holden  


Less  postage,  &c. 


£0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

26  15 

0 

0  5 

0 

26  10 

0 

Wm.  Sissons,  Treasurer. 


IPSWICH. 


Jan.  19. — By  casli 

Archdeacon  of  SulTolk  

G.  C.  E.  Baur,  Esq 

B.  Binyon,  Esij 

W.  Brown,  Esq 

J.  C.  Cobbold,  Esq 

Eev.  S.  Garratt 


£9  17     0 


£1 

1 

0 

1 

0 

1 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

1 

0 

Mr.  E.  Miller 

Eev.  W.  Potter' 

Eev.  C.  A.  Eaymond 
Eev.  J.  E.  Turnock  .. 
S.  Westhorp,  Esq.     .. 


£1  0 
1  1 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 


LANCASTEE. 

Feb.  29.— By  cash     £6  11     6 

T,  Storey,  Esq £5     0     0 

Eev.  W.  E.  Pryke,  Eoyal  Grammar  School        110 
J.  Daniel,  Moore.  M.D 0  10     6 


LEAMINGTON". 

Jan.  29.— Miss  Dall    £0     10 

March  6.— By  cash     6     19 


Eev.  C.  C!arus-Wilson 
J.  Fenn  Clark,  Esq.... 
E.  Burr,  Esq 


Miss  AVight 


1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

0 

0 

2 

2 

0 

Miss  Blackljurne  

Mrs.  Marshall   

Miss  Collins  (Warwick) 


£10  0 
0  10  6 
0     5     0 


LIST    OF    SUBSCRIPTION'S. 
LEEDS. 


March  29. — By  cheiiuc 


£5i     1     0 


LISKEAED. 

Kev.  J.  0.  West  (2  years) £2     2     0 

W.J.  Corin 0  10     0 


MALVERN. 

March  4.— Eev.  R.  F.  S.  Perfect 


^1     1     0 


MANCHESTER, 

March  21.— By  cheque    £12     4 

1875.— Already  forwarded    ...    £440     0  G 

Jan.  11. — By  cheque 42  16  0 

„    24.— Ditto  17     4  0 


With  the  list  :— 

^Y.  Cunliffe  Brooks,  Esq.,M.P. 

H.  H.  Howorth,  Esq 

Herbert  Philips,  Esq 

Neville  Clegg,  Esq 

C.  L.  Clare,  Esq 

Joseph  Lee,  Esq 

aRev.  T.  A.  Stowell    

Samuel  Cottam,  Esq 

Henry  Taylor 

fiJohn  Lowe,  Esq 

J.  Armitage,  Esq 

J.  Galloway  Meller,  Esq 

W.  Gray,  Esq 

aRev.  H.  A.  Crosbie    

Charles  J.  Heywood,  Esq.  . . . 
aH.  B.  Jackson,  Esq.  (1875-6) 
aDavies  Colley,  Esq 

S.  Burridge 

John  Robinson    


Total  for  1875...    £500     0     0 


«Rev.  W.  F.  Birch  (1876)  

aW.  Woodward,  Esq 

I  Friend 

aMrs.  Ci'uso  

Miss  Ffarington  

iaRev.  C.  F.  Buckley   

S.  J.  Shaw,  Esq 

aF.  W.  Grafton,  Esq 

|reH.  M.  Lawrence,  Esq 

aH.  Marsh,  Esq 

I  Lecture  at  Urmston    

*aW.  Openshaw,  Esq 

aW.  Birkenhead,  Esq 

aJ.  Jackson,  Esq 

Lecture  by  H.  Birch,  Esq. ,  at 
St.  Matthew's  School,  Ard- 

wick 

aG.  Robinson,  Esq 

Interest 


no 

10 

0 

2 

2 

0 

10 

0 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

10 

6 

2 

2 

0 

0 

10 

6 

1 

1 

0 

0 

10 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

5 

0 

0 

2 

2 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

5 

0 

0 

£1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

10 

o 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

0 

0 

2 

2 

0' 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

8 

6 

1 

1 

0 

0 

10 

6. 

0 

10 

6. 

1 

0 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

6 

7 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 

T.  Hodgkin,  Esq.,  B.A £2     2    0 

R.  G.  Hoare,  Esq 110 


NEWARK. 

March  9.  —By  cash,  per  Mrs.  TaUents £26     6 

Subscriptions  collected  by  Mrs.  Tallents  : — 


Mrs.  Kendall i  £1 


T.  S.  Godfrey,  Esq 

Jlrs.  George  Gilstrap    . 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tallents. 

Mr.  John  Thorpe  

Mrs.  Gilstrap    

Mr.  Lammin 


Mrs.  H.  Beaiiston. 
Mrs.  Bakewell  ..  . 

Mrs.  Wilson  

Mrs.  Deeping    .... 
Miss  Lawtons    .... 


Miss  Fillingham 
Mr.  J.  Eidgo 


£0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

13 


LIST   OF    SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


Subscriptions  collected  l>y  Miss  Eeadhou.se 


Viscountess  Ossington . . . . 

R.  Middleton,  Esq 

Mr.  J.  Bilson 

Mr.  E.  Bousfield  

Mr.  Henry  Walton  

R.  Wcarwick,  Esq 

Miss  Good 

R.  King.  Esq 


£1  1 
2  2 
1  0 
0  12 
0  12 
0  10 
0  6 
0  10 


Mrs.  Dring    

Miss  Creasey 

Rev.  H.  A.  Martin 

C.  Readhouse    

Rev.  J.  Miller  

Captain  Sinclair    ... 
Mrs.  Taylor  


£0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  10 

0 

By  Mrs.  Prince  :— 

Mrs.  Hall  '  £1     1 

Mrs.  Beanston  1     1 


By  Mrs.  Falkner  :— 

P.  R.  Falkner,  Esq £1  1 

Evelyn  Falkner,  E.sq 1  1 

3Ir.  John  Harvey j     0  2 


0  I' Mrs.  Howitt 
0    Mr.  Marcli... 


£0     5     0 


0  ilMrs.  Hutchinson 
0  j  A  Friend    

6  11 


0 

5 

0 

£0 
0 

5 
2 

0 
0 

XORWICH. 
Feb.  8.— G.  Clark,  Esq £0     10     6 


KORTHAMPTON. 


Mar.  9.— By  cash 

The  Mayor  (Jos.  Gurney,  Esq.) 

Sir  Henry  Drj'den,  Bart 

Rev.  E.  T.  Prust 

T.  Scriven,  Es(| 

T.  Osborn,  Esq 

Henry  Marshall    

P.  P.  Perry,  Esq 

E.  F.  Law,  Esq 

W.  T.  Law,  Esq 

J.  Williams,  Esq 

J.  Williams,  jun 

Rev.  H.  S.  Gedge 

Rev.  T.  Arnold 

Rev.  S.  J.  W.  Sanders 

W.  Jones,  Esq 

W.  Adkins,  Esq 

J.  Robinson,  Esq 

M.  P.  Maniield,  Esq 


£21 


6 


£1 
2 

3 

1 
1 
1 


0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 


T.  Wetherell,  Esq 

Rev.  J.  T.  Brown 

Mr.  W.  Marshall 

Rev.  M.  Barton    

H.  Mobbs,  Esq 

Rev.  S.  Gedge    

E.  Law,  jun 

Mr,  J.  Smith 

Mr.  E.  Evans    

Mr.  Covington  

Rev.  N.  T.  Hughes 

W.  Gray,  Esq 

Rev.  Geo.  Bass 

Rev.  E.  N.  Tom   

Right  Rev.  Dr.  Am  erst 

P.  Gray,  Esq 

Rev.  Canon  Robson 


£0  10 

6 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0   r. 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  5 

0 

PLYMOUTH. 

Mar.  15.— By  cash £11     1 

Jolui  Bayley,  Esq £10     0     0 

Rev.  AV.  Sykes    1     1     0 


:4 


LIST    OF    SUBSCRIPTIONS. 


PUESTOX. 
Jan.  28.— Bv  cash      £1     11 


T.  Lancaster,  Esq. 
Rev.  li.  Brick et    . 


£1     1     0 
0  10     6 


READING. 


Jan.  29.— By  casli 

ftRev.  F.  E.  Williams 

alley.  G.  G.  Smyth  

(cTheodore  White,  Esq 

«R.  Worsley,  Esq 

Geo.  Palmer,  Esq 

W.  J.  Palmer,  Esq 

aH.  B.  Blandy,  Esq 

«Mrs.  H.  B.  Blandy    

«T.  E.  Hawkins,  Es(| 

«C.  J.  Andrews,  Esq 

rtJas.  Boorne,  Esq ' 

« —  Long,  Esq 


£17 


£10  0 

0     .5  0 

0  10  6 

0  10  6 
10  0 

1  0  0 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 

0  10  6 

1  1  0 
110 


0 


a —  AUaway,  Esi j 

-Wellsteed,  Esq 

aJ.  B.  Monck,  Esq 

aR.  Bracher,  Esq 

aT.  T.  Taylor,  Esq 

ft  J.  H.  Hounslow,  Es(| 

aRev.  W.  Payne    

aMessrs.  C.  and  G.  Philbrick. 

aS.  Derham,  Esq 

oG.  Carley,  Esq 

aG.  Leyburn  Carley,  Esq 


0 

10 

c 

0 

10 

G 

£1 

1 

0 

0 

5 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

(1 

0 

10 

G 

0 

IC 

G 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

(1 

REIGATE. 
Jan.  13.— Rev.  H.  Brass    £2     2     0 


SCARBOROUGH. 
Mar.  2.— By  cash ■  £11     0     6 


Mr.  Travis 

Archdeacon  Bh^nt 

Mr.  Spurr  

Mr.  Smyth 

Mr.  H.  Turnbnll  .. 

Ditto  1874 

Mr.  Graham  

Rev.  R.  H.  Parr  .. 


£0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 


Mr.  Phillips  

Mr.  Thackm-ay... 

Miss  Stephen     

Colonel  Kendall    . . 

Miss  Stephen    

Miss  Spence  

Mr.  C.  Peacock 

Rev.  J.  L  Bedford 


0 

10 

6 

0 

10 

G 

0 

10 

6 

0 

10 

G 

1 

1 

0 

2 

o 

0 

1 

1 

0 

0 

10 

G 

ST.  GERMANS. 

Feb.  29.— By  cash £3 

Rev.  Alan  Furneaux £110 

Henry  Pole,  Esq 110 

R.  Kerswill,  Esq 110 


T.TST   OF   .SVJIiSCIlIPTIOA'S. 


SEVENOAKS. 
marcliG.-Bycasli  .Co     18     'J 


1876.  i 

Lieut. -Col.  Nortliey I  £1     0 

Edward  Webb,  Es.i |     0  10 

Hugh  Jackson,  Esq 

W.  J.  Thompson,  Esq 

Eev.  G.  B.  Lewis 

Eev.  H.  M.  Gunn    

C.  A.  W.  Kycroft,  Esq 

Mr.  G.  W.  Harrison 

T.  G.  Jackson,  Esq 

Taken  at  the  doors  at  the 
lecture  on  Feb.  25,  by  the 
Kev.  E.J.  Griffiths 


0  10 

1  1 

0  10 
0  10 

1    1 

0  10 
0  10 


1     0 


£9 


1876.  1 

Hire    of    Assembly   Room   on    ] 

Feb.  25  

Printing  and  postage  of  notices 

of  lecture  on  Feb.  25    

Balance 


£2 


1     4 


IS 


9 
9 


£9 


March  6.— By  cash 


Miss  E.  A.  Heygate.. 
Mrs.  E.  A.  Heygate.. 
Eev.  W.  E.  Heygate 
Mrs.  Thos.  ©eygate., 

Mrs.  Burleigh   

J.  Page,  Esq 


SOUTHEND. 


£0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 
0  10 


£5 


Miss  Beard 

Mrs.  Haultain   

Mrs.  Moorhouse    

Mrs.  "Whittington     ... 
Mrs.  Barker  (Ireland) 


0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

6 

TIVERTOK 

Feb.  4.— Byrash £5     0     0 

March  7.— JDitto    2     9     6 


Eev.  P.  C.  Eos.siter i  £0  10 

Eev.  J.  Dickinson     

Eev.  G.  Hadow 

Rev.  E.  Highton  

Miss  Graham 

Eev.  AV.  Knight  

H.  S.  Gill,  Esq 


0  10 

6 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

1  0 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

Eev.  E.  Duckworth £0  10     6 

H.  Stoke.s,  Esq 

Eev.  E.  T.  Gregory 

Mrs.  Eow  

Eev.  H.  A.  Jukes 

Collection  (less  expenses)  after 
lecture  by  Eev.  F.  Bellamy... 


0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

1  1 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  18     6 


TORQUAY. 

Feb.  17.— Bv  cash £2  11     6 

March  23.— Eev.  J.  H.  Howard    4     4     0 

C.  Eyre  Parker,  E.sq £10     0 

Miss  Gamble 110 

Miss  Lanfear 0  10     6 


TUNB  RIDGE  WELLS. 

On  Tuesday  afternoon,  March.  21st,  there  was  a  verj'  large  gathering  at  the  Great  Hall, 
on  the  occasion  of  a  lecture  in  aid  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  given  by  the  Eev.  E. 


16 


LIST   OF   SUIJSCIIIPTIONS. 

J.  Griffiths,  K.A.,  on  tlie  sulijcet  of  "Our  Work  in  ralestine."  Tlir  Itcv.  fiinon  Hoare 
presided,  witli  whom  on  the  platt'orni  were  tlie  Kev.  J.  Cobb,  (!.  liartriini,  Escj.  (hon. 
sec),  and  AV.  F.  Browcll,  Es([. 

The  C'iiAi];.MAN'  briefly  opened  the  proceedings,  remarking  that  hs  looked  back  with 
very  great  interest  to  the  lecture  given  a  year  ago,  and  he  hoped  the  one  about  to  he  given 
would  prove  as  instructive.  He  spoke  of  the  interest  all  must  feel  in  Palestine — that  land 
given  to  Abraham's  seed,  which  belonged  to  tlieni  now,  and  which  every  year  assumed  a 
deeper  interest  as  the  time  approached  when  once  more  the  chosen  people  would  be  in 
possession. 

The  Eev.  11.  J.  Gkiffiths  commenced  by  referring  to  the  changes  likely  to  take  ]ilace, 
from  the  present  aspect  presented  by  the  nations  in  Europe,  affecting  the  Holy  Land, 
I'emarking  that  whatever  effect  the  present  movements  in  the  East  may  have  uiton  the 
nations,  there  must  be  some  change  in  the  Government  of  Palestine,  and,  perhaps,  they 
may  find  the  long  lost  tribes  ere  long  returning  to  their  inheritance.  Keverting  then  to 
the  subject  of  his  lecture,  he  said  Tunbridge  Wells  had  done  much  in  the  past  in  behalf 
of  the  Palestine  Exjiloration  Fund,  and  if  they  only  read  the  reports,  and  looked  back  to 
the  time  when  the  Society  was  started  in  doubt  and  weakness  ten  years  ago,  he  thought 
they  might  congratulate  themselves  upon  having  assisted  in  doing  something  towards 
this  great  work.  He  then  proposed  to  glance  at  some  of  the  most  important  discoveries 
made,  and  to  explain  some  striking  topographical  subjects  which  had  done  so  much  to  illus- 
trate Scripture,  and  lastly,  to  touch  upon  the  character  and  nature  of  a  few  of  the  relics 
which  he  iiad  brought  with  him.  He  made  an  earnest  appeal  to  them  for  assistance  in 
the  present  year,  stating  their  intention  to  complete  the  Map  of  Palestine,  for  which 
],200  square  miles  had  to  begone  over,  about  six  months'  work,  and  adding  that  it  was 
impossible  to  tell  what  political  events  would  be  at  work  even  in  a  week,  and  what  they 
might  be  able  to  accomplish  with  regard  to  ancient  Jerusalem.  Never  in  the  history 
of  the  Society  had  they  stood  on  the  threshold  of  such  discoveries  as  now.  He  also 
commended  the  work  to  them  as  a  cause  not  only  worthy  their  active  sympathy  and 
svipport,  but  also  their  prayers.  It  was  a  work  for  all  time,  and  which  would  enable 
them  to  read  God's  Word  with  a  new  blaze  of  light,  new  force,  and  new  beauty,  and 
he  asked  them,  therefore,  not  to  rest  .satisfied  with  what  had  been  done,  but  to  support 
heartily  the  future  work,  believing  as  he  did  that  the  report  of  the  Society  in  the  future 
would  eclipse  all  that  had  been  dreamt  of  by  their  most  sanguine  friends. 

The  Kev.  J.  Cobb,  who  had  taken  the  chair,  Canon  Hoare  being  compelled  to  leave 
to  fulfil  another  engagement,  then  addressed  a  few  words  to  the  meeting. 

The  meeting  then  closed  with  the  Doxology  and  Benediction.  The  collection  amounted 
to  .£17  9s.  2d. 


WAKE. 

Jhu.  13.  — By  cash,  per  T.  Fowell  Buxtoii,  E,si[....     £18     8     6 
.,    21.— Per  Kev.  J.  Neil    119    6 


WHITBY. 

Feb.  15.— By  cash    £3     5     0 

Mrs.  Cholmlev  £10  0 

E.  W.  Chapman    10  0 

Mrs.  Wells 0  10  0 

Mr.s.  J.  Brewster    0  10  0 

Mrs.  C,  Piicharuson  0    5  0 

ir 


LIST    Oi"    SL'LSCRirXlOXS. 

WINCHESTER. 

Jan.  26.— By  ca.sh £2  12     G 

Mrs.  Walsh £1     1     <• 

Miss  Forster  0  10     <; 

Miss  Zornlin  1     1     0 

WOLVERHAMPTOK, 

March  13.— C.  Wheeler,  Esq .CO  1 0     G 

Mr.  W.  Sweetmau 0  10     6 

WORCESTER. 

Per  Kcv.  ISIelsup  Hill  : — 

Miss.  M.  A.  Corrie  («£1  Is.) £6     G     0 

«Miss  G.  Corrie  1     1     0 


ERRATUM. 
In  last  Quartcrhj  SUUcmciil,  for  Eev.  R.  0.  Bronifiekl,  10:j.  Od.,  read^l  Is 


IS 


LADIES'   ASSOCIATIONS. 


In  the  last  p\il)lished  list  umler  the  heaJ  of  Chichester,  !Rlrs,  Durnford's  name 
M-as  printed  Farnford. 

Meeting  at  Mrs.  de  Ijergue's,  1",  Kensington  Palace  Gardens,  AV., 
January  6,  1876.     Receipts £10     5     0 

aJIrs.  E.  Petavel,  84,  Avenue  Road,  X.W.  £0  10  (J 

«.Mrs.  Thwaites  (care  of  Mrs.  de  Bergue)  ...  1  d  0 

Mi-s.s  Scott,  Eavenseourt (i  1,')  d 

aMrs.    C'apel   Berger,   Zion   House,    Lower 

Clapton   1  1  0 

Jliss  Sladcn,  rhillimore  Lodge,  Kensing- 

to]i,  W ' 1  0  (I 

Mrs.  T.  Layton,  2.S.,  Miss  C.  Gallini,  5s.  (i  7  0 

John  Noble,  Esq.,  Park  House f)  0  0 

rtThe  Countess  of  Castle  Stuart,  Broom  Hill, 

Honiton,  S.  Devon o  10  (j 

MeetingatEev.  T.  Coruthwaite's,"\V"althainstow,  January  11, 187(5  ...     8     :^     6 

rtMrs.  Johnston,  AVoodford  Green  £0  10  G 

«Mrs.  Machines,  West  Heath,  Hampstead      0  In  (5 

rtMrs.  Piouiiuette,  WalthamstoAV..  ()  10  0 

«Miss  Rouquette     ,       do.       •    1     1  0 

ilrs.  Stanton  (care  of  Rev.  T.  Cornthwaite)     5     0  0 

«Mrs.  AYalker,  Elm  Hall,  Wanstead,  E.    ...     0  10  G 

Edinlnirgh  Ladies'  Association  (secretary  Mrs.  Main),  by  Miss  L. 
Stevenson    7     -     G 

Mrs.  Keith  Johnstone,  13,  Magdala  Crescent  £1     1  (i 

Mrs.  Bruce,  18,  Athole  Crescent 2     0  0 

aU.  S.  Wyld,  Esq.,  19,  Inverleith  Row  .......  1     1  0 

Miss  Wyld,  Lennox  Street  10  0 

Miss  J.  "Wyld,  London  0  10  0 

f/.Mrs.  J.  Anderson,  Dalhousie  Grange 0  Ki  G 

Do.                             do.                 0  10  0 

Mrs.  Rob.son  Scott,  27,  Abercrombie  Place  0  10  0 

From  ]\Irs.  ]\Lain,  balance  of  subscriptions — 

«Miss  Boyd 0  10     G 

Mrs.  Miller 0     0     G 

0   11      0 

L:t(lie.s  A.'risouiation,  Sydenham.     Secretarj-,  Mrs.  Standriiig,  Soutli- 
hill,  Crystal  Palace  Park ". " 5     G     0 

January  17. 

Rev.  —  Frankh'n £1  0  0 

Miss  Messiter..". 0  2  (i 

Mrs.  Jas,  Duif  Hewitt 0  10  G 

Mr.  H.  A.  Palmer 2  2  0 

Rev.  J.  M.  Clark,  St.  Stephen's  Parsonage, 

S.  Dulwich 1  1  0 

Rev.  Jordan  Palmer U  10  0 

19 


ladies'  associations. 

Various  sums — 

January  10. 

Miss  Rainsden  (collected  by),  '2,  Coates  Crescent,  Edin- 

burc;li  £0  17     o 

Miss  J.  Houldsworth,  9,  Claremont  Terrace,  Glasgow    ...     1     U     0 
aMrs.  Marion  Pocock,  (ilenridge,  Virginia  AVater,  Staines     0  10     G 

Meeting  at  Lady  Smith  and  Col.  Finney's,  Somerton  Erleigli,  Somer- 
setshire, January  21,  1876 10  10     0 

Lady  Smith  and  varions  donations   £10     S     6 

aEdward  WeLsh,  Sunnyside,  .Somerton 0  10     (5 

Meeting  at  J.  H.  Dickinson,  Esq.,  and  Jlrs.  Dickinson's,  Kingwestou, 
Somerton,  January  25,  1876     8     9  10 

«E.  C.  Trevilian,  Esq.,  Curry  Pavel   £1  1  0 

rtPiobert  Impey,  Street,  Somerset    U  lO  6 

« John  Morland,  Glastonbury 010  (i 

Capt.  J.  T.  H.  Butt    1  0  0 

Miss  C.  Magens  0  2  0 

Servants  of  Rev,  M.  Carey  and  Mr.  Dick- 
inson   0  6  0 

a¥.  H.  Dickinson,  Esq 1  0  0 

Meeting  at  Weston-super-Mare,  February  1,  1876.     Secretary,  ]\Irs. 
Tomkins 6  U  2^ 

Various  sums £6    3     8!^ 

oMiss  M.  Clark,  Aldbourn  Villa 0  10     6 

Meeting  at  Rev.  J.  H.  and  Mrs.  Stephenson's,  Lympsham,  Weston- 
su])er-Mare,  February  2,  1876. 

Various  donations 2  17  3^j 

Meeting  at  Miss  Heptinstall's,  3,  Rodney  Place,  Clifton,  February 

3,1876    5    7     4 

Various  donations    JE3  16  10 

aMiss  P.  Taylor,  Valetta  Lodge,  Clifton  Park     0  10     6 
Admiral  Talbot,  Merton  liOdge,  Oakiield        10     0 


Meeting  at  Miss  Harris's,  Avondale  House,  Clifton,  Down,  February 

8th,  1876 3  10     2 

cRev.    R.    A.   Taylor,    Korton   Malreward, 

near  Bristol  £0  10     0 

Various  donations   3     0     2 

Meeting  at   Mr.    and  Mrs.   "Wingfield  Digby's,   Sherborne   Castle, 
Dorset,  February  10,  1875 16    7    S^ 

Major  Fal waster,  Sherborne     £1  0  0 

Various  donations 7  4  8 

«Mrs.  AVingfield  Digby 3  3  0 

j  R.    Wingfield   Baker,    Esq.,    Orsett    Hall, 

Orsett,  Essex 5  0  0 

Meeting  at  Rev.  Canon  and  Miss  Meade's,   Rectory,  Castle  Gary, 
Somerset,  February  11,  1876  <5  1^     f 

Various  donations £^     4     0 

Mrs.  Boyil,  Castle  Gary   0  10     0 

20 


ladies'  associations. 

^r^eting  afRev.  Goilfrey  nml   Mrs.  Tliriiij,''s,   Honil)lottou  Rectory, 
Castle  Cary,  Somerset,  Fehruary  l.">,  187»>    £(>     0     ^' 

rtRev.  Godfrey  Thriiig  £1     0  o 

Mrs.  Pratt,  Ke.tory,  Slippton  Mallet 1     0  d 

Various  donations  '■'     !•  <> 

aMrs.    Goldney,    East    Pennard,    Shcpton 

Mallet 0  10  (! 

Sleeting  at  Rev.  M.  and  j\trs.  Ilawtrcy's,  ];im[itoii  Rectory,  Slier- 
liorne,  February  17,  1876    -  H     ^ 

«Mrs.  Hawtrey £0  10     6 

Various  donations 2     0     (> 

Meeting  at  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bennett's,  Sparkford  Hall,  Ilcliester,  Feb- 
ruary 18,  1876 7     2     0 

aH.  E.  Bennett,  Esq £0  10     C 

Rev.    Canon     Wynter,     Gattou     Tower, 

Reigate -. 10     0 

Various  donations   5  11     6 

Meeting  at  Rev.  Canon  and  Jlrs.  Pratt,  Rectory,  Shepton  Mallet, 

February  21 4 

flMrs.  F.  Spencer,  Ashwick  Grove,  Oakhill, 

Batli £1     1     0 

Various  donations 3     2     3 

Meeting  at  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Macintosh's,  Mordcn  Hall,  Torquay,  February 
25,1876! 12     0 


o 


Mrs.  Hunt,  Quintella,  "VValdon  Hill,  Tor- 
quay   

aMiss  Hunt,  Quintella,  Waldon  Hill,  Tor- 


quay 


1     1     0 


«Dr.  Ayerst,  2,  lielgrave  Terrace,  Toniuay  0  10     6 

Various  donations  7     1     3 

a  A.  R.  Hunt,  Esq.,  Southwood,  Tor(iuay...  110 
aMiss    S.  J.    Marriott,    A.sheldon    Copse, 

Aslu-ldou  Road    0  10     6 

MissSealy    0     r>     0 

Miss  Stone  (towards  Map  of  Palestine)       .  0  10     0 
(Also  Mrs.  Macintosh's  usual  subscription,  remitted  to 

the  Secretary)    110 

Meeting  at  Mrs.  Tinney's,  Snowdenham,  Torquay,  Feb.  29,  1876  ...  24     0     4 
aMiss  E.  Wills  Sandford,  Hightield,  Tor- 


quay 


£0  10     6 


rtMJss  M.  Macaulay,  Hacqueville,  St.  Mary 

Church,  Torquay     0  10  6 

Various  donations  5     6  10 

Mrs.  Salisbury,  Sherwood,  Torquay    1     0  0 

Miss  Haliburton,  Grafton,  Torquay T)     0  0 

Mis.  Tinney,  Snowdenham,  Torquav  1     0  0 

Rev.  Flavel  Cook,  Clifton \ 0  12  6 

Rev.  G.  S.  Hele,  Tor(iuay lO     0  0 

Meeting  at  Mrg.  A.  R.  Hunt's,  Southwood,  Tortiuay,  March  2,  1876     3  11     6 

aMiss  F.  Gumbleton,  Connemara,  Torquay   £0  10  6 

aMrs.  Minton,  Belmont,  Torquay 0  10  6 

aMiss  Master,  Hughfield,  Torquay    0  10  6 

Various  donations   0  15  0 


ladies'  assooiatioxs. 

Mrs.  HoJqsou  Hiiide,   Ixalsdoii,    ToiT|uay  £1  0  0 

iliss  Gum'bleton  0  r>  « 

«Miss  Jessie  Coats,  Northcoxirt  0  10  fi 

rvCliarles  Martin,  Esij^.,  Claniiiarina    0  10  n 

Ladies' Association,  Rarley,  near  Ecading.     Secretary,  Mrs.  C.  Steiilicns, 

AVoodley  Hill,  Earley. 

Meeting  at  Mr.   and  Mrs.   C'.   Stephens's,  Woodley  Hill,   Ivirlc}-, 
Heading,  March  8,  1876    -^28     '2 

Capt.  and  Mrs.  llirch.  Park  House,  Reading  £2     0  0 

Mrs.  Grahame,  Eastern  Avenue 1  10  0 

(tco.  Bennett,  Esq.,  Caversham  Vicarage...  0  10  0 

Mrs.  Knox,  Sonning,  Reading    1     0  o 

Col.  Chambers,  Whiteknight's  Park,  Read- 
ing     1     1  0 

Mrs.  Marsland,  The  Wilderness,  Reading  ...  1     1  0 

Rev.  John  May,  Woodside,  Earley     0  10  0 

aMrs.  Mav    0  10  6 

(«Mrs.  D.  Birch,  Heathireld  0  10  G 

Miss  Waterhouse,  Whiteknight's    1     1  0 

«Miss  Vesey,  St.  Mary's  Vicarage,  Reading  0  10  C> 

Mrs.  H.  B.  Blandy,  Clifford,  Reading 0  10  0 

Miss  JMaurice,  Graylands,  Earley,  Reading  0  10  0 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Porter,  Earley   5     0  0 

:\[rs.  Phillips,  Earley  Hill    0  10  G 

rtMrs.  Durand,  Earley  Vicarage    0  10  0 

Miss  Cow.slade,  Eastern  Avcjuic 0  10  0 

J.  Cowslade,  Esq.,         do 0  10  0 

aC.  Stephens,  Esq.,  Woodley  Hill,  Earley...  110 

Ditto,                      ditto  f)     0  0 

« Mrs.  Stephens,  Woodley  Hill,  Earley   110 

Rev.  J.  ^y.  Taylor,  Sawbridge  House,  Earley  2     0  0 

Mrs.  Lowndes,  Grayland.s,  Earley  0  10  0 

Mrs.  Ander.sou  0     2  0 

ALady    0     2  G 

Meeting  at   Miss    Bucklaud's,    Blenheim    House,    near    Reading, 

MarchlO     1     ■ 

rtMrs.  Lockett,  Blandford  House    £0     5     0 

aMrs.  Wait 0     5     0 

VarioiTS  Donations 0  12     G 

Meeting  at  Rev.  H.  andSlrs.  dcBrLsay's,  12,  Bradrnore  Road,  Oxford, 
March  13th,  14th,  and  17th,  1S7G    17     : 

Various  donations,  13th  and  14tli £6  IG  3 

aRev.  W.  B.  Caparn,   G,   Clarendon  Villas  0  10  G 
«Miss  E.  C.  Backhouse,  5,  Christ  Church 

Terrace    10  0 

«Mrs.  Lloyd  Crawley    1     0  0 

By  ]\Iiss  Sewell,  New  College    0  17  G 

Mrs.  Acland 110 

Mrs.  Lowndes 0     f)  0 

E.  andM 0     2  0 

Pupils  at  Training  College    0  10  0 

«Rev.  H.  de  Brisay   110 

« Mrs.  Gan dell,  Holywell  Lodge 0  10  G 

Mrs.  Talbot,  Keble  Col! 0  10  0 

CoL  Chambers 10  0 

Rev.  E.  and  Mrs.  Palmer  2     0  0 

22 


ladies'  associations. 

Meeting  held  at  Jfrs.  Charles',  Coiiibe  Edge,   Piranch  Hill,  Hamp- 
stead,  Maicli -Jl,  1870    £V:  10     f. 

a^rartin  Ware,  Esq.,  Branch  Hill,  Hamp- 

.stead    i'l     1  (I 

«^Irs.    J.   Mathesoii,   West  Heath    Ijodge, 

Ilampstead 1     1  (» 

ftMrs.  Lyon,  Montague  Grove,  Hampstcad     2     2  n 

«Mrs.  Morris,  Oakhill  House,  Hampstead...     U  lo  ti 

«I\Irs.  IF.  Hill,  Invcrleith  House,  Hamp- 
stcad       0  10  6 

r/Mra.  Charles,  Combe  Edge,  Hampstead...     0  10  G 

Various  donations 6     2  !) 

rtMrs.  Hugh  Matheson,  Heathlands,  Hamp- 
stead       1     1  0 

Meeting  at  Col.  and  Miss  Fj-ers',  25,  Kensington  Square,  W.,  March 
22,  1870 i»  13     0 

«Miss  Gordon,  75,  Gloucester  Place,  Hyde 

Park    £1     1  0 

reMiss   Matson,    10  7,    Gloucester    Terrace, 

Hyde  Park 1     0  0 

Mrs.  Alcoek,  11,  Clarence  Parade,  Sontli- 

sea  0  10  0 

Mrs.  Acland,   27,   Kensington  lSi{uarc,  W.     0  10  6 

Mrs.  Merriman,  45,  Kensington  Square   ...     1     0  0 

Mrs.  E.  Anderson,  7,  Kensington  Gore  ...  0  10  (? 
J\Irs.  J.  C.  Dimsdale,  52,  Cleveland  Square, 

I-Iyde  Park 1     1  0 

Various  donations 3  15  0 

ALady  0     5  0 

Meeting  at  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Johnston's,  Woodford  Green,  March  23, 
1876  49  14     0 

E.  N.  Buxton,  Esq.,  Knighton,  Buckhurst 

Hill  £10     0  0 

W.  Fowler,    Esi]_.,  Forest  House,  Ley  ton- 
stone 10     0  0 

Andrew  Johnston,  Esq 10     0  0 

—  Venables,  Esq.,  Wanstead,  E 2     2  0 

Henry  Fowler,  Esq.,  Woodford,  E 2     2  0 

Capt.  Kyndersley,  Wan.stead 1     1  i> 

F.  S.  Deck,  Esq.,  Loughtou 1     1  0 

Dr.  F.  C.  Cory,  Buckhxu-.st  Hill 1     1  0 

H.  Gore,  Esq.,  Wan.stead 1     1  0 

J.  Mills,  Esq.,  Woodford 1     1  0 

A  Lady 0     5  o 

In  the  3 n\y  QiuirterTij  Staiemcnt  \\ill  be  published  a  complete  list  of  Ladies' 
Associations. 


LECTURES  AND   MEETINGS. 


Place, 


APDRES.SF.n  r.Y  LIKUT.  CONIlKn,  Tl.  i:. 

Date. 


Easneye 
Wave" 


ItKV.    H.    GEARY. 

St.  James's,  Holloway 

Jan.  18 

St.  Anne's,  Holloway 

„    25 

Willesden 

Feb.     1 

Chislehurst 

„       8 

Farnliani 

„     22 

St.  Tliomas,  Portnian  Square 

Mar.  25 

REV.  T.   r.   HENLEY. 

]\[alhani  Tarn          

Feb.  14 

Arncliffe       

„     15 

Grassington 

„    ui 

Kettlewell     ...         

I— 1 

Malham        

IS 

Airton          , 

„      19 

Jargrave  (seriiinn) 

„     c> 

Long  Preston  (sL-rmon) 

„       9 

LEY.   R,  J.   GRIFFITH.'?, 

Sevenoaks    

Feb.  25 

Tunbridge  Wells 

Mar.  21 

Maidstone    ... 

„      20 

REY.    A.    F.    FORKE.<. 

Wombourne 

.  .  • 

"Wombonrne 

Weston 

Albrighton 

... 

Pallinuham...          

.  •  • 

Proceeds. 

£    s. 

t/. 

18     8 

6 

15     8 

.3 

8     6 

7 

4     8 

4 

3     2 

2 

G  17 

0 

7     0 

?, 

8  14 

() 

0  17 

ih 

0  in 

0 

2     1 

G 

0  11 

9 

0     5 

6 

1     9 

S| 

1     7 

3 

9  10 


5  18 

9 

20  19 

9 

4     5 

7 

2  11 

6 

0  10 

0 

1     C 

7 

3  17 

3i 

2     3 

0 

Donations  and  Subscriptions  from  the  T.eeture  Lists  :  — 

St.  James's,  Holloway : — 
aLady  Barringtoa 


24 


LECTUllES   AND   MEETINGS. 


St.  Anne's,  HoUoway:  — 

,T.  Chaniherlain,  Ksq.  (jivomisnd) 
Cliislehui'st : — 

Rev.  V.  H.  Mumy     

Fainham  : — 

Rev.  G.  r.  Irl.y  

Rev.  G.  .1.  TIi<iinas 

Anon 
Easneye : — 

T.  Fowell  Buxton,  Esfj.  (cl.m.) 
Do. 

Mrs.  Wigram 

Ware  : — 

R.  Hanbury,  Es(i 

Mrs.  Collins     

Mr.  Collins       

Tunbridge  Wells  : — 

Rev.  A.  Stuart  

Mrs.  Cromwell... 
Maidstone  : — 

Rev.  T.  Harvey  

Rev.  H.  D.  Fin<b       

AV.  Page,  Esq 


£1  1 

0 

1  (1 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  ]n 

0 

0  10 

0 

5  5 

0 

o  2 

0 

1  1 

0 

10  0 

0 

0  10 

0 

0  5 

0 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

0  10 

6 

.  0  10 

0 

.  1  1 

0 

Promised  to  be  paid  to  Vicar  of  Ware,  Rev.  E.  E.  W.  Kirby 
Joseph  Chuck   ... 

aMr.  Mayhew 

aG.  Ekins  ...         ...         

aB.  Cunning      

Rev.  E.  E.  W.  Kirby 


0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

8 

0 

0 

10 

6 

3S 


PUBLICATIONS — LIST    OF    HON.    SF.CRETAPJE3,    ETC. 

PUBLICATIONS    OF    THE    SOCIETY. 

Richard  BcnUey  and  Son. 

The  Recovery  of  Jerusalem,  One  Guinea.     To  annual  subscribers  of  one  Guinea, 

Sixteen  Shillings,  post  free,  by  api^lication  to  the  OiRce  of  the  Society  only. 
Our  Work  in  Palestine,  3s.  6d. 

Quarterly  Statement.    First  Series,  1869  and  1870,    Captain  AVarren's  Work. 
Do.  Second  Series.    Professor  Palmer's  Work. 

Do.  The  Survey  of  Palestine,  1872,  1873. 

Do.  The  Survey  of  Palestine   and  the  Researches  of  M. 

Clermont-Ganneau.     1874,  1875. 
It  is  now  impossible  to  furnish  subscribers  with  complete  sets  of  the  State- 
ments.    It  may  be  useful  to  note  that  the  numbers  out  of  print  are  as  follows  : — 
First  Series,  Nos.  III.  and  IV. 
Second  Series,  Nos.  I.  and  III. 
Januarj^,  1872;  October,  1873  ;  January  and  October,  1874;  January,  1875. 


LIST  OF  HONORARY  SECRETARIES  AND  LOCAL 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

Alloa  :  Rev.  Alexander  Bryson  and  Rev.  J.  M'Lean. 

Aberdeen:  Rev.  Prof.  Milligan,  D.D. 

Anstruther  :  W.  H.  Mackintosh,  Esq. 

Arbroath  :  W.  J.  Anderson,  Es?];. 

Ayr  :  Robert  Murdoch,  Esq. 

Barnsley:  Rev.  W.  J.  Binder. 

Basingstoke  :  Rev.  W.  Marriner. 

Bath  :  Rev.  T.  P.  Methuen. 

Bedford  :  Rev.  Canon  Haddock. 

Belfast  :  Rev.  Dr.  Porter  and  Charles  Druilt,  Esq. 

Bishop's  Waltham  :  Rev.  H.  R.  Fleming. 

Birkenhead  :  Rev.  J.  T.  Kiugsmill,  St.  Aidan's  College. 

Blairgoavrie  :  W.  S.  Soutar,  Esq. 

Blackburn  :  Rev.   Canon  Bircli  and  Rev.   A.   B.  Grosart, 

Bodmin  :  S.  Hicks,  Esq. 

Bolton  :  George  Monk,  Esq. 

Bournemouth:  Rev.  Dr.  Ederslieim. 

Brighton  :  Rev.  C.  E.  Douglass. 

Broadstairs  :  Rev.  J.  H.  Carr. 

Bromley  :  Rev.  W.  J.  Devereux. 

Burnley  :  Rev.  C.  L.  Reynolds. 

Bury  :  Hon.  Trcas. — Rev.  Canon  J.  Hornby  ;  JTon.  Sec. — Rev.  E.  J.  Smitli. 

Cambridge:  W.  M.  Hicks,  Esq.,  B.A.,  St.  John's  College;  G.  T.  Bettany, 

Esq.,  B.A.,  Gonville  and  Cains. 
Canada;  Toronto. — Subscriptions  are  received  by  the  Hon.  G.  W.  Allan. 

20 


LOCAL   ASSOCIATIONS. 

Cabdifi"  :  "W.  Jones,  Esq. 

Chelmsfoud  :  llev.  G.  T..  IlamiUoii. 

Cheltenham  :  Dr.  E.  "Wilson. 

Chester  :  Rev.  J.  Davidson. 

Chutenham  :  A.  T.  Keary,  Esq. 

Clifton  and  Bkistol  :  Eev.  C.  H.  Wallace  and  Eev.  J.  B.  Goldberg. 

City  and  County  of  Coiuc  :  H.  S.  Perry,  Esq.,  Monkstown. 

Damascus  :  Eev.  W.  Wright: 

Daklington  :  J.  P.  Pritchett,  Esq. 

Devonpoiit     J.  Yenning,  Esq. 

DoRCHESTEK  :  Rev.  Haudloy  Moule. 

Dover  :  Mr.  W.  P.  llummery. 

Dundee  :  Eobert  Mackenzie,  Esq.  ;  Hon.  Tnas.—  Xlcx.  Scott,  Esq. 

Durham  :  Eev.  J.  Talbot. 

Dunfermline  :  Eev.  A.  Graham,  Ciossgates. 

Eastbourne  :  Eev.  H.  E.  Whelpton. 

Edinburgh  :  Eev.   W.  Lindsay  Alexander,  D.D.,  and  T.  15.  Johnston,  Esq.» 

F.E.G.S.,  4,  St.  Andrew  Square. 
Exeter  :  Eev.  Prebendary  Acland,  Broad  Clyst,  and  Eev.  "W.  David. 
Falmouth,  for  the  County  of  Cornwall:  A.  Lloyd  Fox  and  W.  P.  Dyniond,  Esq. 
Farnham  :  John  Henry  Knight,  Esq. 
Favershaji  :  Charles  Smith,  Esq. 
Forfar  :  T.  Wilkie,  Esq. 
Fleetwood  :  G.  Curwen,  Esq. 
Frome  :  Eev.  T.  G.  Eooke. 
Gateshe^vd  :  Eev.  H.  0.  Sterland. 
Gaza  :  J.  G.  Pickard,  Esq. 
Glasgow  :  Eev.  AV.  Dickson,  D.D.,  Eev.  Donald  Macleod.  D.D.,  and  A 

M'Grigor,  Esq. 
Gloucesteu  :  Eev.  J.  Bowman  and  F.  Cooke,  Esq. 
Greenock  :  D.  MacDonald,  Esq. 
Guildford:  Capt.  Campbell,  H.M.LISr. 
Halstead  :  Eev.  S.  J.  Eales  and  Eev.  J,  W.  Coombes. 
Hastings  :  J.  E.  Liddiard,  Esq. 
Helensburg  :  Eev.  A.  Slurray  MeCalhim. 
Hertford  :  W.  M.  Armstrong,  Esq. 
Hexham  :  John  Hope,  Jun.,  Esq. 
Hitchin:  J.  Pollard,  Esq. 
HoLYWOOD :  Major  Griffin. 
Huddersfield  :  Henry  Barker,  Esq. 
Hull:  J.  P.  Bell,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Huntingdon  :  Ven.  Archdeacon  Yesey, 
Ipswich  :  Eev.  J.  E.  Turnock. 
Irvine  :  Adam  Sutherland,  Esq. 
Jerusalem  :  Dr.  Chaplin. 
Kendal  :  Eobert  Somervell,  Esq. 
Kirkcaldy  :  John  Bamett,  Esq. 
Lancaster:  J.  Daniel  Moore,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Leamington  :  Eev.  C.  Cams- Wilson. 
Ledbury  :  Eev.  Salter  Stooke-Vaughan. 


LOCAL    ASSOCIATIONS. 

Lkeds  :  Eihvard  Atkinson,  Esq. 

Lkith  :  James  Braidwood,  Ivsq. 

Lewes:  llev.  R.  Stratieu. 

LiSKEARD  :  W.  J.  Corin,  Esq. 

Lichfield  :  Hubert  M.  Morgan,  Esq. 

LiNX'OLX  :  llev.  A.  I?.  Maddison. 

Liverpool  :  S.  Lewis,  Esq.,  M.D.,  l.')7,  Duke  Street. 

Londonderry:  Convener  of  Local  Coiiiniit  tee,  I'itt  .Ski]>ton,  Esq, 

Maidstone:  l!ev.  Thomas  Harvey. 

JL\LVERN  :  Ivcv.  C.  E.  Ranken. 

Manchester  :  Rev.  W.  E.  ])ir(  li  and  Rev.  Canon  Crane. 

Mansfield  :  T.  AV.  Clarke,  Esq. 

Margate  :  Rev.  G.  Collis. 

Market  Harborough  :  Joseph  Nunnelly,  Esq. 

Melton  Mowbray  :  Rev.  Arthur  M.  llendell. 

Melrose  :  Ralph  Dunn,  Esq. 

Middlesborotjgh  :  Rev.  Edmund  Jackson. 

Montrose  :  Mr.  Maokie. 

Morpeth  :  Dr.  Robinson. 

JIossley  :  Rev.  J.  Taylor. 

Newark:   Ladies' Committee.    Hon.  T/-ca,'?.— Mrs.  Tallents ;  7/o?!.  &c.— Mrs. 

G.  Hodgkinson. 
Newcastle:     Hon.    Treasurer.  —  Tliomas     llodgkin,     E»i.  ;    Hon.    See. — 

W.   Lyall,  Esq. 
Northampton:  H.  Marshall,  Esq. 
Oxford  :  Rev.  Canon  Kidgway 
Paisley  :  Rev.  J.  Dods. 
Perth  :  John  W.  Jameson,  Esq. 
Pitlochry:  Hugh  Mitchell,  Esq. 
Plymouth  :  J.  B.  Rowe,  Esq.,  and  J.  Shelly,         , 
Preston  :  Rev.  E.  F.  Linton. 
Reading  :  G.  Leyburn  Carley,  Esq. 
Reigate  :  Edward  Home,  Esq. 
Richmond,  Surrey:  Henry  Douglas,  Esq. 
'^' "HARBOROUGH  :  Rev.  J.  Bedford. 
Sevenoaks  :  Graham  Jackson,  Esq. 
SissiNGHURST  :  Rev.  W.  Peterson, 
Sherborne  :  J.  Farmer,  Esq. 
SowERBY  :  Rev.  A.  L.  W.  Bean. 
St.  Albans  :  Rev.  W.  J.  Lawrance. 
St.  Andrew's  :  Dr.  Lees  and  Dr.  Mitrhell. 
St.  Germans  :  R.  Kerswill,  Esq. 
Stalybridge  :  Rev.  Dr.  Cranswick. 
Stockton  :  Joseph  Laidler,  Esq. 
Stirling  :  Rev.  \V.  Taylor. 
Stroud  :  T,  S.  Osborne,  Esq. 
Teignmouth  :  Rev.  H.  Hutchins. 
Tiverton  :  Rev.  H,  A.  Jukes. 
Torquay  :  Rev.  Preb.  Wolfe. 
Tunbridge  Wells  :  Geo.  Bartram,  Esq. 

23 


AGENTS. 

Victoria,  Australia  :  Rev.  "W.  R.  Fletcher. 

AVahminster  :  W.  Frank  Morgan,  Esq. 

Wells  :  W.  I.  Welsh,  Esq. 

Westox-supeh-Mare  :  Rev.  H.  G.  Tomkins,  and  J.  Titley,  Esq. 

WuiTBY:  E.  W.  Chapman,  Esq. 

AViLLESDEN  :  Rev.  J.  Crane  Wharton. 

Winchester  :  Miss  Zorulin. 

Windsor  :  Rev.  Stephen  Hawtrey. 

Wolverhampton  :  Mr.  J.  McD.  Roebuck. 

Worcester  :  Rev.  Francis  J.  Eld. 

The  Committee  would  be  very  ^lad  to  communicate  with  gentlemen  willing  to 
help  the  Fund  as  Honorary  Secretaries. 


AGENTS. 

The  following  are  the  Agents  authorised  by  Local  Secretaries  to  receive,  dis- 
tribute, and  sell  the  publications  of  the  Fund. 

Aberdeen  :  Messrs.  W3dlie  and  Sons. 

Arbroath  :  Mr.  J.  F,  Hood. 

Barnsley  :  T.  andC.  Lingard,  Chronicle  Ollice. 

Bath  :  Mr.  R.  E.  Peach,  8,  Bridge  Street. 

Birkenhead  :  Mr.  T.  W.  Plumb,  8,  Bridge  Street,  Hamilton  Square. 

Bodmin  :  Messrs.  E.  and  H.  G.  Liddell,  7,  Fore  Street. 

Bournemouth  :  Mr.  Hankinson. 

Brighton  :  Messrs.  H.  and  C.  Treacher,  170,  North  Street. 

Burnley  :  Messrs.  Burghope  and  Strange,  St.  James's  Street. 

Cambridge  :  Mr.  Dixon,  Market  Hill. 

Cheltenham  :  Messrs.  Westley,  Promenade. 

Clifton  and  Bristol  :  Jilr.  W.  Mack,  38,  Park  Street. 

Darlington  :  Mr.  Harrison  Penney. 

Dover  :  Mr.  J.  J.  Goulden,  176,  Snargate  Street. 

Dundee  :  Miss  IMiddleton,  High  Street. 

Eastbourne  :  Mr.  Leach,  Grand  Parade. 

Edinburgh  :  Messrs.  W.  and  A.  K.  Johnston,  i,  St.  Andrew  Square. 

Falmouth  :  Mr.  R.  C.  Richards. 

Frome  :  Mr.  C.  J.  Sage,  Upper  Market  Place. 

Greenock  :  Messrs.  J.  McKelvie  and  Son. 

Halifax  :  Mr.  King,  North  Gate. 

Hitchin  :  Mr.  John  Palmer,  High  Street. 

Huddersfield  :  Mr.  Alfred  Jubb,  Estate  Buildings. 

Hull  :  Messrs.  Leng  and  Co.,  15,  Saville  Street. 

Irvine  :  Mr.  C.  Marchland. 

Leeds  :  Mr.  Jackson,  Commercial  Street. 

Newark  :  Mr.  E.  J.  Ridge,  Market  Place. 

Northampton:  Mr.  Jas.  Taylor,  Gold  Street. 


AGEZ^TTS, 

Perth  :  Mr.  Jno.  Christie. 

Preston  :  Mr.  H.  Oakey,  Fisliergater 

Eeading  :  Mr.  G.  Lovejoy,  London  Street . 

ScAKEOROUGH  :  Mr.  G.  Marsliall,  72,  Newborongh. 

Sevenoaks  :  Mr.  Harrison,  High  Street. 

St.  Andrew's  :  Mr.  W.  C.  Henderson,  Church  Street. 

Skipton  :  Messrs.  Edmondson  and  Co. 

Stirling  :  Mr.  Peter  Drummond. 

Stockton  :  Mr.  "W.  W.  Wilson,  Silver  Street. 

TuNBRiDGE  Wells  :  Mr.  Pt.  Pelton,  Parade. 

Wells  :  Mr.  Thomas  Green. 

Weston  :  IVrr.  Ptobbins,  High  Street. 

Whitby  :  J\Ir.  Reed. 

Winchester  :  Messrs.  Jacob  and  Johnson,  Hampshire  Chronicle  Of&ce. 

WoLVERHAMi'TON  :  Mr.  J.  M'D.  Eoebnek. 


PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Agent,  Mr.  Edward  Stanford,  55,  Charing  Cross. 

(1.)  A  series  of  one  hundred  photographs  has  been  selected  from  those  in  the 
possession  of  the  Society,  which  can  be  purchased  by  subscribers  for  £4,  and  by 
non-subscribers  for  £5.  Those  marked  in  the  list  *  are  the  25  best,  and  can  be 
purchased  by  subscribers  for  25s.,  and  by  non-subscribers  for  35s.  Those  marked 
t  are  the  50  best,  and  can  be  i^urchased  by  subscribers  for  4.5s.,  and  by  non- 
subscribers  for  55s.  A  selection  of  any  25  or  50  can  be  made  at  the  same  terms, 
but  the  marked  ones  are  recommended  as  the  best  photogi-aphs.  Each  of  the 
three  sets  forms  a  complete  series  of  itself.  Single  ^jhotographs  from  among  these 
selected  ones  are  charged  Is.  3d.  to  subscribers,  and  Is.  9d.  to  non-subsoribers. 
Lists  may  be  obtained  of  the  Agent  or  at  the  Office  of  the  Fund. 

(2.)  The  Moabite  Stone.  Restoration  by  M.  C.  Clermont-Ganneau  just  ready. 
At  same  price  as  the  preceding. 

(3.)  Lieut.  Kitchener's  Guinea  volume,  with  letterpress.     Ready  for  Easter. 

(4.)  Lieut.  Kitchener's  Fifty  Photographs,  at  the  same  price  as  the  first  series. 
List  on  page. 


QUARTEULY   STATEMENT,    JaNU.UIY,    187G.] 


THE 


PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND. 


PEEFACE. 


During  tlie  -winter  months  necessarily  spent  in  England  tlie 
officers  of  the  Survey  are  engaged  upon  the  office  work  connected 
with  the  great  map  of  Palestine.  For  this  purpose  a  room  has 
been  engaged  in  London.  The  materials  brought  home  by  Lieu- 
tenants Conder  and  Kitchener  are  of  far  greater  importance  than  was 
expected.  They  consist  of  an  addition  to  the  map-work  of  1,600 
square  miles,  chiefly  lying  in  the  territory  of  Judah  and  Philistia. 
About  180  square  miles  of  Lower  Galilee  are  accomplished.  There 
i-emain  only  some  1,400  square  miles  to  complete  the  map  of 
Western  Palestine  from  Dan  to  Beersheba.  We  may  therefore 
look  forward  with  some  confidence  to  the  speedy  completion  of  this 
part  of  our  work.  The  reconnaissance  of  the  Negeb,  or  South  Country, 
with  the  examination  of  the  ruined  cities  of  that  district,  and  a  few 
disputed  sites,  will  follow. 

About  20  miles  of  levelling  between  the  Mediterranean  and  the 
Sea  of  Galilee  have  been  concluded.  It  was  for  this  object  that  the 
British  Association  made,  in  1874,  a  grant  of  £100.  A  very  large 
number  of  names  have  been  collected  in  the  low  hills  of  the  Shep- 
helah,  the  proportion  previously  unknown  being  nearly  nine- 
tenths.  The  number  of  special  plans  is  now  83.  Among  the  new 
ones  are  surveys  of  Ascalon,  Ai'suf,  anl  Beisan,  to  the  scale  of  a  foot 
to  the  mile,  and  one  of  Masada,  showing  the  positions  of  the  Roman 
camp  and  the  wall  of  circumvallation.  Among  the  most  interesting- 
late  ruins  of  Palestine  are  those  of  the  churches.     We  have  now 

c 


2  PREFACE. 

special  plans  of  thirty  of  these.  Notes  on  the  architectui'al  features 
of  these  have  appeared  from  time  to  time  in  Lieutenant  Conder's 
reports.  The  Crusading  castles,  also  of  interest  from  an  architectural 
point  of  view,  have  been  planned.  A  very  large  numljer  of  masons' 
marks  have  been  collected. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener's  photographs  are  about  to  be  pviblished. 
A  selected  list  will  be  found  in  another  page.  Among  them  are 
many  views  never  before  taken,  and  of  the  highest  Biblical  in. 
terest,  such  as  the  Valley  of  Elah,  the  Valley  of  Sorek,  two 
views  of  M.  Clermont-Ganneau's  proposed  site  of  Adullam,  the 
site  of  Jonathan's  attack  on  the  camp  of  the  Philistines,  and 
others.  The  descrij)tiA'e  letterpress  of  these  })hotogra]")hs  will  be 
written  by  Lieutenant  Kitchener  himself. 

The  notes  accumulated  during  the  year's  work  have  been  far  more 
voluminous  than  our  published  reports  would  seem  to  show.  These 
reports,  indeed,  are  bub  a  very  small  part  of  the  whole,  which  can 
only  be  published  when  the  work  is  completed,  and  when  the 
descriptions  can  be  accompanied  by  plans,  sketches,  and  illustra- 
tions. Among  the  notes  are  some  obtained  from  one  of  the  last 
surviving  monks  of  Carmel,  on  the  Carmel  convents.  The  identi- 
iicatious  newly  proposed  are  now  over  one  hiindred.  Some  of  these 
have  been  combated,  but  the  Committee,  while  putting  them  for- 
ward as  Lieutenant  Conder's  conclusions,  would  ask  the  readers  of 
the  Quarterly  Statement,  if  they  cannot  accept  them,  to  refrain  from 
comment  until  they  can  be  tested  by  the  safest  method  of  proof,  a 
comparison  with  the  map  itself. 

The  prepai'ations  for  the  return  of  the  party  will  commence 
almost  immediately,  and  it  is  hoped  they  will  again  be  afield  at  the 
commencement  of  early  spring. 

With  regard  to  the  attack  on  the  Survey  Party  we  have  little  to 
report  except  what  will  be  found  in  the  next  page.  The  claim  made 
by  the  Consul  for  payment  of  expenses  incurred  is  still  under  con- 
.sideration. 

The  plan  for  diocesan  representatives  will,  it  is  hoped,  lead  to  a 
general  increase  of  interest  among  Church  of  England  jieople.  The 
Committee  are  most  anxious  to  let  it  be  known  that  they  are  not 
<leparting  from  the  undenominational  character  which  the  Society 


NOTES.  3 

has  always  preserved.  Any  suggestions  for  a  similai'  use  of 
Nonconformist  organisations  will  be  gratefully  received  and  con- 
sidered. 

The  income  of  the  Fund  during  the  year  1875  has  shown  a  grati- 
fying increase.  We  ask  for  continued  and  earlij  support  daring 
1S76,  the  tenth  year  of  our  existence. 


NOTES. 

While  desiring  to  give  every  publicity  to  proposed  ideutitlcations  by  officers 
of  the  Fund,  the  Committee  beg  it  to  be  distinctly  understood  that  they  leave 
such  proposals  to  be  discussed  on  their  own  merits,  and  that  by  publisliing  them 
in  the  Quarterly  Statement  the  Committee  do  not  sanction  or  adopt  them. 


Annual  subscribers  are  earnestly  recjuested  to  forward  their  subscriptions  for 
the  ciu'rent  year  at  their  earliest  convenience  and  without  waiting  for  application. 
It  is  best  to  cross  all  cheques  to  Coutts  and  Co.,  and  if  so  crossed  they  may  be 
left  payable  to  bearer. 


The   Committee  are  always  grateful  for  the   return  of  old  numbers  of  the 
Quarterly  Statement,  especially  those  which  are  advertised  as  out  of  print. 


The  amount  received  at  the  central  office  lietween  September  30th  and 
December  2Sth  was  £1003  8s.  Sd.  T]\e  balance  of  current  accounts  at  the 
latter  date  was  £184  12s.  8d. 


Ladies  deshous  of  joining  the  Ladies'  Associations  are  requested  to  commmiicate 
with  Mrs.  Finn,  The  Ekus,  Brook  Green,  London,  W. 


Cases  for  binduig  the  Quarterly  Statements  are  now  ready,  and  can  be  had  on 
application  to  ]\Iessrs.  R.  Bentley  and  Sou,  8,  New  Burlington  Street,  or  to  the 
office  of  the  Fund.  They  are  in  green  or  brown  cloth,  with  the  stamp  of  the 
Society,  uniform  in  appearance^vith  "  Our  "Work  in  Palestine,"  price  one  shilling. 
They  can  be  obtained  for  any  year  liy  subscribers  who  have  procured  their  sots. 


4  NOTES. 

DIOCESAN  EEPRESENTATIVES. 

The  Committee  have  resolved  upon  obtaining,  if  possible,  a  representative  and 
lecturer  for  every  Diocese  in  England,  who  will  be  prepared  to  give  lectures  or 
to  preach  in  behalf  of  the  Fund,  and  to  act  generally  as  organising  secretaries 
within  the  limits  assigned  to  them.  These  appointments  are  by  no  means  in- 
tended as  a  dcjiarture  from  the  neutral  ground  on  which  the  Society  rests  ;  but 
solely  as  a  Iielp  to  Church  of  England  supporters  to  the  Fund,  and,  as  stated  else- 
where, the  Committee  will  be  very  glad  to  use  the  organisation  of  the  Noncon- 
formist bodies  in  any  practicable  way  which  may  be  suggested. 

The  following  gentlemen  have  already  kindly  offered  their  services  : — 

Provin'ce  of  Cantehbury. 

Diocese  of  Exeter  :  Eev.  Franklin  Bellamy,  St.  Mary's  Vicarage,  Devonport. 

Gloucester  and  Bristol :  E.  H.  Stanley,  Esq.,  SO,  City  Koad,  Bristol. 

Archdeaconry  of  Hereford  :  IJev.  J.  S.  Stooke-Yaughan,  Wellington  Heath 
Vicarage,  Ledbur)^ 

Archdeaconry  of  Salop  :  Rev.  A.  F.  Forbes,  Badger  Rectory. 
,,  Lichfield  :  ,,  ,, 

London  ;  Rev.  Henry  Geary,  26  b,  North  Audley  Street. 

Norwich  :  Rev.  F.  C.  Long,  Stowupland,  Stowmarket. 

Essex  :  Rev.  "W.  H.  A.  Emna,  Great  Blakenham  Rectory. 

Peterborough  :  Rev.  A.  F.  Foster,  Farndish  Rectory,  Wellingljorough. 

Worcester  :  Rev.  F.  W.  Holland,  Evesham  (Member  of  General  and  Executive 
Committee,  and  one  of  the  Hon.  Secretaries  to  the  Fund). 

Archdeaconry  of  Surrey  ;  Rev.  R.  J.  Griffiths,  10,  Trafalgar  Road,  Old  Kent 
Road,  S.E. 

Province  ok  York. 

York  :  Rev.  J.  De  Courcy  Baldwin,  Training  College,  York. 

Archdeaconry  of  Craven  :   Rev.  J.  C.  Henley,  Kirkby  Malham  Vicarage. 

It  is  hoped  to  fill  up  this  list  before  the  next  Quarterly  Statement. 

Suggestions  and  offers  of  help  from  Scotland  and  Ireland  will  be  most  gi'atefully 
received. 


LADIES'  ASSOCIATIONS. 

Drawing-room  meetings  have  been  held  in  various  places  during  the  last 
three  months,  ilr.  and  Mrs.  F.  Braby,  of  Sydenham,  gathered  a  number 
of  their  friends  together  on  the  evening  of  Nov.  10,  to  hear  from  Mrs.  Finn 
an  account  of  the  work,  Pliotographs  and  water-colour  drawings  were  used  to 
illustrate  the  subject,  and  a  Ladies'  Association  for  Sydenham  was  at  once  formed. 

In  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow  a  series  of  drawing-room  meetings  has  been  held. 
One  on  Nov.  12,  at  tlie  liouse  of  the  Misses  Stevenson,  where  about  130 
were  present  and  listened  to  the  sketch  of  our  woik  given  in  about  an  hour 
and  a  half  with  the  help  of  photographs  and  drawings,  and  of  a  model  specially 
prepared  of  Mount  Moriah  and  the  Temple  Enclosure  in  accordance  with  the 


NOTES.  O 

survey  and  discoveries  of  Major  Wilson  and  Cai)taiu  Warren.  Here,  and  at 
the  suci'eediiig  meetings  in  otiicr  liouses,  contributions  were  made  to  tlie  Fund. 
The  Rev.  Mr.  White  (successor  to  Dr.  Candlish),  spoke  at  this  ineeting. 

The  next  meeting  was  lield  on  November  15th  at  the  house  of  the  Dean 
and  tlie  Hon.  Mrs.  Bfontgomery.  The  Dean  opened  the  proceedings  ;  among 
the  visitors  was  the  Bishop  of  Edinburgh. 

On  November  17th  a  meeting  was  hehl  at  the  liouse  of  the  Rev.  V.  G.  and 
Jlrs.  Faithfull,  and  on  the  next  day,  the  18th,  at  the  house  of  the  Rev.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Main,  Mr.  W.  Dickson,  who  had  liimself  been  in  Jerusalem,  fol- 
lowed up  the  account  of  the  exjiloration,  giving  the  results  of  his  own  experience 
and  travels  in  the  Holy  Land.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Main  also  spoke,  and  pointed 
out  in  a  few  forcible  sentences  the  immense  value,  as  sliown  l)y  these  recent 
discoveries,  of  the  apparently  "dry  lists  of  names"  contained  in  the  Bible, 
but  which  now  give  us  invaluable  evidence  as  to  the  accuracy  of  Holy  Writ. 
]\Ir.  SheriiT  Campbell  added  his  testimony  as  to  the  value,  in  a  legal  point 
of  view,  of  evidence  of  this  nature.     Dr.  Moir  also  spoke. 

On  Saturdaj',  Nov.  20,  a  meeting  was  held  at  Lord  and  Lady  Teignmouth's, 
and  the  proceedings  were  opened  by  Lord  Teignmouth.  After  Mrs.  Finn  had 
described  the  Exploration  work,  the  Bishop  of  Edinburgh  summed  up,  drawing 
attention  to  the  wonderful  and  unexpected  results  of  the  work  done  in  laying 
bare  tlie  mighty  works  of  old,  beneath  the  vast  accumulation  of  rubbish  and 
debris  in  Jerusalem,  and  well  described  the  accounts  of  the  explorers  as  being  as 
interesting  as  a  romance  in  their  wonderful  details. 

The  last  meeting  in  Edinburgh  was  at  the  house  of  ]\h".  and  Mrs.  Caird,  and 
was  presided  over  by  tlie  Rev.  F.  Horatius  Bouar,  who  opened  the  proceedings, 
and  spoke  with  the  keenest  interest  as  having  himself  visited  tlie  Holy  City, 
and  having  followed  the  reports  of  the  work  done  and  doing  there  as  one  who 
has  been  on  the  spot  cannot  help  doing.  JL'.  W.  Dickson  spoke  here,  also,  and 
■  earnestly  commended  the  work  to  those  present  as  one  which  it  was  a  national 
disgrace  to  leave  incomplete. 

The  result  of  these  meetings  was  the  formation  of  an  influential  Ladies'  Associ- 
ation, and  a  considerable  sum  was  contributed  in  money.  Our  warm  thanks  are 
due  to  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  above  mentioned,  and  to  the  Bishop  of  Edinburgh, 
for  the  hearty  support  which  has  been  given  to  this  effort  on  behalf  of  our  work. 

At  Glasgow  the  meetings  were  arranged  by  the  local  secretaries,  the  Rev. 
Donald  Macleod,  Rev.  Prof.  Dickson,  and  ifr.  SleGrigor,  with  the  active  and  most 
kind  co-operation  of  their  lady  friends.  Mrs.  Macleod  had  the  first  meeting  in 
her  own  drawing-room  on  Nov.  23  ;  the  next  was  held  at  the  house  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Collins.  The  Rev.  D.  Macleod  made  a  long  and  interesting  speech,  kindly 
liere  and  elsewhere  assisting  in  the  proceedings,  which,  on  account  of  the  absence 
of  Mrs.  Finn  through' illness,  were  conducted  by  lun- daughter.  Meetings  were 
held  at  the  house  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alston  (Nov.  26),  Mr.  and  Mrs.  McGrigor 
^Nov.  27),  Sir  James  and  Miss  Watson  (Nov.  29).  A  large  meeting  of  ladies 
was  addressed  on  Dec.  2,  and  on  the  evening  of  the  same  day  Mrs.  Archibald 
Watson  assembled  a  large  party  of  her  friends,  among  whom  was  Lieut.  Van  de 
Velde,  to  whose  early  survey  of  Palestine,  in  1852,  we  owe  the  fullest  map  of  the 
<;ountry  hitherto  published.  Here  in  Glasgow,  as  in  Edinburgh,  the  ladies  have 
formed  an  association  with  the  intention  of  doing  all  in  their  power  to  assist  in 
raising  the  funds  needed  for  a  vigorous  x>rosecution  of  the  work  begun  by  the 
Palestine  Exploration  Fund. 


b  NOTES. 

Mrs.  rmn'(Tlie  Elms,  Brook  Green,  W.)  will  gladl}'  give  assistance  to  any 
ladies  who  may  be  disposed  to  follow  tlie  examples  given  above,  by  interest- 
ing their  friends  in  our  work,  and  helping  us  to  bring  it  to  a  successful 
conclusion. 


NEW  PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Lieutenant  Kitchener  has  brought  home  with  him  a  small  collection  of 
photographs,  which  have  been  added  to  the  list  of  those  already  published.  A 
selection  of  twelve  will  be  issued  immediately  with  descriptive  letterpress  by 
Lieiitenant  Kitchener  himself  (price  one  guinea).  The  others  will  follow.  They 
can  be  procured  of  the  agent,  Mr.  Edward  Stanford,  5C,  Charing  Gross.  The- 
following  is  a  list  of  the  selected  twelve  :  — 

1.  The  Valley  of  Sorek  (1  Sam.  vi.  12). 

2.  The  Valley  of  Jlichmash  (Judges  xx.  31,  and  Isaiah  x.  28). 

3.  Mount  jMoriah. 

4.  The  Mosque  El  Aksa. 

5.  Elisha's  Fountain  (2  Kings  ii.  22). 

6.  Bethlehem. 

7.  Interior  of  the  Dome  of  the  Rock. 

8.  The  Baptism  in  Jordan. 

9.  Caua  in  Galilee. 

10.  Bethany. 

11.  The  Way  of  the  Cross. 

12.  The  Holy  Sepulchre. 


THE  TEIAL  AT  ACEE. 

In  compliance  witli  instructions  received  from  Sir  Henrj'  Elliot, 
H.  B.  M.  Ambassador  at  Constantinople,  Mr.  Noel  Temple  Moore,  Consul 
at  Jerusalem,  proceeded  to  Safcd  on  the  31st  August  to  represent  the- 
English  interests  in  the  trial  of  the  persons  accused  of  participation  in 
the  attack  on  Lieutenant  Conder  and  his  party. 

On  arrival  at  Safed  he  found  that  the  trial  was  awaiting  his  presence 
ftt  Acre,  whither  the  accused  persons  had  been  removed. 

At  Acre  Mr.  Moore  found  that  his  Turkish  colleague  was  Colonel 
Rushdi  Bey,  chief  of  the  police  force  of  the  Villayet  of  Syria.  It  was 
arranged  with  the  Governor  of  Acre  that  the  trial  should  be  held 
before  a  special  commission  consisting  of  Colonel  Rushdi  Bey,  Mr. 
Moore,  the  Cadi,  and  a  Mohammedan  and  a  Christian  member  of  the 
local  Medjliss. 

The  proceedings  commenced  on  Saturday,  the  11th  of  September,  in 
an  apai-tment  of  the  Serai  specially  allotted  for  the  purpose.  Lieutenants 
Conder  and  Kitchener  personally  attended  the  greater  part  of  the 
sittings.  Great  diflficulty  was  experienced  at  the  outset  in  discovering 
who  were  the  delinquents.  By  dint  of  cross-examination  thirteen  were 
inculpated. 

The  trial  closed  on  Tuesday,  the  28th  September.  At  the  subse- 
quent meeting  of  the  Commission  a  paper  was  produced  embodying  the 
views  of  the  Medjliss  (for  the  remaining  members  had  now  been  added 
to  the  original  three)  as  to  the  punishments  to  be  inflicted,  of  which  the 
Turkish  delegate  appeared  to  have  no  previous  knowledge.  Of  the 
sixteen  individuals  convicted,  eight  were  condemned  to  two  months', 
six  to  three  mouths',  and  two  to  one  year's  imprisonment,  and  £112  10s. 
was  awarded  as  damages.  The  eight  men  sentenced  to  two  months' 
incarceration  were  natives  of  Safed,  who  were  punished  chiefly  for  with- 
holding evidence  as  to  the  names  of  the  men  who  commenced  and  took 
an  active  part  in  the  attack.  The  other  eight  were  all  Algerines 
settled  at  Safed.  AH  Agha  Allan  (a  connection  of  the  Emir  Abd  el 
Kader),  who  was  the  primary  cause  of  the  fray,  and  five  others,  namely, 
Hadj  Aiab,  Mohammed  et  Tahir,  Ali  Zeyyan,  and  Mohammed  Rosa» 
were  condemned  to  three  months,  while  the  remaining  two,  namely, 
Kahloush,  and  the  negro  Massoud,  were  sentenced  to  one  year's  im- 
prisonment, because  they  were  seen  immediately  after  the  attack  with 
weapons  in  their  hands,  one  carrying  a  gun  and  a  sword,  and  the  other 
pistols  and  a  club. 

On  the  reading  of  the  paper  strong  remonstrances  were  made  as  to  the 
inadequacy  of  the  punishments,  and  on  these  representations  the  sum 


8  TRIAL    AT    ACRE. 

of  £37  lOs.  was  added  to  the  fine,  being  tlie  value  of  certain  things 
stolen  from  the  tents ;  a  month  was  added  to  the  smaller  periods  of  im- 
prisonment, and  six  months  to  the  sentence  on  Kahloush  and  Massoud. 
Mr.  Moore's  Turkish  colleague  concurred  with  him  as  to  the  shortness 
of  the  periods  of  imprisonment,  but  differed  as  to  the  amount  of  damages. 
The  latter  has  now  been  fixed  at  a  sum  which  we  hope  will  be  acceded 
to  by  the  Superior  Court  of  Damascus. 

It  is  also  intended  to  make  efforts  to  enforce  the  due  execution  of  the 
sentences  upon  the  guilty  persons.  The  satisfactory  result  of  the  trial 
is  due  in  a  great  measure  to  the  vigour  and  promptitude  of  Mr.  Noel 
Temple  Moore. 


NOTE  BY  CAPTAIN  WAEEEN. 

Sejit.  30th,  1875. 

I  WISH  to  correct  a  few  misapprehensions  into  which  Lieut.  Conder 
lias  fallen  in  recent  communications. 

Quarterly,  3rd  July,  1875,  p.  166.  Mahlcedah.  The  identification  of  El 
Moghar  as  Makkedah  was  made  by  me,  and  published  in  Quarterly  of 
1871,  p.  91,  and  in  "  Our  Work  in  Palestine,"  p.  217. 

Idem,  p.  134,  Masada.  The  "  Serpent's  Path  "  was  scaled  by  the  Eev. 
Dr.  Barclay  and  myself  in  1867,  and  I  have  no  doubt  is  still  accessible, 
though  rather  a  difficult  path  during  the  hot  season. 

Quarterly,  October,  1874,  p.  244.  I  examined  the  summit  of  Kurn 
Surtabeh  in  1867,  and  found  there  the  citadel  of  a  town,  a  good  plan  of 
which  was  then  in  existence,  published  by  Herr  Zschokke.  C.  W. 


NOTE  ON  M.  GANNEAU'S  PAPEE,  "THE  AEABS  IN 

PALESTINE." 

A  COREESPONDENT  scuds  US  the  following: — In  the  remarkable  paper 
on  "  The  Arabs  in  Palestine  "  that  appeared  in  your  last  number,  it  is 
stated  by  M.  Clermont-Ganneau,  at  p.  208,  that  the  fellaheen  of  Modern 
Palestine  are  apparently  the  descendants  of  the  ancient  Oanaanite 
nations.  It  will  be  very  interesting  to  ascertain  whether  this  is  the 
oase.  If  it  is,  it  throws  light  on  several  passages  in  Scripture  that  have 
perplexed  me  for  some  years,  I  mean  those  which  speak  of  these  ancient 
tribes  as  existing  in  the  last  days,  and  being  then  destroyed  by  the 
vengeance  of  God.  I  subjoin  a  list  of  these  passages.  It  will  be  found 
that  all  of  them  point  more  or  less  distinctly  to  this  fact.  Numbers 
xxiv.  17-24;  Isaiah  xi.  10-14;  xxv.  10;  xxxiv.  5,  6;  Ixiii.  1-6; 
Jeremiah  xlviii.,  xlis. ;  Ezekiel  xxv.,  xxxv. ;  Daniel  xi.  41-43;  Joel 
iii.  15  ;  Amos  i.  6  ;  ii.  5  ;  ix.  12  ;  Obadiah  17-21.  To  the  above  may  per- 
ha,ps  be  added— Psalm  Ix.  8 ;  Ixxxiii.  6-8,  and  possibly  other  passages. 


NOTES. 


DISCOVEEY  AT  JERUSALEM. 

Jerusalem,  Oct.  21,  1875. 
In  the  piece  of  ground  -west  of  the  north  road  leading  from  Damascus 
Gate,  about  150  yards  from  the  gate,  some  interesting  tombs  have  been 
i-ecently  discovered.  The  proprietor  was  digging  a  cistern,  and  about 
fifteen  feet  below  the  surface  came  upon  rock  which  sounded  hollow 
when  struck.  He  broke-  through  this  and  found  beneath  it  some 
sapulchral  chambers.  In  the  structure  of  the  tombs  there  is  nothing 
very  unusual,  but  in  one  of  the  chambers  is  a  large  stone  chest  which, 
when  discovered,  contained  human  bones.  It  is  cut  from  a  single  stone, 
measures  7  ft.  7  in.  in  length,  2  ft.  8  in.  in  breadth,  and  3  ft.  2  in.  iu 
height.  It  stands  upon  four  feat,  and  has  its  rim  cut  to  receive  a  lid. 
Some  broken  pieces  of  what  is  believed  to  have  been  the  lid  were  found 
near.  The  rock  roof  of  the  chamber  has  been  cut  away  in  order  to 
admit  this  chest,  which  is  evidently  of  far  later  date  than  the  tombs, 
which  appear  to  be  very  ancient.  Its  use  is  not  very  clear.  It  is  not 
an  ordinary  sarcophagus,  and  is  much  too  large  for  a  body.  The  most 
probable  supposition  that  suggests  itself  is  that  it  formed  a  cover  for  the 
protection  of  the  wooden  or  leaden  coffiu  of  some  distinguished  person 
which  has  long  since  been  rifled  and  removed.  Near,  perhaps  over,  this 
spot  once  stood  the  church  dedicated  to  St.  Stephen.  Is  it  possible  that 
in  this  chest  we  have  the  last  resting-place  of  Eudocia  ?  I  send  you  an 
excellent  plan  and  sections  of  the  tombs  made  by  M.  Schick. 

Thomas  Chaplin. 


THE  TAEIS  GEOGEAPHICAL  EXHIBITION. 

The  following  correspondence  has  been  received  on  the  map  work  sent 
to  the  Paris  Geographical  E.x^hibition  : — 

1.  Lieut. -Col.  T.  Montgomerie,  E.E.,  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Pales- 
tine Exploration  Fund. 

Sept.  SOth,  1875. 

To  the  Chairman  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you  that  the  Paris  Geographical 
Congress  intends  to  send  you  a  Letter  of  Distinction  in  recognition  of  tho 
services  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund.  This  letter  will  be  forwarded 
lo  you  in  due  course,  as  you  will  see  bj'  the  enclosed. 

I  have  the  honour  to  bo,  Sir, 
Your  obedient  servant, 

T.  Montgomerie,  Lt.-Col.  E.E., 
H.M.'s.  Commissioner,  Paris  Geographical  Congress. 


10  PAEIS    EXHIBITION. 

2.  The  Commissary- General,  International  Congress  of  Geographical 
Science,  to  the  Commissioner  for  Great  Britain. 

Paris,  le  IG  Septembre,  1875. 
Monsieur  lo  Commissaire, 
J'ai  rhonnour  de  vous  informer  que  le  Jury  International  des  recom- 
penses du  Congres  International  des  Sciences  Geographiques  a  decerne 
uue  recompense  de  I'ordre  le  plus  eieye  au  "  Palestine   Exploration 
Fund." 

Aussitut  que  les  rapports  du  Jury  mo  seront  parvenus,  je  m'empres- 
serai  de  vous  adresser  cette  Lettre  de  Distinction. 

Veuillez  agreer,  Monsieui-  le  Commissaire,  I'assurance  de  ma  haute 
consideration, 

Le  Commissaire  General, 

Bakon  Eeille. 


South  Kensington  Museum,  23rd  Dec,  1875. 
Sir, — I  am  directed  by  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  Council  on 
Education  to  acquaint  you  that  theii-  Lordships  have  received  through 
Her  Majesty's  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  with  a  request  that 
it  might  be  forwarded  to  its  proper  destination,  the  accomj)anying  testi- 
monial, or  letter  of  distinction,  awarded  to  the  Palestine  Exploration 
Fund  by  the  International  Geographical  Congress  which  was  held  this 
year  at  Paris. 

It  is  stated  in  the  despatch  received  from  Lord  Lyons  that  letters  of 
this  description  are  the  highest  testimonials  awarded  by  the  Congress  to 
exhibitors. 

I  am,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

NOEMAN  MACLEOD. 

The  President,  Palestine  Exploration  Fund, 
9,  PaU  Mall  East,  S.W. 


Societe  de  Geographie. 

Congres  International  des  Sciences  Gcographiqnes. 

Deuxieme  Session,  tenne  a  Paris. 

1875. 

Lettre  de  Distinction. 

Paris,  le  11  Aout,  1875. 
7e  Groupe. 

Monsieur  le  President,— L'Exposition  du  Palestine  Exploration 
FujN^D  a  paru  au  Jury  International  meriter  une  re'compense  cxceptionelle. 
Les  cartes,  plans,  reliefs,  photographies,  etc^.,  de  la  Terre  Samte, 
envoyes  par  cette  association  scientifique  au  Congres  de  Paris  presentent 
une  telle  importance  geographique  que  les  distinctions  prevues  par  le 
reglement  ne  pouvaient  leux  etre  a]3pliquees. 


EAKLY   CHRISTIAN    TOPOGRAPHY.  11 

J'ai  rhonneur,  au  noin  du  Cougres  de  porter  ii  voire  counaissance  cettc 
liauto  appreciation  du  Jury  et  de  vous  delivrer  pour  lo  PALESTINE  EXPLO- 
RATION Fund  la  presente  Lettre  de  Distinction  comme  la  recompense 
de  I'ordre  le  plus  eleve  decernee  :\  I'occasion  de  I'Exposition. 

Yeuillez  agreer,  M.  le  President,  I'assurance  de  ma  haute  consideration. 

Le  Vice-Amiral, 

President  du  Congres, 
Et  de  la  Societe  de  Geographic,  Paris, 

De  La  Eonciere-le-Noup.y. 
A  Monsieur  le  President  du  Palestine  Exploration  Fund. 


EAELY  CHEISTIAN  TOPOGEAPHY  IN  PALESTINE. 

The  study  of  the  topography  of  Palestine  in  periods  subsequent  to 
Biblical  times  is  not  merely  a  matter  of  antiquarian  curiosity,  it  is 
intimately  connected  with  the  more  important  study  of  the  topography 
of  the  Bible.  We  possess  valuable  works,  like  the  Onomasticon  of 
Eusebius  and  Jerome,  the  ancient  Itineraries,  and  the  media3val 
travels.  Christian  and  Jewish,  containing  hints  and  observations,  the 
importance  of  which  depends  on  the  trustworthy  character  of  the  work 
in  which  any  of  them  appear.  To  estimate  fairly  how  far  we  may  rely 
on  these  supplementary  authorities  we  must  consider  the  later  topo- 
graphy as  a  whole,  and  thence  deduce  the  amount  of  confidence  to  be 
placed  in  any  particular  statement  bearing  on  Biblical  questions. 

I  have  in  former  reports  touched  upon  mediajval  and  Crusading  sites, 
such  as  the  Tower  of  Eder,  the  two  Ascalons,  &c.,  but  a  few  remarks  on 
the  earlier  topography  of  Byzantine  Palestine  and  of  the  Onomasticon 
may  perhaps  be  of  value. 

Of  the  thirty-three  episcopal  towns  of  the  Palestina  Prima  of  the 
fifth-century  division  of  the  Holy  Land  (a  district  almost  exactly 
answering  to  the  Roman  Juda;a  aud  Samaria  taken  together),  six  only 
remained  unknown  in  the  time  of  Eeland,  who  has  carefully  ai  ranged 
the  whole  number  in  alphabetical  order.  These  six  are — -l^a  nns, 
between  Jericho  and  Sebaste  ;  Dioddianopolis,  south  of  Jerusuleui  ; 
Minois,  near  Gaza  ;  and  Somza  Toxus.  Miiiois  alone  is  immediately 
recognisable  as  being  the  present  ruin  of  El  Minieh,  on  the  north 
bank  of  Wady  P.eiah,  the  supposed  Eiver  of  Egypt. 

I. 

''  Dioddianopolis  was  a  town  of  some  little  importance  as  an  episcopal 
see,  and  the  bishops  appear  as  early  as  the  Council  of  Chalcedon,  4bl 
A.D.  R-eland,  however,  gives  no  indication  of  its  position,  aud  the 
identification  depends  on  a  passage  in  an  Italian  work  called  '"  Siria 
Sacra,"  of  which  I  discovered  a  copy  in  the  library  of  the  Carmel  Con- 
vent, dating  1695  a.d.     Here  we  find  that  Diocletianopolis  was  on  the 


12  EARLY    CHRISTIAN   TOPOGRAPHY. 

road  from  Jerusalem  to  Hebron,  and  "come  nota  il  Baudran"  was 
originally  called  Betlisaca.  Athanasius,  mentioned  in  the  papers  of 
the  Synod  of  Jerusalem,  was  one  of  its  bishops  under  the  Patriarch 
Peter. 

Now  we  find  from  Reland  that  the  southern  town  of  Bezek,  probably 
the  0e^€K-n  of  Ant.  v.  1,  was  on  the  same  road  fi'om  Hebron  to  Jerusalem, 
and  two  miles  from  Bethzur.  It  was  of  this  town  that  Adonibezek  was 
lord  (Judges  i.  4),  whoso  thumbs  and  great  toes  were  cut  off  by  the 
men  of  Judah  after  a  great  battle  against  the  Perizzites  and  Canaanites 
in  Bezek.  Reland,  with  his  usual  critical  acumen,  proposes  the 
identity  of  this  site  with  the  Bezeth  of  the  book  of  Maccabees ;  a 
measurement  on  the  map  leads  to  the  same  conclusion,  for  the  large 
ruin  of  Beit  Z'ata,  which  I  have  proposed  to  identify  with  Bezeth,  lies 
about  two  miles  north  of  Beit  Sur,  the  ancient  Bethzur.  It  is  interest- 
ing to  observe  the  existence  of  those  niched  vaults  which  Dr.  Tobler,  in 
•confirmation  of  my  suggestion  on  the  subject  when  wi-iting  about  Beit 
Jibrin,  informs  us  were  originally  JRoman]  columbaria ;  they  are  not 
common  in  Palestine,  and  occur  only  in  parts  where  other  indications 
of  Roman  work  exist.  Here,  therefore,  as  at  Beisan,  Lydda,  Amwas, 
and  in  other  places,  the  Hebrew  or  Aramaic  name  has  outlived  the 
more  pretentious  title  conferred  by  the  conquerors,  and  the  Diocle- 
tianopolis  of  the  early  Christians,  the  Bezeth  of  the  Maccabees,  and  the 
Bezek  of  the  Old  Testament,  may,  it  would  seem,  be  identified,  with 
tolerable  certainty,  with  the  important  ruins  surrounding  the  modem 
village  of  Kufin. 

II. 

Of  Sozn::a  I  have  spoken  in  former  reports.  It  seems  clear  that  the 
site  of  the  town  lay  between  Ca3sarea  Maritima  and  Sebaste.  It  is 
variously  written  Soscuris  and  Sorucis,  whence  the  transition  to  Sei'ur, 
which  I  proposed  last  year,  is  easy.  Deir  Serur,  the  town  discovered  by 
us  between  Sebaste  and  Cajsarea,  shows  signs  of  having  been  a  large 
and  important  place  in  early  Christian  times. 

III. 

Betliar,  another  site  mentioned  in  the  Itineraries,  is  of  great  import- 
ance as  serving  to  fix  the  position  of  Antipatris.  It  is  called  Bethar 
both  in  the  Antonine  and  in  the  Jerusalem  or  Bordeau  Pilgi'im's 
Itinerary;  its  distance  from  Cajsarea  is  variously  given  as  sixteen  and 
eighteen  Roman  miles,  and  that  from  Antipatris  was  ten  Roman  miles. 
It  appears  to  me  to  agree  well  with  the  present  village  of  Tireh  on  the 
road  from  Ras  el  'Ain  to  Ca^sarea,  which  is  nearly  nineteen  Roman 
miles  from  the  last  noted,  and  about  nine  from  Ras  el  'Ain,  making 
twenty-eight  in  all.  This  completes  the  list  of  distances  round  Anti- 
patris, which  stand  as  below,  affording  pretty  satisfactory  evidence  of 
identity  of  Ras  el  'Ain  with  Antipatris  : — 


EARLY    CHRISTIAN    TOroORAPIIY,  13 

LyJda  to  Antipatiis  12  Koman  miles  ;  to  Ras  el  Ain  Hi  Roman  miles. 
Tiieh  „  10  „  „         „       9 

Ccesarea         „  28  „  „         „     28 

Gal-ula  (GalgiUeh)        (5  „  „         „       6 

Jalla  (150  stadia)         Vj  „  (!)  „         ,,     13 

The  distance,  150  stadia,  given  by  Josephus,  agrees  with  no  proposed 
site  for  Antipatris,  but  if  we  read  pi  =  110  for  pu  =  150,  a  change  easily 
made,  we  get  13f  Roman  miles,  which  is  quite  near  enovigh. 

IV. 

2'he  Onomasflcon.  In  his  valuable  introductory  chapter  Reland  sums 
lip  carefully  the  merits  and  defects  of  this  great  work  as  far  as  his 
information  allowed  him  to  criticise  it.  The  merits  he  eniimerates  are 
five,  the  defects  five,  as  below  : — 

Merits.        1.  Certainty  of  correct  reading  where  Greek  and  Lathi  agree. 

2.  The  annotations  and  corrections  of  Jerome. 

3.  The  additional  information  given  by  Jerome. 

4.  Mutual  corrections  in  errors  of  orthography,  names,  &c. 

5.  Passages  omitted  by  Jerome  recoverable  in  the  Greek  text. 
Defects.     1.  The  principal  places  whence  measurements   are  made  are  not 

defined  as  to  relative  position. 

2.  The   four   quarters   of   the   compass    alone  are   noticed,    minor 

divisions  being  disregarded. 

3.  Relative  positions  often  important  places  are  not  given. 

4.  The  descriptions  are  sometimes  vague, 
f).  Irrelevant  matter  is  inserted. 

To  this  list  I  would  propose  to  add  another  merit  and  another 
defect : — 

Merit.  6.  The  minute  acquaintance  sllo^^^l  by  Jerome  wich  the  out-of-the- 
way  parts  as  well  as  ^vith  the  more  frequented  in  Palestine, 

Defect.  6.  The  impossible  identifications  of  Scriptural  sites  occasional]  v 
occurring  dependent  on  a  similarity  of  name  alone. 

The  real  value  of  the  Onomasticon  and  other  topographical  notices 
by  Eusebius  and  Jerome,  seems  to  me  to  consist  in  the  accurate  know- 
ledge of  the  country  shown  by  the  axxthors.  That  the  distances  should 
when  the  text  is  uncorrnpted,  be  correct,  is  not  a  matter  of  astonish- 
ment when  we  I'emember  that  the  pi'incipal  Roman  roads,  to  which 
alone  they  refer,  were  marked  with  milestones,  which  remain  in  numbers 
to  the  present  day. 

As  regards  the  identification  of  ancient  sites,  the  only  advantage 
possessed  by  these  authors  was  in  the  more  perfect  preservation  of  the 
nomenclature  in  their  time  as  compared  with  the  nineteenth  century, 
but  it  seems  plain  that  they  were  far  more  hasty  than  modern  students 
of  Mr.  Grove's  school  would  be  in  fixing  upon  a  site  of  similar  name 
without  reference  to  other  rcciuisites. 

I  may  add  a  few  examples  which  seem  to  bear  out  these  views,  and 


14  EARLY    CHRISTIAN    TOrOGRAPHY. 

to  sliow  that  tlie  value  of  the  Onomasticon  lies  in  its  facts  and  not  in 
its  deductioos : — 

(1st.)  As  regards  knowledge  of  the  country.  Anah,  a  town  of  Judah, 
is  identified  by  Eusebiiis  with  Betoannaba,  four  miles  east  of  Lydda- 
Jerome,  however,  adds  a  note  that  many  supposed  it  to  be  Beth-anna- 
bam,  eight  miles  in  the  same  direction.  Now  in  a  direction  south-east 
of  Lydda  we  find  at  the  present  day,  at  the  distance  of  five  Roman  miles, 
the  village  of  Annabeh  on  a  road  which  leads  five  miles  farther  to  Beit 
Nuba.  In  these  I  think  we  can  hordly  fail  to  recognise  the  Betoannaba 
and  Bethannabam  of  Jerome. 

Under  this  very  head  we  have,  on  the  other  hand,  a  remarkable 
instance  of  misidentification ;  neither  of  the  sites  is  within  the  territory 
of  Judah,  and  the  town  of  Anab  lay  in  the  region  of  the  Negeb  or 
Daroma,  Vt'here  we  fixed  it  as  west  of  Debir  (Dhdheriyeh),  some  thirty 
miles  from  the  place  where  it  is  fixed  by  the  Onomasticon. 

Other  instances  occur  as  follows  : — Three  Gilgals  are  noticed  in  the 
Bible,  and  occur  in  the  modern  nomenclature  ;  with  all  of  these  Jerome 
was  acqviainted,  and  he  describes  them  all  accurately.  Salem,  near  to 
CEnon,  is  placed  south  of  Beisan,  but  Jerome  fails  not  to  notice  another 
Salem  eighteen  miles  from  the  same  centre,  but  situate  in  the  great 
plain  of  Esdraelon.  The  distance  agrees  exactly  with  the  village  cf 
Salim,  near  Ta'anik.  Jerome  even  notices  that  the  native  place  of 
Nahum  the  Elkoshite  was  pointed  out  to  him  in  Galilee,  near  Jordan 
— no  doubt  the  present  Elkasyun,  near  the  Huleh  lake,  giving  us  an 
idea  of  the  extent  of  the  more  out-of-the-way  parts  of  Palestine  visited 
by  this  great  author  in  his  wanderings. 

(2nd.)  The  instances  of  incorrect  identification  are  very  numerous. 
Thus,  Betam,  or  Bethemin,  which  lay  four  miles  from  the  Terebinth  of 
Mamre,  is  evidently  the  modern  Beit  'Ainun  at  aboiit  that  distance  from 
Eamet  el  'Amleh,  where  the  terebinth  was  in  the  fourth  century  sup- 
posed to  have  stood.  Yet  Eusebius  would  identify  it  with  Ain,  a  city 
of  Simeon  lying  in  the  Beersheba  desert.  Bareca  and  the  Yalley  of 
Blessings  are  now  identified  with  the  ruin  of  Breikut  and  Wady  Arrub. 
(I  may  observe  in  passing  that  W.  el  Arrub  is  probably  the  Ai-ruboth  of 
1  Kings  V.  10,  in  which  case  the  Socoh  mentioned  with  it  would  be 
Shiukh,  a  town  close  to  Wady  el  Arrub  on  the  south.)  Jerome  makes 
Kefr  Barucha  to  be  identical  with  the  modern  Beni  Naim.  He  further 
mentions  a  Bareca  as  near  Ashdod,  probably  the  modern  Burka,  close  to 
Esdud. 

V. 

A  few  more  obscure  sites  mentioned  by  the  Onomasticon  may  be 
very  easily  identified.  Thus,  Kaphar  Zachariah,  near  which  existed  the 
House  of  the  Terebinth,  and  where  the  tomb  of  Zachariah  was  found,  is 
no  doubt  the  modern  Kefr  Zalxria,  near  which  is  a  Christian  ruin 
called  Deir  el  Butm— Convent  of  the  Terebinth.  Maspha,  a  Mizpeh 
lying  north  of  Eleutheropolis,  is  no  doubt  Khirlet  el  Mesherfeh  in  the 


EARLY    CnrvISTIAN    TOrOGllArilY.  15 

same  direction,  the  name  having  the  same  meaning  as  the  Hebrew 
Mispeh.  Bera,  eight  miles  north  of  Eleutheropolis,  is  evidently  the 
modern  Khirhet  cl  Bireh  at  about  that  distance.  If,  as  M.  GanneaiT 
thinks,  the  Timnath  of  the  Onomasticon  is  to  be  sought  near  the  road 
from  Eleutheropolis  to  Jerusalem,  a  Khirhet  Tihneh  will  be  found  to 
exist  in  that  direction,  besides  the  two  well-known  ruins  of  the  same 
name  which  probably  represent  Timnah  of  Samson  and  Timnath  of 
Joshua.  To  nearly  all  these  sites,  correctly  described  by  Eusebius  and 
Jerome,  incorrect  identifications  or  suggestions  are  added  by  those 
authors. 

The  Survey  of  Palestine  will,  I  hope,  show  clearly  that  the  topo- 
gi'aphical  lists  of  Joshua  are  neither  fragmentary  nor  unsystematic ; 
that,  as  I  have  before  pointed  out,  the  towns  are  grouped  under  their 
royal  cities,  and  occur  in  regular  order.  Such  classification  was  first 
hinted  by  Mr.  Grrove  ;  the  new  identifications  by  M.  Ganneau  observe 
the  rule,  and  so  agree  well  with  those  of  the  Survey.  It  seems  to  me, 
therefore,  that  identifications,  whether  ancient  or  modern,  which  dis- 
regard such  conditions,  and  trust,  as  did  Jerome  or  Eusebius,  to  simi- 
larity of  sound  alone,  are  but  of  little  value,  and  serve  rather  to  confuse 
what  we  have  already  made  certain. 

A  place  called  Chashi  is  mentioned  by  the  Onomasticon  as  a  deserted 
spot  near  Adullam.  It  seems  identical  with  the  Achzib  or  Chezib  of 
Josh.  XV.  44,  which  again  appears  Micah  ^i.  14,  in  connection  with 
Maresha  and  Adullam.  It  seems  also  likely  to  be  the  same  as  Cason 
(Kaauv,  LXX.  Alex.),  translated  in  authorised  version  "  in  the  harvest 
time,"  which  if  a  town  was  near  Adullam.  This  forms  a  good  check 
both  on  the  identification  of  Adullam  by  M.  Ganneau  and  on  my  own 
identification  of  Achzib  or  Chezib  with  Khirbet  Kussa,  "the  ruin  of  the 
tale  "  taking  the  place  of  the  Hebrew  "town  of  liars,"  and  the  site  being 
at  a  distance  of  about  five  miles  from  'Aid  el  Mieh.  This  is  an  instance 
of  the  true  value  of  notices  in  the  Onomasticon. 

Abel  Meholali  is  a  case  in  which  the  identification  of  the  Onomasticon 
seems  correct.  It  existed  eight  miles  south  of  Beisan,  and  has  there- 
fore been  i^laced  on  Murray's  new  map  at  a  ruin  called  Shukk.  It 
seems,  however,  to  have  escaped  notice  that  the  name  still  exists  under 
the  form  'Ain  Helwe,  in  the  plain  east  of  Shukk  and  west  of  Sa'kut,  the 
"  meadow  of  circles  "  being  the  broad  downs  of  the  south  end  of  the 
Beisan  valley,  but  the  name  now  transformed  into  "  Sweet  Spring." 

Oeba  of  Horsemen,  a  town  on  Carmel,  is  often  mentioned  in  the 
Itineraries.  Eusebius  places  it  at  Gabe,  sixteen  miles  from  Cassarea. 
The  j)lace  is  of  importance  as  defining  the  limit  of  Lower  Galilee.  It 
is  evidently  the  modern  Jeb'a,  on  the  west  slopes  of  Carmel,  not  far  from 
'Athlit,  but  this  village  is  not  to  be  found  on  Murray's  new  map  of 
Palestine. 

VI. 

A  few  mediseval  sites  from  other  sources  may  be  mentioned  in  the 
same  connection.     Bethelia  was  a  town  with  a  famous  heathen  temple 


16  EARLY    CHRISTIAN    TOrOORAniT. 

situate  close  to  Gaza.  It  is  no  doubt  the  modern  Beit  Lehia,  wliicli 
lies  among  the  olive  groves  north  of  the  city,  and  retains  its  religious 
character  by  the  mosque  and  minaret  -which  no  doubt  replace  the 
ancient  temple.  Caphar  Oamala  was  the  place  to  which  Gamaliel, 
according  to  a  venerable  tradition,  conveyed  the  bones  of  St.  Stephen 
after  martyrdom,  and  where  they  were  afterwards  miraculously  ;dis- 
covered.  It  was  twenty  miles  from  Jerusalem,  and  may  therefore  be 
identified  with  Beit  Jemal,  near  Yermuk,  an  identification  which  I  do 
not  find  noticed  in  the  Bible  Dictionary. 

In  a  former  report  from  Beit  'Atab  I  proposed  with  some  diffidence 
that  the  little  tomb  house  of  Sheikh  Samit,  standing  prominently  above 
the  valley  of  Soreg,  near  Ser'a,  might  have  some  connection  with  a 
tradition  of  the  tomb  of  Samson.  I  now  find,  in  the  course  of  my 
studies  of  mediaeval  writers,  that  as  late  as  1334  a.d.  the  tomb  of 
Samson  was  shown  to  Isaac  Chelo,  in  this  same  village,  which  renders 
the  connection  with  Sheikh  Samit  highly  probable.* 

In  the  same  Jewish  Itinerary  we  find  mention  of  Roma  or  liamah, 
where  was  the  cave  of  Caisrau  whence  the  Messias  was  expected  to 
appear.  I  have  shown  in  a  former  report  that  this  cave  is  to  be  found 
at  the  modern  ruined  village  of  Rumeh.  The  tradition  originates  in  an 
extraordinary  Targum  on  Exod.  xii.  42,  which  runs  as  follows :  "  For 
Moses  goeth  forth  from  the  desert  and  King  Messias  from  Eoma." 
Isaac  Chelo,  as  well  as  other  Jewish  travellers  of  the  same  date,  show 
throughout  a  familiarity  with  the  Targums  and  Talmud  which  is  very 
valuable  in  some  of  the  Galilcean  sites,  as  I  hope  later  to  be  able  to 
show  in  the  case  of  Capei'naum. 

VII. 

The  advent  of  the  Crusaders  acted  as  a  disturbing  element  in  the 
topography  of  Palestine.  Their  knowledge  of  the  country  was  very 
imperfect,  their  imitation  of  Arab  names  is  barbarous,  and  the  mistakes 
made  in  sites  not  generally  famous  are  numerous.  The  passion  for 
localising  sacred  memories  had  reached  its  height  in  the  ninth  century. 
Thus  in  700  a.d.  Arculphus  visited  only  seven  or  eight  holy  places  in 
Jerusalem,  but  Bernard  the  wise,  in  867  a.d.,  notices  about  twenty, 
and  a  few  more  were  added  in  the  twelfth  century.  A  well-known 
instance  of  Crusading  error  exists  in  the  identification  of  the  modern 
Arsuf,  a  coast  town  north  of  Jaffa,  with  Antipatris,  Asher,  and  even 
Ashdod.  In  the  same  way  William  of  Tyre  places  Porphyi-ion,  which 
stood,  according  to  the  ancient  Itineraries,  between  Sidon  and  Beirut, 
at  Haifa,  and  accordingly  we  find  that  the  Bishop  of  Haifa,  or  Por- 
phyrion,  was  u.nder  the  metropolitan  of  Ca3sarea.  This  error  has  a 
certain  value  because  it  serves  to  show  that  the  town  of  Sycaminos  is 
not  to  be  placed  at  Haifa,  but  as  having  a  bishop  sei^arate  and  distinct 

*  I  see  that  M.  Ganneau  {Quarterly  Statement,  October,  1875,  p.  211)  men- 
tions a  tradition,  evidently  of  Cliristian  origin,  in  which  Sheikh  Samit  appears  as 
the  brother  of  Shanishim  el  Jebbar. 


nOCK-CUT    TOMBS.  17 

from  the  Bishop  of  I'orphyriou,  must  be  considered  a  separate  site,  and 
placed  probably  (from  its  distance  in  the  Antonini  Itenerary)  at  Tell  el 
Semak,  where  ai-e  remains  of  a  considerable  eai-ly  Christian  town,  as 
pointed  out  by  the  late  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  Drake  and  by  myself  in  former 
reports. 

The  Crusaders,  as  Keland  remarks,  even  confounded  the  Sea  of 
Galilee  with  the  Mediterranean,  and  placed  the  site  of  some  places 
mentioned  in  the  New  Testament  as  near  Tiberias  on  the  shore  of  the 
Mediterranean.  Thus  they  supposed  a  connection  between  the  name 
of  the  town  Caiapha  or  Caiaphas  (the  modern  Haifa),  which  Benjamin 
of  Tudela  makes  to  have  been  founded  by  Caiaphas  the  high  priest,  and 
Cephas,  the  Greek  name  of  Simon  Peter.  Hence,  at  Haifa  the  Crusad- 
ing clergy  showed  the  rock  where  Simon  Peter  fished,  possibly  the 
present  Tell  el  Semak,  or  "  mound  of  the  fish."  A  second  rock  was 
shown  at  Jaffa,  probably  near  the  Church  of  St.  Peter,  with  the  same 
tradition.  To  this  curious  confusion  of  ideas  may  also  perhaps  be 
traced  the  existence  of  a  Crusading  Capernaum  between  Caipha  and 
Caesarea. 

In  a  former  report  [Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1875,  p.  90)  I  supposed 
this  site,  called  Kefr  Tauchumin  by  Jerome  and  the  Talmud,  and  Kefr 
Thaucum  or  Capernaum  by  later  writers,  to  be  the  present  Tantura ; 
the  distances  given  by  Benjamin  of  Tudela,  however,  serve  to  place  the 
Crusading  Capernaum  at  the  modern  village  of  Kefr  Lam,  where  are 
remains  of  a  mediaeval  fortress.  This  will  appear  from  the  Itinerary  as 
below  : — 

Caiphas  to  Capernaum,  4  parasaugs  =  14  English  miles.  "^  ]3eaiamin  Tudela. 
,,  Cffisarea       10  ,,  35  ,,  J 

Th«  true  distances  are : — 

Haifa  to  Kefr  Lam,  14  English  mih-s. 
,,         Civsarea,     36  ,, 

These  brief  notes  will,  I  hope,  be  enough  to  show  that  a  great  amount 
of  incidental  information  as  to  scriptiu-al  topography  is  to  be  obtained 
by  study  of  the  obscurer  sites  mentioned  in  Talmudic  and  early  Chris- 
tian writers.  Where,  however,  the  more  famous,  such  as  Capernaum, 
Gilgal,  &c.,  are  concerned,  ecclesiastical  tradition  of  the  middle  ages 
tends  rather  to  confuse  than  to  assist  the  student.  C.  E.  C. 


ROCK-CUT  TOMBS. 


The  question  of  rock-cut  sepulchres  being  one  of  special  interest  in 
Palestine  as  connected  with  the  great  question  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre, 
I  may  pei-haps  be  allowed  a  few  words  to  supplement  Dr.  Tobler's 
notice  in  the  last  Quarterly  Statement. 

c 


1«  EOCK-CUT    TOMBS. 

In  tbe  course  of  tlie  Survey  I  have  examined  some  400  or  500  tomls, 
and  have  obtained  about  100  plans,  endeavouring  always  to  get  some 
indication  of  the  date  of  the  structure. 

The  four  species  mentioned  by  Dr.  Tobler  may  be  divided  into  two 
groups:  1st,  those  with  hokim ;  2nd,  those  with  side  loculi.  He  does 
not  meution  the  other  varieties  common  in  Palestine,  viz.,  1st,  graves 
not  in  rock  chambers ;  2nd,  x-ock-simh  graves  with  two  loculi. 

Of  each  of  these  four  divisions  there  are  specimens  serving  roughly  to 
fix  the  date. 

1st  Group.  Koltim  tomhs. — These  have  been  variously  described  as 
tombs  with  the  '-perpendicular,"  "pigeon-hole,"  "oven,"  'deep," 
'•sunk,"  or  "  long'' loculus,  to  all  of  which  titles  Dr.  Tobler  objects, 
proposing  the  very  simple  expedient  of  securing  uniformity  of  descrip- 
tion by  returning  to  the  original  Jewish  title,  which  I  intend  in' future 
to  adopt.  Such  tombs  are  carefully  described  in  the  Talmud,  and  the 
dimensions  there  given  tally  with  the  average  size  of  cbamber  and 
graves  of  this  class. 

There  seems  to  me  evidence  in  Palestine  itself  of  these  tombs  being 
Jewish  work.  In  many  cases  the  JcoJd/n  exist  in  one  chamber,  with 
loculi  ditTerently  arranged  in  another,  but  in  every  case,  as  far  as  my 
experience  goes,  it  is  the  outer,  or  more  ancient  chamber,  which  has 
the  JcoJcim,  whilst  the  loculi  exist  in  the  inner  or  more  recently  ex- 
cavated. 

The  scanty  inscriptions  in  Hebrew  which  I  have  found  on  tombs  have 
all  belonged  to  tombs  with  holdrn,  and  I  have  never  seen  a  Christian  or 
a  Greek  inscription  on  such  a  tomb.  The  seven-branched  candlestick 
we  have  also  found  only  on  tombs  with  lolcim. 

Another  indication  of  antiquity  may  be  found  in  the  osteophagi  to 
be  discovered  often  in  these  chambers.  They  bear,  as  described  by 
M.  Ganneau,  Hebrew  inscriptions  which  he  dates  at  about  the  first 
century  a.d.  The  first  of  these  inscriptions  were  communicated  to 
the  Fund  in  August,  1873,  by  Dr.  Chaplin.  As  the  osteophagi  are 
not  sufficiently  large  for  an  entire  body,  yet  contain  the  bones  of 
adults,  it  seems  evident,  as  he  then  remaiked,  that  they  can  only  have 
been  used  after  the  body  had  decayed  and  the  skeleton  fallen  to  pieces. 
If,  then,  they  were  used  to  preserve  piously  the  bones  of  former  occu- 
pants of  the  kokwi,  when  it  was  desired  to  place  other  bodies  in  these 
receptacles,  it  seems  to  argue  a  great  antiquity  for  the  kokim. 

Thiit  further  accommodation  was  often  so  obtained  without  the  labour 
of  rock  excavation,  we  see  clearly  at  Beisan,  where  sarcophagi  of  full 
size  have  been  ranged  parallel  with  the  side  loculi  of  the  chamber. 

2nd.  Group.  Side  loculi  tomhs.— UnAai  this  head  I  would  include  the 
three  varieties  mentioned  by  Dr.  Tobler  as  shelf  graves,  trough  graves, 
and  sunk  graves. 

The  disposition  is  in  either  case  the  same.  An  arched  recess,  gene- 
rally G  to  7  feet  long,  and  Ih  feet  wide,  and  5  to  6  feet  high,  is  cut  at  the 
back  and  on  either  side  of  the  chamber.     The  loculus  consists  either  of 


HOCK- CUT    TOMBS.  10 

f!,  grave  sunk  iu  this  recess,  or  more  generally  there  is  a  rock  wall 
reaching  2  to  3  feet  up  in  front,  and  thus  forming  a  deep  sarcophagus 
covered  with  flat  slabs.  If  the  recess  is  not  on  the  level  of  the  chamber 
floor  we  have  the  shelf  loculns.  In  either  case  the  body  lay  with  its 
side  (not  with  its  feet)  to  the  wall  of  the  chamber.  Thus  the  title  side 
locidus  applies  to  all.  There  seems  no  distinction  of  date  between  the 
three  kinds,  but  rather  one  of  labour,  the  better  tombs  containing  the 
trough  loculus,  which  required  more  labour,  though  more  than  one 
kind  may  be  found  in  the  same  tomb. 

In  some  cases  more  than  one  loculus  exists  under  one  arch  or  arco- 
solium.  A  sort  of  transition  style  may  be  recognised  where  two  loculi 
exist  with  a  space  between  under  one  arcosolium,  but  endwise  to  th«; 
out^r  chamber  like  holdm. 

These  tombs  appear  later  than  the  hokira  tombs.  I  measured  a  great 
number  of  valuable  examples  with  Greek  inscriptions  (some  known)  at 
Suk  Wady  Barada  (ancient  Abila).  In  Palestine  itself  I  found  an 
example  with  a  Greek  graphita  at  Sheikh  Bureik.  The  inner  or  more 
recent  chambers  of  the  holiitn  tombs  have  often  side  loculi.  At  Shefa 
'Amr,  a  seat  of  the  early  Eabbis,  I  visited  such  a  tomb  highly  decorated 
"with  Christian  emblems  and  a  Greek  inscription.  Unless  we  suppose 
that  other  nations  buried  their  dead  with  the  Jews,  we  must  conclude 
this  to  be  a  later  Jewish  style  of  tcmb.  This  fact  may  be  cited  in 
favour  of  the  authenticity  of  the  traditional  Holy  Sepulchre. 

3rd  Group.  Graves  wihout  chambers. — The  Romans  in  Palestine  seem 
to  have  used  columbaria  or  sarcophagi,  but  a  few  examples  occur,  as 
near  Seffurieh,  of  sarcophagi  sunk  in  the  rock,  and  covered  with  the 
usual  lid.  Another  kind  of  grave,  Avhich  is  indeed  the  arcosolium  cut 
in  the  face  of  a  cliff  instead  of  within  a  chamber,  occurs  in  cemeteries 
of  the  second  gi-oup.  The  columbaria  exist  in  well-known  Roman  sites, 
such  as  that  of  Diocletianopolis,  which  I  hope  to  show  clearly  is  to  be 
found  at  the  modern  village  of  Kufin,  an  interesting  identification,  and, 
as  I  think,  quite  new. 

4th  Group.  Bock-sunk  tombs. — By  this  term  I  have  invariably  described 
a  kind  of  sepulcre  not  mentioned  by  Dr.  Tobler,  and  scarcely  known  to 
exist  near  Jerusalem.  One  example  occurs  on  Olivet,  and  others  were 
planned  by  M.  Gauneau  in  the  Kerm  es  Sheikh.  It  consists  of  a  trough 
some  6i  feet  long,  3  feet  wide,  and  from  4  to  j  feet  deep,  sunk  in  the  flat 
surface  of  the  I'ock,  and  covered  by  a  great  block  7  feet  long ;  on  either 
long  side  of  the  trough  exists  a  recess  or  arcosolium,  with  a  grave  sunk 
in  its  floor.  Thus  the  tomb  held  two  bodies,  and  no  more,  placed  side- 
by  side,  with  the  trough  between. 

According  to  native  tradition  these  tombs  are  Christian.  A  large 
cemetery  of  such  exists  in  connection  with  a  mediaeval  tower  at  Ik  sal. 
and  is  known  as  the  Frank  cemetery.  The  tombs  are  supposed  to  have 
held  man  and  wife. 

Several  of  this  class  of  tombs  give  instances  of  Greek  Christian  in- 
scriptions, as  that  found  by  M.  Ganneau  at  Kh.  Zakeriyeh.  In  the  one, 
on  Olivet  were  found  two  leaden  coffins  with  crosses  upon  them. 


20  KALAMON. 

None  of  these  systems  of  burial  seem  to  have  had  auy  reference  to 
orientation,  and  are  hence  not  used  by  the  Moslems. 

A  few  specimens  of  structural  sepulchres  on  the  first  or  second  system 
exist  in  Palestine. 

Thus  arranged  and  dated,  we  find  tlie  method  of  sepulture  used  by 
each  succeeding  race,  Jew,  Heathen,  or  Christian,  in  Palestine. 

The  Crusaders  seem  to  have  been  buried  as  in  Europe,  thus  we  may 
confine  group  No.  4  to  the  Byzantine  period,  when  a  great  deal  of 
rock  excavation  was  executed. 

A  careful  paper,  should  I  have  time  to  draw  it  up,  with  plans  of  the 
important  specimens  collected  by  us,  and  professional  opinion  on  the 
architectural  details,  would,  I  hope,  in  our  present  state  of  information, 
go  far  to  settle  the  question  of  date,  which  would  render  the  sepuldires 
thus  classified  of  extreme  value  to  antiquarians.  C.  R.  C 


KALAMON. 


In  his  paper  on  the  Jerusalem  Itinerary,  published  in  the  "Bulletin 
de  la  Societe'  de  Ge'ographie"  for  July,  1875,  M.  Gauneau  calls  attention 
to  the  omission  of  the  name  Kalamun  upon  our  map  of  Carmel  as  well 
as  upon  those  of  M,  Guerin  and  Vandevelde,  whilst  it  is  to  be  found  on 
the  maps  of  Robinson,  Ritter,  and  Jacotin.  The  explanation  is  simple, 
and,  as  in  many  other  cases  in  Palestine,  I  have  little  doubt  that  the 
place  has  two  names,  the  second  of  which  is  suggested  by  M.  Ganneau, 
and  actually  appears  on  our  map. 

Eitter  places  Kalamon  north-east  of  El  Keniseh.  Kalamon  is  men- 
tioned by  Isaac  Chelo  (1334  A.D.)  as  an  important  ruin  near  the  sea, 
between  Sycamines  and  Coesarea.  The  French  army,  in  returning  from 
Acca,  passed  through  a  place  of  the  same  name,  and  in  the  Notitia  of 
the  Roman  knights  it  is  mentioned  as  the  quarters  of  one  cohort  and  of 
certain  native  mounted  archers.  There  is,  therefore,  little  doubt  as  to 
its  whereabouts,  and  M.  Ganneau  concludes  thus:  "Far  induction  la 
position  de  Kalamoun  tomberait  d'apres  ce  raisonnement  uu  peu  au  nord 
du  point  marque  oW  dans  la  carte  du  Lieutenant  Condor  en  face  de 
Perch  Iskander."  This  position  agrees  with  that  given  on  Murray's 
new  map. 

I  find,  on  inspecting  the  .specimen  map  of  Carmel,  published  in  the 
Palestine  Exploration  Fund  Quarterly  for  January,  1875,  that  the  "point 
marked  oW"  in  questiou  is  a  well.  M.  Ganneau  appears  to  have  mis- 
taken the  small  circle  which  in  large  surveys  generally  marks  a  well 
for  the  letter  o  ;  W.  of  course  stands  for  well.  A  little  to  the  north- 
east is  a  ruin  of  some  importance  occupying  the  position  of  the  Kulmon 
of  the  new  Murray  ;  it  is  called  by  us  Khirbet  Kefr  el  Samir,  and  con- 
tains rock-cut  tombs.    On  reference  to  the  ruiu  list  I  find  it  to  consist 


KALAMOX.  21 

of  heaps  of  stones,  and  that  a  lintel  with  a  cross  cut  on  it  was  observed — 
an  indication,  as  we  suppose,  of  the  place  having  been  inhabited  by  the 
early  Christians  before  the  time  of  the  Crusades. 

M.  Ganncau  himself  suggests  the  identity  of  Kalamon  and  the  Castra 
of  the  Talmud  (mtSDp).  This  site  is  mentioned  by  the  Gemara  as 
situate  in  Galilee  near  Khiphab,  apparently  the  modern  Haifa,  and  it  is 
noted  as  one  of  the  phices  inhabited  by  the  Minim  or  pagans.  "  The 
Jews  dwell  in  Khiphah,  but  the  Minim  in  Castra"  (cf.  Reland,  s.  v.)- 
This  mention  of  its  inhabitants  makes  it  almost  certain  that  the  Castra 
of  tho  Talmud  is  the  Castra  Samaritorum  noticed  by  Antony  of  Piacenza 
as  near  Sugamia  (Sycamiuos),  and  beneath  the  monastery  of  tho  prophet 
Elijah.  One  other  step  alone  is  required  in  tho  identification,  and  I 
think  it  will  hardly  be  denied  that  Kefr  el  Samir  (village  of  the  Samir) 
is  the  corrui>tion  of  Castra  Samaritorum  (camp  of  the  Samaritans),  for 
the  simple  r'^asou  that  tho  monastery  in  question  is  none  other  than  tho 
Dayr  at  Ain  Siah,  a  spring  known  to  the  Carmelite  monks  as  the  Foun- 
tain of  Elijah. 

It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  Antony  of  Piacenza  refers  to  the  convent 
at  present  existing,  which  dates  only  from  1825  A.D.,  or  to  its  prede- 
cessor on  the  same  spot  founded  in  1631. 

Tne  convent  of  St.  Brocardus  was  founded  in  1209  at  the  Fountain 
of  Elijah.  In  1238  the  monks  were  all  massacred  and  thrown  into  a 
laro-e  reservoir  still  existing  beneath  tho  fountain,  whence  the  valley  over 
which  the  ruins  of  the  convent  stand  is  known  as  the  Valley  of  Martyrs. 
A  curious  legend  of  the  petrification  of  certain  fruits  by  the  prophet 
attaches  to  the  place.  The  owner  of  the  garden  existing  in  Elijah's  time 
(and  still  flourishing)  refused  to  give  the  prophet  any  of  its  fruit,  and 
said  his  ground  produced  only  stones.  "  Stones  be  they,"  was  the  angrj' 
reply,  and  tho  petrified  plums  and  melons  are  still  visible,  though  a 
heretical  geologist  might  give  them  the  harder  appellation  of  geodes. 
This  site  is  mentioned  by  Mr.  Drake  {Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1873, 
p.  15),  and  wo  possess  detailed  notes  as  to  the  remains  of  the  convent. 
It  will  be  found  to  be  placed  on  the  map  half  a  mile  north  of  Kefr  el 
Samir,  and  is  considerably  higher  up  tho  side  of  tho  hill.  The  two  serve 
to  verify  one  another,  and  may  plainly  be  identified  with  the  Castra 
Samaritorum  and  convent  of  Elijah  mentioned  by  Antony  of  Piacenza. 

It  seems,  therefore,  that  we  have  recovered  the  more  important  of  the 
two  names  by  which  this  site  was  known  at  diffei-ent  periods.  Whether 
the  other  title,  Calamon,  still  exists  in  the  memory  of  the  peasantry  it 
will  be  easy  to  find  on  revisiting  the  spot ;  meanwhile  it  is  satisfactory 
to  be  able  to  show  that  an  important  ruin  has  not  been  omitted  in  the 
survey  work.  C.  E.  C. 


THE    SYNAGOGUE    OF    VMU    EI.    AMUD. 


THE  SYNAGOGUE  OE  UMM  EL  AMUD. 

August  loth,  1875. 

The  only  synagogue  of  tho  interesting  group  in  Galilee  first  explored 
by  Major  Wilson  which  the  survey  party  have  as  yet  examined  is  that 
•of  the  ruin  of  Utnm  el  'Amud  on  a  hill  east  of  the  Butfcauf  plain.  I  have 
not  found  this  mentioned  in  any  of  tho  early  travels  in  Palestine  which 
serve  to  identify  and  date  many  of  the  other  synagogues,  and,  indeed, 
the  name  of  the  site  is  lost,  being  replaced  by  the  modern  title,  meaning 
' '  Mother  of  the  Column." 

The  synagogue  is  much  ruined,  and  a  part  has  been  removed  to  build 
a  sort  of  small  keep  or  fortress  south  of  it,  near  the  Roman  road.  There 
are,  however,  traces  of  four  rows  of  columns,  and  the  plan  seems  to  have 
been  identical  with  that  of  others,  namely,  five  walks,  three  doors  to  the 
south,  and  a  double  column  (as  described  and  sketched  iu  Major  Wilson's 
paper,  Quarterly  Statement,  April,  1869),  at  tho  north  end  of  the  two 
outer  rows  of  pillars.  Of  these  outer  double  columns  the  greater  part  of 
that  on  the  north-west  corner  is  here  standing  msi'^w;  the  other  has  fallen 
and  lies  near  to  its  oiiginal  position.  The  basas  of  the  two  most  southern 
columns,  flanking  the  middle  walk,  are  also  in  situ.  Thus  wo  have  the 
means  of  ascertaining  both  the  length  and  the  width  of  the  sjnagogue. 
The  measurements  thus  obtained  give  a  striking  indication  of  the  stan- 
dard used,  which  seems  to  me  to  be  clearly  the  medium  cubit  mentioned 
by  the  Talraudical  writers,  wh'"ch  was  used  in  the  measurements  of 
buildings,  and  which  from  actual  measurement  of  tho  unit  (the  barley- 
corn), of  -which  it  contained  U4,  has  been  fixed  by  some  writers  at  16 
inches. 

Measurements  taken.  Feet.  Cubits. 

Length  of  colonnade  53ft.,  approximately  .  (53'  4")  equals  40  cub. 

Breadth  of  two  walks  26ft.,         do.               .  (26'  8")  „       20,, 

Base  of  a  column  measures  2'  4"  ,.         1^,, 

Upper  diameter  do 18  ,,         I4  ,, 

Total  height  of  pillar  (abacus  to  ba.se  incL).  13'  4"  ,,       10    ,, 

Height  of  pedestal  and  stylobate    1'  4"  ,,         1    ,, 

Capital  of  attached  pilaster 8"  ,,         0^,, 

Lintel  main  door,  length 8'  4"  ,,         7   ,, 

Do.             do.     height 2'  4'  ,,         li}  ,, 

The  decayed  state  of  the  ruin  prevented  the  two  main  measures  from 
being  taken  within  a  few  inches,  but  they  are  near  enough  when  taken 
with  the  exactor  measures  of  the  details. 

The  outer  wall  of  the  synagogue  has  disappeared  beneath  rubbish,  but 
the  entire  plan  of  the  building  can  perhaps  be  recovered  by  comparison 
with  more  perfn^ct  specimens.  Thus  in  the  width  we  have  five  walks 
ten  cubits  broad,  giving  fifty  cubits  interior  measurement. 

The  length  of  the   colonnade  is   40   cubits,  which  with  6  columns 


THE    STOXK    or   rOUXDATlON'   AND    THE    SITE    OF    THE    TEMI'LE,      23 

1^  cubits  base  gives  an  intercolumniation  of  5'9  cubits,  or  about  7'  10", 
beiug  very  nearly  the  same  as  that  of  the  synagogue  of  Arbehi,  which  is 
exactly  6  cubits  =  8  feet.  Adding  G  cubits  on  either  end  of  tho  building 
(in  imitation  of  the  plan  of  the  Tell  Hum  synagogue),  wo  obtain  a  total 
interior  length  of  52  cubits,  being  4  cubits  short  of  the  length  of  the 
great  synagogues  of  Tell  Hum  and  Kerazeh. 

The  capitals  of  the  pillars  arc  of  a  very  simple  character.  Attached 
pilasters  seem  to  have  been  built  against  the  walls  either  in  or  outside. 
A  stylobatc  of  simple  moulding,  identical  with  that  of  the  pedestals  on 
which  the  pillars  stood  and  sixteen  inches  high,  ran  round  the  building. 

In  the  little  keep  I  found,  besides  pillar  shafts  of  dimensions  identical 
with  those  of  the  synagogue,  three  lintels  which  probably  belonged  to 
the  three  southern  doors  of  the  synagogue.  The  longest,  8'  4"  by  2'  4", 
represents  two  lions  flanking  a  base,  which  may  perhaps  represent  tho 
pot  of  manna  (see  Photograph  No.  73,  old  series).  They  are  boldly 
though  roughly  cut ;  the  stone  is  broken  in  two.  The  other  two  have 
sunk  centres  with  a  surrounding  conventional  border  of  a  very  effective 
twisted  pattern. 

It  would  bo  very  interesting  to  know  the  date  of  this  building,  but  of 
this  we  have  no  positive  evidence. 

It  is  known  that  Eabbi  Simeon  bar  lochai  built  twenty-four  sj-na- 
gngues  at  his  own  expense.  Among  these  were  the  synagogues  of 
Kpfr  Birim,  El  Jish,  and  Mcirun  (where  he  is  buried),  visited  by  Major 
Wilson,  also  one  at  Etham,  of  which  we  have,  I  believe,  found  the  site, 
with  two  others  as  yet  unknown  at  Trria  and  S'asa.  This  famous 
doctor  and  builder,  called  "the  great  light,"  and  also  "the  spark  of 
Moses,"  is  said  to  have  been  the  author  of  the  cabalistic  book  Zohar. 
He  lived  about  120  A.D. 

The  six  synagogues  enumerated  above  date,  therefore,  from  the  very 
commencement  of  the  second  century.  It  is  extremely  probable  that 
1  lie  synagogue  of  Umm  el  'Amed  may  be  attributed  to  the  same  date 
and  the  same  builder. 

Claude  E.  Coxder,  Lieut.  E.E. 


THE  STONE  OF  FOUNDATION  AND   THE   SITE  OF 

THE   TEMPLE. 

\_The  substance  of  this  j^aper  has  already  appeared  in  the  Athen-T.um:.] 

L 

The  question  whether  tho  "  stone  of  foundation  "  was  a  portion  of  tho 
solid  rock  or  a  movable  stone  is  one  of  considerable  interest  in  connection 
with  the  topography  of  the  temple.  If  the  former,  it  will  be  easy  to  fix 
with  all  but  absolute  certainty  its  position,  and  from  it  as  a  starting- 
point,  to  lay  down  the  sites  of  the  temple,  altar,  and  courts,  with  no 


24  THE  STONE  OE  EOUNDATION  AM)  THE 

more  uncertainty  than  the  uncertain  yalue  of  the  cuhit  renders  in- 
evitable. 

The  use  of  the  "word  px  woiild  imply  that  it  was  a  movable  stone,  but 
its  (supposed)  history,  as  given  by  the  Eabbis,  quite  removes  it  from 
the  category  of  ordinary  stones  and  represents  it  as  the  centre*  or  nucleus 
from  which  the  world  was  founded.  "It  is  taught  that  from  it  the 
woi'ld  was  founded,  which  is  the  same  as  to  say  from  Zion  the  world 
was  created.  The  doctrine  of  the  Bareitha  is  that  Eabbi  Eliezer  said 
the  world  was  created  from  its  middle,  as  is  said,  '  when  the  dust 
groweth  into  hardness  and  the  clods  cleave  fast  together  '  (Job  xxxviii. 
28).  Rabbi  Joshua  said  the  world  was  created  from  the  sides.  .  .  . 
Rabbi  Izaak  (Niphka)  said  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  threw  a  stone 
into  the  sea,  aud  from  it  the  world  was  created  "  (Yoma,  54?*).  Eashi 
explains:  "Zion  was  first  created,  and  around  it  the  clods  were  com- 
pacted together  until  the  world  was  completed  on  every  side." 
The  teaching  of  the  Talmudic  doctors  therefore  indicates  clearly 
that  the  aven  slideyali  was  rock,  and  not  a  detached  stone,  aud  also 
affords  an  explanation  of  the  use  of  the  word  px  in  connection  with  it. 
Originally,  according  to  their  ideas,  it  was  a  stone,  but  when  from  it  the 
world  was  created,  either  by  a  process  of  accretion  from  without,  as  E. 
Joshua  held,  or  by  a  kind  of  growth  from  within,  as  taught  by  E. 
Eliezer,  it  was  no  longer  a  stone,  though  still  retaining  the  name,  but 
the  foundation  of  the  world,  the  holiest  spot  on  earth,!  "  Zion  the  per- 
fection of  beauty,"  the  place  where  the  ark  of  the  covenant  was  deposited, 
aud  where  alone  the  "  visible  majesty  of  the  divine  presence  "  manifested 
itself,  t 

The  notion  that  it  was  a  movable  stone  appears  to  have  arisen  in 
later  times,  and  to  rest  upon  no  better  authority  than  that  of  the  Toldoth 
Yesu — a  work  containing  so  many  silly  and  blasphemous  stories  that  its 
statements  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  worthy  of  serious  consideration. 
Moreover,  the  testimony  of  this  book  is  by  no  means  of  a  definite  charac- 
ter, for  whilst,  according  to  Buxtorf  (Lex.  Talm.  2541),  it  represents  the 
stone  as  identical  with  that  which  the  patriarch  Jacob  anointed  at 
Bethel,  the  edition  of  Wagen.seil  gives  quite  a  different  account  of  its 

*  In  subsequent  times  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  was  made  the  site 
of  this  as  well  as  of  some  other  traditions  stolen  from  Mount  Moriali. 

+  The  Rabbis  hav^e,  indeed,  a  quibble  that  the  chamber  over  the  Holy  of 
Holies  was  holier  than  the  most  holy  place  itself,  because  it  was  entered  only 
once  in  seven  years,  whereas  the  Holy  of  Holies  was  entered  every  year 
(Pesach.  86«). 

J  The  expression  "from  the  time  of  the  former  prophets"  (Samuel,  DaviJ, 
and  Solomon)  appears  intended  to  indicate  that  in  the  time  of  tlie  second  temple 
there  was  no  doubt  about  the  site  of  the  Hoi  v  of  Holies  in  Solomon's  building. 
Tosefta  Yoma  (ch.  ii.)  expressly  notes  that  tlic  ark  had  been  placed  upon  the 
stone  of  foundation.  About  the  extent  of  the  holiness  of  the  most  holy  place 
towards  the  east  in  the  second  temple  there  was  a  doubt  (Yoma  51?*,  and  R. 
Obadiah  on  Midd.  iv.  ~). 


HUE    01'   THE    TEMPLE.  2.> 

origiu — namely,  that  King  David,  wlien  digging  tlie  foundation  (of  the 
temple),  found  it  "over  the  mouth  of  the  abyss"  with  the  name 
engraved  upon  it,  and  that  he  brought  it  up  and  placed  it  in  the  Holy 
of  Holies. 

On  the  whole,  then,  it  is  difficult  to  come  to  any  other  conclusion  than 
that  the  avtn  shitei/uh  was  a  portion  of  rock  projecting  three  finger- 
breadths  upwards  from  the  floor  of  the  Holy  of  Holies,  covering  a  cavity 
which  was  regarded  as  the  mouth  of  the  abyss,  reverenced  as  the  ceiitre 
and  foundation  of  the  world,  and  having  the  ineffable  name  of  God 
inscribed  upon  it.* 

II. 

The  statements  made  in  the  Talmud,  and  repeated  over  and  over  again 
with  great  accuracy  by  rabbinic  writers,  supply  us  Avith  the  following 
data — viz. : 

1.  The  stone  of  foundation  (in  other  word?,  the  solid  rock)  was  the 
highest  point  within  the  mountain  of  the  house,  projecting  slightly  above 
the  floor  of  the  Holy  of  Holies. 

2.  There  was  a  gradual  descent  from  it  by  means  of  several  flights  of 
stairs  to  the  floor  of  the  mountain  of  the  house  opposite  the  eastern 
gate,  the  difference  of  the  level  of  these  two  points  being  twenty-two 
cubits  (and  three  finger-breadths). 

3.  A  lino  produced  from  it  through  the  centre  of  the  house  towards 
the  Mount  of  Olives  would  intersect  the  top  of  that  mount. 

4.  From  it  the  rock  sloped  downwards  on  the  western,  northern,  and 
southern  sides,  as  well  as  on  the  eastern,  a  "  solid  and  closed  founda- 
tion "  six  cubits  high  being  made  all  raund  the  house  in  order  to  raise 
the  floor  to  (within  three  finger-breadths  of)  its  summit.  On  the  eastern 
side  this  solid  foundation  was  covered  by  the  steps  leading  down  to  the 
court,  but  whether  these  steps  extended  along  the  whole  breadth  of  the 
house  is  uncertain. 

5.  Although  the  difl'erence  in  level  of  the  floor  of  the  mountain  of 
the  house  at  the  eastern  gate,  and  the  floor  of  the  temple  was  (as  above 
stated)  twenty-two  cubits,  the  rise  of  the  ground  outside  the  courts, 
from  east  to  west,  was  such  that  the  floor  of  the  temple  was  only  twelve 
cubits  above  it  at  the  southern  and  (perhaps)  northern  gates  of  the  upper 
court. 

The  summit  of  the  Sakhrah  under  the  great  dome  of  the  rock  is  the 
only  spot  in  the  whole  enclosure  which  answers  to  these  data,  and  it 
will  not  be  difficult  to  show  that  it  answers  to  them  in  a  very  remarkable 
degree. 

The  Holy  House,  with  its  courts,  was  not  in  the  centre  of  the  enclosure, 

*  It  is  impossible  not  to  .suspect  in  tlie.se  Jewish  traditions  the  origin  of  tlie 
sneredncss  which  the  Mohainmeclans  have  attached  to  the  Sakhrah.  The  "stone," 
which  was  the  foundation  of  the  world,  might  afford  a  fitting  resting-place  for 
the  Prophet  on  his  mysterious  journey,  and  the  "  great  abyss  "  may  well  have 
suggested  the  nwful  legends  which  still  cling  to  the  "well  of  souls." 


2G  THE    STOXE    or    rOFXDATIOJf    AND    THE 

but  was  nearer  to  its  vrcstern  boundary  than  to  its  nortberu,  nearer  to 
its  nortbora  than  to  its  eastern,  aud  nearer  to  its  eastern  than  to  its 
southern  ;  in  other  words,  the  largest  free  space  was  on  the  south,  the 
next  on  the  east,  the  next  on  the  north,  and  the  smallest  on  the  west. 
In  the  Tosifoth  Tom  Toy  and  Middotb,  the  following  measurements  are 
i^iven — viz. : 

Northern  space.         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         115  cubits. 

Breadth  of  court  (north  to  sonth)  ...         ...  ..~      ...         135      ,, 

Southern  space         ...         ...  ...  ...  ...         ..         250       ,, 

r.oo 

Western  space  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         100  cubits. 

Length  of  court  (west  to  east)        ...         ...         ,..         ...         187       ,, 

Eastern  space  213      ,,. 

500 

What  authority  the  author  may  have  bad  for  this  statement  I  know  not, 
but  taking  it  as  a  useful  hypothesis  from  which  to  work,  and  reckoning 
the  cubit  at  twenty  iucbes,*  we  find  (1)  that  if  the  centre  of  the  Sakbrah 
be  regarded  as  the  centre  of  the  Holy  of  Holies,  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  mountain  of  the  bouse  would  come  to  within  a  few  feet  of  the 
northern  limit  of  the  present  platform,  where  is  the  scarped  rock  dis- 
covered by  Captain  Wari'en ;  (2)  that  the  northern  boundary  would 
come  to  within  a  few  feet  of  the  entrance  of  El  Aksa,  a  point  near  which 
other  considerations  would  lead  to  the  .supposition  that  the  mountain  of 
the  house  terminated  ;  (3)  that  the  western  boundary  would  fall  a  few 
feet  west  of  the  foot  of  the  pre^ent  western  ascent  to  the  platform;  and 
(4)  that  the  eastern  bouudary  would  fall  within  a  few  feet  of  the  present 
eastern  wall. 

The  difficidty  presented  by  the  large  .space  left  on  the  west  between 
the  present  boundary  wall  and  the  boundary  of  the  ancient  enclosure,  as 
liere  supposed,  may  be  met  by  I'emembering  the  probability  that  there 
Avere  bouses  (treasuries,  dwelling-houses,  &c.)  on  the  western  side,  and 
that  these  may  have  occupied  the  space. 

As  to  the  levels.  Within  153t  feet  east  of  the  centre  of  the  Sakbrah 
the  rock  should  descend  10  feet ;  93  feet  farther  east,  where  the  court  of 

*  The  choice  of  20  inches  is  of  course  purely  arbitrary.  In  building  their 
t;ibernacles  the  Jev/s  still  make  use  of  the  hand-breadth,  closing  the  band  and 
doubling  in  the  thumb.  Such  a  hand-breadth,  as  I  have  ascertained  by  repeated 
measurements,  is  seldom  less  than  3^  inches,  giving  a  cuhit  of  21  inches.  Seme- 
times  the  point  of  the  thumb  is  made  to  project  upwards  and  included  in  the 
hand-breadth,  which  of  course  makes  the  latter  much  larger,  aud  brings  the 
cubit  to  26  or  27  inches.  It  may  be  hoped  that  it  is  still  within  the  bounds  of 
possibility  that  the  ancient  standards  preserved  in  Shushan  Habbireh  (at  the 
eastern  gate)  may  be  recovered. 

t  I  here  follow  Rabbi  Oliadiah  in  taking  the  di.stance  between  the  altar  and 
the  lowest  of  the  steps  leading  up  to  the  porch  to  be  three  cubits  (cf.  Midd.  iii.  6, 
and  the  Commentaiies). 


SITE    OF   THE    TEMPLE.  27 

iho  women  began,  tliere  should  be  another  descent  of  H3  feet  8  inches  ; 
and  225  feet  still  farther  east  another  of  10  fVet.  Altogether  the  ground 
should  be  36  feet  8  inches  lower  than  the  top  of  the  Sakhrah  at  a  distance 
of  513  feet  towards  the  cast. 

"Within  58  feet  of  the  centre  of  the  Sakhrah  on  the  north  and  on  the 
south  the  rock  should  descend  10  feet  (to  the  level  of  the  upper  court), 
<and  54  feet  farther  on  the  south,  and  perhaps  on  the  north,  other  10  feet 
(to  the  level  of  the  mountain  of  the  house  at  that  part). 

Captain  Warren's  valuable  sketch-map  of  tlie  levels  of  the  Ilaram 
Area  which  faces  page  159  of  "  Our  Work  in  Palestine,"  shows  that  if 
the  Sakhrah  bo  thus  taken  as  representing  the  Holy  of  Holies  nearly  all 
these  levels  will  fall  in  without  straining. 

On  the  north  there  is  some  reason  to  suppose  that  the  descent  from  the 
court  was  not  so  rapid  as  on  the  southern  side.  The  house  Moked, 
which  was  there,  is  understood  by  the  rabbinic  writers  to  have  been 
built  on  the  ground,  and  the  northern  half  of  it  was  certainly  outside 
of  the  court,  so  that  we  need  not  be  surprised  to  find  that  the  rock 
makes  its  farther  descent  at  a  greater  distance  from  the  Sakhrah 
on  the  north  than  on  the  south,  which  the  map  shows  to  be  the 
case.  The  descent  into  the  court  of  the  women  is  a  greater  diffi- 
culty, because  the  drop  of  the  rock  appears  to  be  too  far  east,  but 
it  will  be  evident  that  these  distances  and  measurements  cannot  bo 
regarded  as  absolutely  exact.  The  doubt  about  the  cubit  prevents 
it.  Also  the  uncertainty  as  to  whether  the  stairs  leading  up  to  the 
court  projected  into  the  court  or  outwards  towards  the  mountain 
of  the  house.  Those  between  the  court  of  Israel  and  the  court 
of  the  women  are  generally  supposed  to  have  projected  outwards 
towards  the  latter,  bat  the  slope  must  have  commenced  farther  west, 
because  there  were  chambers  under  the  court  of  Israel  opening  into 
the  court  of  the  women.  The  steps  leading  up  to  the  court  of  the 
women  from  the  east  are  believed  to  have  been  outside  that  court  in 
the  chel.  Possibly  some  of  these  steps  may  have  been  cut  in  the  rock 
itself.  Another  element  of  uncertainty  is  the  possihility  of  the  tup  oj 
the  Sakhrah  having  been  cut  away  since  the  temple  was  destroyed,"*  also 
the  question  to  what  extent  the  space  eastward  of  the  courts  was 
filled  up  artificially.  A  not  unimportant  topic  of  inquiry  is  whether 
there  were  steps  leading  up  to  or  from  the  eastern  gate  of  the  moun- 
tain of  the  house,  or  whether  that  gate  was  on  a  level  with  the  ground 
outside  and  inside,  questions  to  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  a 
satisfactory  answer  in  the  Jewish  writings.  Eashi,  indeed  (in  Berachoth 
54a),  speaks  of  the  eastern  gate  being  "outside  of  the  mountain  of  the 
house  in  the  low  wall  which  was  at  the  foot  of  the  house,"  but  it  is  not 
certain  from  this  that  he  understood  steps  to  lead  up  to  the  higher  level, 

*  This  is  in  fact  a  very  probable  supposition.  Possibly  the  Mohammedans 
may  have  shaped  it  to  suit  their  purposes,  and  made  the  gutter  upon  it  to  carry 
oil'  the  blood  of  their  sacrifices. 


28  THE    IDENTIFICATION    01"    THE    ALTAK    Or    EI). 

nor  is  his  opinion  on  such  a  subject  decisive.  Maimonides  intimates 
that  from  the  eastern  gate  to  the  end  of  the  chel  was  one  level;  apparently 
this  was  from  the  inner  side  of  the  gate.     (Beth  Habbech  vi.  1.) 

Relative  to  the  summit  of  the  Mount  of  Olives  the  position  of  the 
Sakhrah  is  precisely  that  indicated  in  the  Talmud  as  the  position  of  the 
Holy  of  Holies.  I  have  repeatedly  proved  by  observation  that  a  person 
standing  on  the  top  of  the  mount  (near  the  minaret)  may  look  straight 
through  the  little  dome  (judgment-seat  of  David)  and  the  door  of  the 
dome  of  the  rock  towards  the  Sakhrah,  and  conversely,  that  a  person 
placing  himself  at  the  eastern  door  of  the  latter  building  and  looking 
away  in  a  line  at  right  angles  to  the  door,  will  look  strnight  at  the  top  of 
the  Mount  of  Olives,  a  few  feet  south  of  the  centre  of  the  minaret. 

Thomas  Chaplin,  M.D. 

Jerusalem,  September  24:th,  1875. 


THE  IDENTIFICATION   OF   THE   ALTAE   OF   ED. 

The  following  letter  expresses  difficulties  which  have  been  felt  by 
many  with  reference  to  Lieut.  Couder's  proposed  identification  of  the 
Altar  of  Ed.  The  paper  has  been  shown  to  Lieut.  Conder,  who  has  fur- 
nished a  reply  to  the  various  points  raised  by  Dr.  Hutchinson.  The 
substance  of  this  is  appended. 

"  Let  us  run  through  the  narrative,  and  see  how  cleai-ly  it  both  implies 
and  states  that  the  Witness  Altar  stood  on  the  left  or  eastern  bank  of 
Jordan  ;  that  it  was  erected  by  Eeuben,  Gad,  and  half  Manasseh  within 
the  borders  of  their  own  inheritance,  and  therefore  could  not  possibly 
be  identified  with  the  western  Kurn  Surtabeh. 

The  Lord  had  given  ' '  unto  Israel  all  the  land  which  He  sware  to  give 
unto  their  fathers  ;  and  they  possessed  it,  and  dwelt  therein  "  (Josh. 
xxi.  43).  And  so  Ephraim,  in  whose  territory  the  Kurn  stands,  was  in 
full  possession  and  enjoyment  of  his  lot,  stretching  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean right  up  to  the  west  bank  of  the  Jordan. 

Mark  this  fact  as  bearing  on  the  argument,  and  recollect  also  that 
Shiloh,  the  great  rendezvous,  whence  Reuben,  Gad,  and  half  Manasseh 
started  for  their  inheritance,  was  also  in  Ephraim,  and  only  about  four 
and  a  half  miles  west  of  the  Kurn. 

The  western  tribes  being  in  full  enjoyment  of  their  inheritance,  and 
Eeuben,  Gad,  and  half  Manasseh  having  faithfully  fulfilled  their 
compact  (Numb.  xxii.  17-19  ;  xxxi.  32),  Joshua  solemnly  blesses  and  dis- 
misses them  to  their  trans-Jordanic  inheritance,  warning  them  signifi- 
cantly to  "take  diligent  heed  to  do  the  commandment  and  the  law 
which  Moses,  the  servant  of  the  Lord,  charged"  them  (Josh.  xxii.  5). 
As  a  result  of  this  warning  the  trans-Jordanic  tribes  raised  this  Witness 
Altar  in  their  own  isolated  inheritance  for  the  information  and  instruc- 
tion of  their  descendants.     When  and  whore  was  this  altar  laised  ? 


THE    lDENXIF10AT](t.\    Ol'    T}IK    ALTAR    OF    ED.  29 

"The  childreu  of  Reuben,  and  the  children  of  Gad,  and  the  half-tribe 
of  Manaseeli  returned,  and  departed  from  the  children  of  Israel  out  of 
Shiloh,  -which  is  in  the  land  of  Canaan,  to  go  unto  the  country  of  Gilead, 
to  the  land  of  their  possession.  .  ,  .  And  when  they  came  uuto  the 
borders  of  Jordan,  that  are  in  the  land  of  Canaan,  the  children  of 
Eeuben,  and  the  children  of  Gad,  and  the  half-tribo  of  Manasseh  built 
them  an  altar  bj*  Jordan,  a  great  altar  to  see  to.  And  the  children  of 
Israel  heard  say.  Behold,  the  children  of  Reuben,  and  the  children  of 
Gad,  and  tlie  half-tribe  of  ^lanasseh.  have  built  an  altar  over  against  the 
land  of  Canaan,  in  the  borders  of  Jordan,  at  the  passage  of  the  children 
of  Israel"  (Josh.  xxii.  9-11). 

Clearly,  then,  the  erection  of  the  altar  was  not  accomplished  while  the 
two  and  a  half  tribes  were  on  their  march  ;  separated  from  their  homes 
and  belongings  by  the  length  of  the  campaign,  they  would  naturally 
hurry  homewards,  and  it  was  not  until  they  had  passed  over  Jordan 
unto  "the  country  of  Gilead,"  Gad's  inheritance,  and  directly  opposite 
Shiloh,  that  the  two  and  a  half  tribes  resolved  upon  building  the  Witness 
Altar.  That  it  was  erected  in  the  Gilead  "  borders  of  Jordan  "  is  evident, 
because — 

1.  The  deputation  sent  by  the  children  of  Israel  and  headed  by  Phine- 
has,  was  ordered  over  "  into  the  land  of  Gilead,"  and  there  encountered 
the  two  and  a  half  tribes  (Josh.  xxii.  13-15).  It  is  more  than  probable 
that  Phinehas  opened  his  speech  with  the  Witness  Altar  in  full  view  ; 
and,  as  it  were,  tangible,  when  he  exclaims,  "  What  trespass  is  this  that 
ye  have  committed  against  the  God  of  Israel?"  (Josh.  xxii.  16.)  The 
-point  of  the  deputation  and  its  address  would  have  been  lost  if  the  dis- 
puted altar  lay  in  foreign  territorj-,  even  though  that  was  the  territory  of 
Ephraim. 

2.  It  is  impossible  to  believe  that  the  halt  of  the  returning  tribes 
around  the  Kurn,  not  five  miles  from  Shiloh,  and  their  operations  on  its 
summit,  would  have  prompted  the  wording  of  Josh.  xxii.  11,  "  And  the 
children  of  Israel  heard  say."  Such  a  proceeding  in  the  great  and 
quarrelsome  tribe  of  Ephraim,  hard  by  the  sanctuary  at  Shiloh,  could  not 
have  been  a  matter  of  hearsay  ;  and  if  the  altar  took  a  long  time  to  erect 
the  work  could  easily  have  been  arrested  in  limine  by  the  heads  of  the 
tribes  residing  at  Shiloh.  Cleaily  the  intelligence  came,  as  if  from  afar, 
after  the  deliberate  erection  of  the  altar,  and  I  think  the  hearsay  report 
implies  that  it  was  not  within  eyesight  or  earshot  of  Shiloh,  which  it 
would  have  been  if  erected  on  the  Kirrn  Surtabeh. 

3.  It  is  impossible  to  believe  that  this  Witness  Altar  could  have  been 
erected  by  the  trans-Jordanic  tribes  on  territory  other  than  their  own ; 
Ephraim  would  have  resented  the  intrusion,  and  certainly  would  take  no 
pains  to  keep  the  monument  in  repair  ;  this  would  naturally  be  the  care 
of  its  erectors,  but  could  hardly  be  maintained  in  a  foreign  tribe,  sepa- 
rated from  them  by  the  at  all  times  rapid  and  yearly-inundated  Jordan. 

4.  Again,  the  main  object  of  the  Witness  Altar  would  have  been  de- 
feated if  it  had  been  erected  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Jordan.     The  two 


JV)  the    IDENTIi'IOATION    OF   THE    ALTAR    OF   ED. 

and  a  half  tribes  clpaily  foresaw  (what  eventually  happened)  that  the 
rapid  and  annually-flooded  Jordan  would  slowly  but  surely  raise  a  sepa- 
lating  barrier  between  the  eastern  and  western  tiibes.  Mark  their 
words  :  "  If  we  have  not  rather  done  it  for  fear  of  this  thing,  saying,  In 
time  to  come  your  children  might  speak  unto  our  children,  saying,  What 
have  yo  to  do  with  the  Lord  God  of  Israel  ?  For  the  Lord  hath  made 
Jordan  a  border  between  us  and  you,  ye  children  of  Eeuben  and  children 
of  Gad  ;  ye  have  no  part  in  the  Lord  "  (Josh.  xxii.  24,  25).  To  obviate 
this,  and  bearing  in  mind  the  parting  words  of  Joshua,  "Take  diligent 
heid  to  do  the  commandment  and  the  law  which  Moses,  the  servant  of 
the  Lord,  charged  you"  (Josh.  xxii.  5),  the  trans-Jordanic  tribes  de- 
termined on  erecting  the  Witness  Altar,  an  exact  representation  in 
masonry  of  the  brazen  altar  at  Shiloh,  to  which  they  might  appeal. 
"  Behold  the  pattern  of  the  altar  of  the  Lord  "  (Josh.  xxii.  28). 

The  western  tribes  had  the  original  altar  at  Shiloh,  and  would  not 
require  its  pattern  on  the  Kurn,  only  five  miles  ojGf ;  its  presence  there 
would  not  have  the  significance  which  would  be  conveyed  by  its  erec- 
tion on  a  trans-Jordanic  site.  It  was  not  a  witness  for  the  western 
against  the  eastern  tribes,  but  for  the  hitter  against  the  former,  conse- 
quently they  (the  latter)  would  jealously  guard  their  witness  model,  and 
keep  it  in  careful  repair,  for  upon  its  entirety  depended  their  right  to 
membership  in  the  national  theocracy.  Such  being  the  case,  could  they 
consign  the  Witness  Altar  to  the  precarious  care  of  the  opposite  tribe  ? 
Surely  not;  the  witness  must  be  on  their  side  of  the  Jordan,  or,  in  the 
words  of  the  narrative,  "  over  against  the  land  of  Canaun;  "  it  must  be 
in  their  safe  and  jealous  custody,  and  easily  accessible  to  children  and 
children's  children. 

5.  I  do  not  think  the  expression  "  over  against  the  land  of  Canaan, 
in  the  borders  of  Jordan  "  (Josh.  xxii.  11),  can  bear  any  other  interpre- 
tation than  of  exactly  fixing  somewhere  on  the  left  bank  the  site  of  the 
altar;  the  words  are  apparently  added  to  clear  up  the  somewhat  ambigu- 
ous description  of  the  tenth  verse.  The  site  is  further  localised  by  fixing 
it  "  at  the  passage  of  the  children  of  Israel,"  and  here  the  noithern  ex- 
tremity of  that  great  passage  must  be  alluded  to.  We  are  told  in  Josh, 
iii.  16,  "  that  the  waters  which  came  down  from  above  stood  and  rose  up 
upon  an  heap  very  far  from  the  city  Adam,  that  is  beside  Zaretan."  Now 
Zaretan  (the  modern  Zerthan)  is  to  the  north,  but  in  the  name  of  tho 
Damieh  ford,  we  have  probably  traces  of  the  city  Adam  (Lieut.  Conder), 
so  that  we  cannot  be  far  from  the  whereabouts  of  the  Witness  Altar. 
AVhy  may  it  not  be  sought  in  the  great  eastern  range  directly  opposite 
tho  Kurn,  figuring  in  Eobinson's  map  as  the  Motintain  of  Gilead, 
and  culminating  in  Jebel  Osha  ? 

6.  I  cannot  understand  how  Lieut.  Conder  can  make  the  expression 
"  children  of  Israel  "  applicable  to  the  two  and  a  half  tribes  only  ;  if  so, 
then  analogy  rtquires  the  application  of  the  term  throughout  this  par- 
ticular narrative,  and  so  ver.  9  and  others  ought  to  read,  ' '  And  the  children 


Tin;  ruENxii'icATiox  OF  xnx:  alxak  of  ed.  31 

of  Israel  (i.e.,  the  two  and  lialf  tribes)  returned  and  departed  from  tlic 
children  of  Israel  out  of  Sliiloh." 

7.  Lieut.  Conder  treads  on  very  dangerous  ground  when  he  brings  in 
a  casual  local  appellation  to  suit  a  namft  which  really  does  not  exist ;  the 
word  "  Ed  "  after  altar  does  not  exist  in  the  generally  received  Hebrew 
text,  but  was  supplied  by  our  translators.  The  passage  is  literally  as 
follows  :  "  And  the  children  of  Reuben  and  the  children  of  Gad  named 
the  altar,  because  that  is  a  witness  (Ed)  between  us  that  Jehovah  is 
God  "  (Grove) ;  so  that  Ayd  has  been  unwarrantably  treated  in  having 
his  name  assigned  to  a  non-existent  locality.  I  venture  to  bring  forward 
with  equal  pretension  a  name  which  may  assist  in  localising  my  eastern 
site ;  for  to  the  north-west  of  Mount  Gilead,  directly  opposite  Zaretan, 
and  between  the  Wadys  Aylun  and  Zurka,  I  find  (on  Eobinson's  map) 
the  name  Abu  Obeidah,  the  mid  sylhxble  of  which,  eid  or  eyd,  is  as  close 
to  Ed  as  Ayd  is. 

I  stated  at  the  outset  of  my  paper  that  "  a  careful  consideration  of  the 
Scripture  narrative,  without  any  critical  disquisition,  is  alone  sufficient 
to  upset  Lieut.  Couder's  theory  ;  "  let  me  now  by  way  of  disquisition 
add  Josep bus's  crushing  testimony  against  the  western  site. 

"  Now,.when  the  tribe  of  Eeuben  and  that  of  Gad,  and  as  many  of  the 
Manassites  as  followed  them,  were  imssed  over  the  river,  they  built  an 
altar  on  the  banks  of  Jordan,  as  a  monument  to  posterity,  and  a  sign  of 
their  relation  to  those  who  should  inhabit  on  the  other  side.  But  when 
those  on  the  other  side  heard  that  those  who  had  been  dismissed  had 
built  an  altar  .  .  .  they  were  about  to  pass  over  the  river,  and  to  punish 
them  for  their  subversion  of  the  laws  of  thei]-  country.  .  .  .  Accordingly 
they  sent  as  ambassadors  to  them  Phinehas,  the  son  of  Eleazar,  and  ten 
more  persons  that  were  in  esteem  among  the  Hebrews,  to  learn  of  them 
what  was  in  their  mind  when,  ttpon  passing  over  the  river,  they  had  built 
an  altar  upon  its  banks." — Antiq.  B.  V.  These  extracts  clearly  show, 
what  I  have  attempted  to  prove,  that  the  Witness  Altar  was  erected  after 
the  passage  of  the  river,  that  its  site  must  be  sought  on  the  eastern,  and 
not  on  the  western  bank  of  the  Jordau,  and  that,  therefore,  it  could  not 
possibly  be  on  the  Kurn  Surtabeh. 

Brighton,  June  30,  1875.  E.  F.  Hutchikson,'  M.D. 

Lieut.  Conder  replies  in  substance  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  Bible  and  Josephus  are  silent  as  to  the  keeping  of  the  altar  in 
repair,  and  as  to  its  being  in  sight  of  Phincas  during  his  speech  on 
Mount  Gilead. 

2.  The  Kurn  cannot  be  seen  from  Shiloh.  A  high  range  of  mountains 
separates  them,  and  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  one  point  whence  both 
could  be  seen  at  once.  Also,  the  distance  between  the  two  places  is 
eleven  miles,  not  five.  Therefore,  the  Kurn  is  not  "  within  earshot  of 
Shiloh." 

3.  The  children  of  Ephi-aim  not  only  would  have  resented,  but  histori- 
cally did  resent,  the  building  of  the  altar  on  their  ground. 


32  MEETING    AT    MAXCHESTEll. 

4.  The  object  of  the  altar  '.was  not  to  preserve  the  memoiy  of  the 
brazen  altar  (by  the  Mosaic  law  all  the  men  of  the  eastern  tribes  had  to 
visit  Shiloh  and  the  brazen  altar  once